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www/gnu/po manifesto.ja.po

From: NIIBE Yutaka
Subject: www/gnu/po manifesto.ja.po
Date: Wed, 04 Sep 2013 23:53:48 +0000

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     NIIBE Yutaka <gniibe>   13/09/04 23:53:48

Added files:
        gnu/po         : manifesto.ja.po 

Log message:
        Add Japanese Translation


Index: manifesto.ja.po
RCS file: manifesto.ja.po
diff -N manifesto.ja.po
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ manifesto.ja.po     4 Sep 2013 23:53:46 -0000       1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,1321 @@
+# Japanese translation of http://www.gnu.org/gnu/manifesto.html
+# Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original article.
+# Japanese translation of http://www.gnu.org/gnu/manifesto.html
+# Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original article.
+# NIIBE Yutaka <address@hidden>, 2013.
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: manifesto.html\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2013-02-11 02:01-0500\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2013-09-02 09:28+0900\n"
+"Last-Translator: NIIBE Yutaka <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language-Team: Japanese <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language: ja\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+#. type: Content of: <title>
+msgid "The GNU Manifesto - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "GNU宣言 - GNUプロジェクト - 
+#. type: Content of: <h2>
+msgid "The GNU Manifesto"
+msgstr "GNU宣言"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU Manifesto (which appears below) was written by <a href=\"http://www.";
+"stallman.org/\">Richard Stallman</a> at the beginning of the GNU Project, to "
+"ask for participation and support.  For the first few years, it was updated "
+"in minor ways to account for developments, but now it seems best to leave it "
+"unchanged as most people have seen it."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Since that time, we have learned about certain common misunderstandings that "
+"different wording could help avoid.  Footnotes added since 1993 help clarify "
+"these points."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For up-to-date information about the available GNU software, please see the "
+"information available on our <a href=\"/home.html\">web server</a>, in "
+"particular our <a href=\"/software/software.html\">list of software</a>.  "
+"For how to contribute, see <a href=\"/help/\">http://www.gnu.org/help</a>."
+msgstr ""
±ã¯ã€ã‚ãŸã—たちの<a href=\"/home."
·ä½“的には、わたしたちの<a href=\"/"
+"いては、<a href=\"/help/\">http://www.gnu.org/help</a>をご覧くだ
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!"
+msgstr "GNUってなに? GnuはUnixではない (Gnu's Not Unix)!"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNU, which stands for Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete Unix-"
+"compatible software system which I am writing so that I can give it away "
+"free to everyone who can use it.<a href=\"#f1\">(1)</a> Several other "
+"volunteers are helping me.  Contributions of time, money, programs and "
+"equipment are greatly needed."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU、それはGnuはUnixではない(Gnu's Not 
+"の名称です。<a href=\"#f1\">(1)</a> 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"So far we have an Emacs text editor with Lisp for writing editor commands, a "
+"source level debugger, a yacc-compatible parser generator, a linker, and "
+"around 35 utilities.  A shell (command interpreter) is nearly completed.  A "
+"new portable optimizing C compiler has compiled itself and may be released "
+"this year.  An initial kernel exists but many more features are needed to "
+"emulate Unix.  When the kernel and compiler are finished, it will be "
+"possible to distribute a GNU system suitable for program development.  We "
+"will use TeX as our text formatter, but an nroff is being worked on.  We "
+"will use the free, portable X Window System as well.  After this we will add "
+"a portable Common Lisp, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other "
+"things, plus online documentation.  We hope to supply, eventually, "
+"everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and more."
+msgstr ""
+"たしたちは移植性のよいCommon Lisp、Empireゲーム
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to Unix.  "
+"We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our experience "
+"with other operating systems.  In particular, we plan to have longer file "
+"names, file version numbers, a crashproof file system, file name completion "
+"perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and perhaps eventually a Lisp-"
+"based window system through which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix "
+"programs can share a screen.  Both C and Lisp will be available as system "
+"programming languages.  We will try to support UUCP, MIT Chaosnet, and "
+"Internet protocols for communication."
+msgstr ""
言語として利用可能でしょう。UUCPやMIT Chaosnet, そして"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNU is aimed initially at machines in the 68000/16000 class with virtual "
+"memory, because they are the easiest machines to make it run on.  The extra "
+"effort to make it run on smaller machines will be left to someone who wants "
+"to use it on them."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To avoid horrible confusion, please pronounce the <em>g</em> in the word "
+"&ldquo;GNU&rdquo; when it is the name of this project."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Why I Must Write GNU"
+msgstr "なぜ、わたしはGNUを書かねばならないか"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I consider that the Golden Rule requires that if I like a program I must "
+"share it with other people who like it.  Software sellers want to divide the "
+"users and conquer them, making each user agree not to share with others.  I "
+"refuse to break solidarity with other users in this way.  I cannot in good "
+"conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license agreement.  "
+"For years I worked within the Artificial Intelligence Lab to resist such "
+"tendencies and other inhospitalities, but eventually they had gone too far: "
+"I could not remain in an institution where such things are done for me "
+"against my will."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"So that I can continue to use computers without dishonor, I have decided to "
+"put together a sufficient body of free software so that I will be able to "
+"get along without any software that is not free.  I have resigned from the "
+"AI Lab to deny MIT any legal excuse to prevent me from giving GNU away.<a "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix"
+msgstr "なぜGNUはUnixと互換となるのか"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Unix is not my ideal system, but it is not too bad.  The essential features "
+"of Unix seem to be good ones, and I think I can fill in what Unix lacks "
+"without spoiling them.  And a system compatible with Unix would be "
+"convenient for many other people to adopt."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "How GNU Will Be Available"
+msgstr "どのようにしてGNUは利用可能となるのか"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNU is not in the public domain.  Everyone will be permitted to modify and "
+"redistribute GNU, but no distributor will be allowed to restrict its further "
+"redistribution.  That is to say, <a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+"html#ProprietarySoftware\">proprietary</a> modifications will not be "
+"allowed.  I want to make sure that all versions of GNU remain free."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I have found many other programmers who are excited about GNU and want to "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Many programmers are unhappy about the commercialization of system "
+"software.  It may enable them to make more money, but it requires them to "
+"feel in conflict with other programmers in general rather than feel as "
+"comrades.  The fundamental act of friendship among programmers is the "
+"sharing of programs; marketing arrangements now typically used essentially "
+"forbid programmers to treat others as friends.  The purchaser of software "
+"must choose between friendship and obeying the law.  Naturally, many decide "
+"that friendship is more important.  But those who believe in law often do "
+"not feel at ease with either choice.  They become cynical and think that "
+"programming is just a way of making money."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"By working on and using GNU rather than proprietary programs, we can be "
+"hospitable to everyone and obey the law.  In addition, GNU serves as an "
+"example to inspire and a banner to rally others to join us in sharing.  This "
+"can give us a feeling of harmony which is impossible if we use software that "
+"is not free.  For about half the programmers I talk to, this is an important "
+"happiness that money cannot replace."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "How You Can Contribute"
+msgstr "どのようにあなたは貢献できるか"
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"(Nowadays, for software tasks to work on, see the <a href=\"http://fsf.org/";
+"campaigns/priority-projects\">High Priority Projects list</a> and the <a "
+"href=\"http://savannah.gnu.org/people/?type_id=1\";>GNU Help Wanted list</a>, "
+"the general task list for GNU software packages. For other ways to help, see "
+"<a href=\"http://gnu.org/help/help.html\";>the guide to helping the GNU "
+"operating system</a>.)"
+msgstr ""
ˆåº¦ã®é«˜ã„プロジェクトのリスト</a>と<a href="
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.  I'm "
+"asking individuals for donations of programs and work."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One consequence you can expect if you donate machines is that GNU will run "
+"on them at an early date.  The machines should be complete, ready to use "
+"systems, approved for use in a residential area, and not in need of "
+"sophisticated cooling or power."
+msgstr ""
¨ã§ã€ã™ãã«ä½¿ãˆã‚‹ã‚·ã‚¹ãƒ†ãƒ ã§ã€å±…住地域での"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I have found very many programmers eager to contribute part-time work for "
+"GNU.  For most projects, such part-time distributed work would be very hard "
+"to coordinate; the independently written parts would not work together.  But "
+"for the particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent.  A "
+"complete Unix system contains hundreds of utility programs, each of which is "
+"documented separately.  Most interface specifications are fixed by Unix "
+"compatibility.  If each contributor can write a compatible replacement for a "
+"single Unix utility, and make it work properly in place of the original on a "
+"Unix system, then these utilities will work right when put together.  Even "
+"allowing for Murphy to create a few unexpected problems, assembling these "
+"components will be a feasible task.  (The kernel will require closer "
+"communication and will be worked on by a small, tight group.)"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or part "
+"time.  The salary won't be high by programmers' standards, but I'm looking "
+"for people for whom building community spirit is as important as making "
+"money.  I view this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their "
+"full energies to working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in "
+"another way."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Why All Computer Users Will Benefit"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Once GNU is written, everyone will be able to obtain good system software "
+"free, just like air.<a href=\"#f2\">(3)</a>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This means much more than just saving everyone the price of a Unix license.  "
+"It means that much wasteful duplication of system programming effort will be "
+"avoided.  This effort can go instead into advancing the state of the art."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Complete system sources will be available to everyone.  As a result, a user "
+"who needs changes in the system will always be free to make them himself, or "
+"hire any available programmer or company to make them for him.  Users will "
+"no longer be at the mercy of one programmer or company which owns the "
+"sources and is in sole position to make changes."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Schools will be able to provide a much more educational environment by "
+"encouraging all students to study and improve the system code.  Harvard's "
+"computer lab used to have the policy that no program could be installed on "
+"the system if its sources were not on public display, and upheld it by "
+"actually refusing to install certain programs.  I was very much inspired by "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Finally, the overhead of considering who owns the system software and what "
+"one is or is not entitled to do with it will be lifted."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Arrangements to make people pay for using a program, including licensing of "
+"copies, always incur a tremendous cost to society through the cumbersome "
+"mechanisms necessary to figure out how much (that is, which programs) a "
+"person must pay for.  And only a police state can force everyone to obey "
+"them.  Consider a space station where air must be manufactured at great "
+"cost: charging each breather per liter of air may be fair, but wearing the "
+"metered gas mask all day and all night is intolerable even if everyone can "
+"afford to pay the air bill.  And the TV cameras everywhere to see if you "
+"ever take the mask off are outrageous.  It's better to support the air plant "
+"with a head tax and chuck the masks."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Copying all or parts of a program is as natural to a programmer as "
+"breathing, and as productive.  It ought to be as free."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's Goals"
+msgstr "GNUの目標に対する容易に反駁できる反論"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Nobody will use it if it is free, because that means they "
+"can't rely on any support.&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;You have to charge for the program to pay for providing the "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If people would rather pay for GNU plus service than get GNU free without "
+"service, a company to provide just service to people who have obtained GNU "
+"free ought to be profitable.<a href=\"#f3\">(4)</a>"
+msgstr ""
+"しょう。<a href=\"#f3\">(4)</a>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We must distinguish between support in the form of real programming work and "
+"mere handholding.  The former is something one cannot rely on from a "
+"software vendor.  If your problem is not shared by enough people, the vendor "
+"will tell you to get lost."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If your business needs to be able to rely on support, the only way is to "
+"have all the necessary sources and tools.  Then you can hire any available "
+"person to fix your problem; you are not at the mercy of any individual.  "
+"With Unix, the price of sources puts this out of consideration for most "
+"businesses.  With GNU this will be easy.  It is still possible for there to "
+"be no available competent person, but this problem cannot be blamed on "
+"distribution arrangements.  GNU does not eliminate all the world's problems, "
+"only some of them."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Meanwhile, the users who know nothing about computers need handholding: "
+"doing things for them which they could easily do themselves but don't know "
+msgstr ""
…要とするでしょう: か"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Such services could be provided by companies that sell just handholding and "
+"repair service.  If it is true that users would rather spend money and get a "
+"product with service, they will also be willing to buy the service having "
+"got the product free.  The service companies will compete in quality and "
+"price; users will not be tied to any particular one.  Meanwhile, those of us "
+"who don't need the service should be able to use the program without paying "
+"for the service."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;You cannot reach many people without advertising, and you "
+"must charge for the program to support that.&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;It's no use advertising a program people can get free.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There are various forms of free or very cheap publicity that can be used to "
+"inform numbers of computer users about something like GNU.  But it may be "
+"true that one can reach more microcomputer users with advertising.  If this "
+"is really so, a business which advertises the service of copying and mailing "
+"GNU for a fee ought to be successful enough to pay for its advertising and "
+"more.  This way, only the users who benefit from the advertising pay for it."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"On the other hand, if many people get GNU from their friends, and such "
+"companies don't succeed, this will show that advertising was not really "
+"necessary to spread GNU.  Why is it that free market advocates don't want to "
+"let the free market decide this?<a href=\"#f4\">(5)</a>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;My company needs a proprietary operating system to get a "
+"competitive edge.&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNU will remove operating system software from the realm of competition.  "
+"You will not be able to get an edge in this area, but neither will your "
+"competitors be able to get an edge over you.  You and they will compete in "
+"other areas, while benefiting mutually in this one.  If your business is "
+"selling an operating system, you will not like GNU, but that's tough on "
+"you.  If your business is something else, GNU can save you from being pushed "
+"into the expensive business of selling operating systems."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many "
+"manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.<a href=\"#f5\">(6)</a>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Don't programmers deserve a reward for their creativity?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If anything deserves a reward, it is social contribution.  Creativity can be "
+"a social contribution, but only in so far as society is free to use the "
+"results.  If programmers deserve to be rewarded for creating innovative "
+"programs, by the same token they deserve to be punished if they restrict the "
+"use of these programs."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Shouldn't a programmer be able to ask for a reward for his "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There is nothing wrong with wanting pay for work, or seeking to maximize "
+"one's income, as long as one does not use means that are destructive.  But "
+"the means customary in the field of software today are based on destruction."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Extracting money from users of a program by restricting their use of it is "
+"destructive because the restrictions reduce the amount and the ways that the "
+"program can be used.  This reduces the amount of wealth that humanity "
+"derives from the program.  When there is a deliberate choice to restrict, "
+"the harmful consequences are deliberate destruction."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The reason a good citizen does not use such destructive means to become "
+"wealthier is that, if everyone did so, we would all become poorer from the "
+"mutual destructiveness.  This is Kantian ethics; or, the Golden Rule.  Since "
+"I do not like the consequences that result if everyone hoards information, I "
+"am required to consider it wrong for one to do so.  Specifically, the desire "
+"to be rewarded for one's creativity does not justify depriving the world in "
+"general of all or part of that creativity."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "<strong>&ldquo;Won't programmers starve?&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr "<strong>「プログラマは飢えませんか?」</strong>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I could answer that nobody is forced to be a programmer.  Most of us cannot "
+"manage to get any money for standing on the street and making faces.  But we "
+"are not, as a result, condemned to spend our lives standing on the street "
+"making faces, and starving.  We do something else."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But that is the wrong answer because it accepts the questioner's implicit "
+"assumption: that without ownership of software, programmers cannot possibly "
+"be paid a cent.  Supposedly it is all or nothing."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The real reason programmers will not starve is that it will still be "
+"possible for them to get paid for programming; just not paid as much as now."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software.  It is "
+"the most common basis<a href=\"#f8\">(7)</a> because it brings in the most "
+"money.  If it were prohibited, or rejected by the customer, software "
+"business would move to other bases of organization which are now used less "
+"often.  There are always numerous ways to organize any kind of business."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Probably programming will not be as lucrative on the new basis as it is "
+"now.  But that is not an argument against the change.  It is not considered "
+"an injustice that sales clerks make the salaries that they now do.  If "
+"programmers made the same, that would not be an injustice either.  (In "
+"practice they would still make considerably more than that.)"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Don't people have a right to control how their creativity is "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Control over the use of one's ideas&rdquo; really constitutes control "
+"over other people's lives; and it is usually used to make their lives more "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"People who have studied the issue of intellectual property rights<a href="
+"\"#f6\">(8)</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say that there is no intrinsic "
+"right to intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed intellectual property "
+"rights that the government recognizes were created by specific acts of "
+"legislation for specific purposes."
+msgstr ""
+"知的財産権<a href=\"#f6\">(8)</a>の問題を慎重に研究した人々
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For example, the patent system was established to encourage inventors to "
+"disclose the details of their inventions.  Its purpose was to help society "
+"rather than to help inventors.  At the time, the life span of 17 years for a "
+"patent was short compared with the rate of advance of the state of the art.  "
+"Since patents are an issue only among manufacturers, for whom the cost and "
+"effort of a license agreement are small compared with setting up production, "
+"the patents often do not do much harm.  They do not obstruct most "
+"individuals who use patented products."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The idea of copyright did not exist in ancient times, when authors "
+"frequently copied other authors at length in works of nonfiction.  This "
+"practice was useful, and is the only way many authors' works have survived "
+"even in part.  The copyright system was created expressly for the purpose of "
+"encouraging authorship.  In the domain for which it was invented&mdash;"
+"books, which could be copied economically only on a printing press&mdash;it "
+"did little harm, and did not obstruct most of the individuals who read the "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"All intellectual property rights are just licenses granted by society "
+"because it was thought, rightly or wrongly, that society as a whole would "
+"benefit by granting them.  But in any particular situation, we have to ask: "
+"are we really better off granting such license? What kind of act are we "
+"licensing a person to do?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The case of programs today is very different from that of books a hundred "
+"years ago.  The fact that the easiest way to copy a program is from one "
+"neighbor to another, the fact that a program has both source code and object "
+"code which are distinct, and the fact that a program is used rather than "
+"read and enjoyed, combine to create a situation in which a person who "
+"enforces a copyright is harming society as a whole both materially and "
+"spiritually; in which a person should not do so regardless of whether the "
+"law enables him to."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Competition makes things get done better.&rdquo;</strong>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The paradigm of competition is a race: by rewarding the winner, we encourage "
+"everyone to run faster.  When capitalism really works this way, it does a "
+"good job; but its defenders are wrong in assuming it always works this way.  "
+"If the runners forget why the reward is offered and become intent on "
+"winning, no matter how, they may find other strategies&mdash;such as, "
+"attacking other runners.  If the runners get into a fist fight, they will "
+"all finish late."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Proprietary and secret software is the moral equivalent of runners in a fist "
+"fight.  Sad to say, the only referee we've got does not seem to object to "
+"fights; he just regulates them (&ldquo;For every ten yards you run, you can "
+"fire one shot&rdquo;).  He really ought to break them up, and penalize "
+"runners for even trying to fight."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Won't everyone stop programming without a monetary incentive?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Actually, many people will program with absolutely no monetary incentive.  "
+"Programming has an irresistible fascination for some people, usually the "
+"people who are best at it.  There is no shortage of professional musicians "
+"who keep at it even though they have no hope of making a living that way."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But really this question, though commonly asked, is not appropriate to the "
+"situation.  Pay for programmers will not disappear, only become less.  So "
+"the right question is, will anyone program with a reduced monetary "
+"incentive? My experience shows that they will."
+msgstr ""
+"うか? というものです。わたしの経験では、プログラム
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For more than ten years, many of the world's best programmers worked at the "
+"Artificial Intelligence Lab for far less money than they could have had "
+"anywhere else.  They got many kinds of nonmonetary rewards: fame and "
+"appreciation, for example.  And creativity is also fun, a reward in itself."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Then most of them left when offered a chance to do the same interesting work "
+"for a lot of money."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"What the facts show is that people will program for reasons other than "
+"riches; but if given a chance to make a lot of money as well, they will come "
+"to expect and demand it.  Low-paying organizations do poorly in competition "
+"with high-paying ones, but they do not have to do badly if the high-paying "
+"ones are banned."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;We need the programmers desperately.  If they demand that we "
+"stop helping our neighbors, we have to obey.&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"You're never so desperate that you have to obey this sort of demand.  "
+"Remember: millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>&ldquo;Programmers need to make a living somehow.&rdquo;</strong>"
+msgstr "<strong>「プログラマは生計を立てる必
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In the short run, this is true.  However, there are plenty of ways that "
+"programmers could make a living without selling the right to use a program.  "
+"This way is customary now because it brings programmers and businessmen the "
+"most money, not because it is the only way to make a living.  It is easy to "
+"find other ways if you want to find them.  Here are a number of examples."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A manufacturer introducing a new computer will pay for the porting of "
+"operating systems onto the new hardware."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The sale of teaching, handholding and maintenance services could also employ "
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"People with new ideas could distribute programs as freeware<a href=\"#f7\">"
+"(9)</a>, asking for donations from satisfied users, or selling handholding "
+"services.  I have met people who are already working this way successfully."
+msgstr ""
をフリーウェア<a href=\"#f7\">(9)</a>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Users with related needs can form users' groups, and pay dues.  A group "
+"would contract with programming companies to write programs that the group's "
+"members would like to use."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "All sorts of development can be funded with a Software Tax:"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Suppose everyone who buys a computer has to pay x percent of the price as a "
+"software tax.  The government gives this to an agency like the NSF to spend "
+"on software development."
+msgstr ""
+"コンピュータを買う全員がソフトウェア税として金額の x 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But if the computer buyer makes a donation to software development himself, "
+"he can take a credit against the tax.  He can donate to the project of his "
+"own choosing&mdash;often, chosen because he hopes to use the results when it "
+"is done.  He can take a credit for any amount of donation up to the total "
+"tax he had to pay."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The total tax rate could be decided by a vote of the payers of the tax, "
+"weighted according to the amount they will be taxed on."
+msgstr "税率は納税する金額に応じて重み付けられた納税者
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "The consequences:"
+msgstr "結果:"
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid "The computer-using community supports software development."
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid "This community decides what level of support is needed."
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"Users who care which projects their share is spent on can choose this for "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In the long run, making programs free is a step toward the postscarcity "
+"world, where nobody will have to work very hard just to make a living.  "
+"People will be free to devote themselves to activities that are fun, such as "
+"programming, after spending the necessary ten hours a week on required tasks "
+"such as legislation, family counseling, robot repair and asteroid "
+"prospecting.  There will be no need to be able to make a living from "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We have already greatly reduced the amount of work that the whole society "
+"must do for its actual productivity, but only a little of this has "
+"translated itself into leisure for workers because much nonproductive "
+"activity is required to accompany productive activity.  The main causes of "
+"this are bureaucracy and isometric struggles against competition.  Free "
+"software will greatly reduce these drains in the area of software "
+"production.  We must do this, in order for technical gains in productivity "
+"to translate into less work for us."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h4>
+msgid "Footnotes"
+msgstr "脚注"
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f1\"></a>The wording here was careless.  The intention was that "
+"nobody would have to pay for <b>permission</b> to use the GNU system.  But "
+"the words don't make this clear, and people often interpret them as saying "
+"that copies of GNU should always be distributed at little or no charge.  "
+"That was never the intent; later on, the manifesto mentions the possibility "
+"of companies providing the service of distribution for a profit.  "
+"Subsequently I have learned to distinguish carefully between &ldquo;"
+"free&rdquo; in the sense of freedom and &ldquo;free&rdquo; in the sense of "
+"price.  Free software is software that users have the freedom to distribute "
+"and change.  Some users may obtain copies at no charge, while others pay to "
+"obtain copies&mdash;and if the funds help support improving the software, so "
+"much the better.  The important thing is that everyone who has a copy has "
+"the freedom to cooperate with others in using it."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f2a\"></a>The expression &ldquo;give away&rdquo; is another "
+"indication that I had not yet clearly separated the issue of price from that "
+"of freedom.  We now recommend avoiding this expression when talking about "
+"free software.  See <a href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid."
+"html#GiveAwaySoftware\"> <q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f2\"></a>This is another place I failed to distinguish carefully "
+"between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free&rdquo;.  The statement as "
+"it stands is not false&mdash;you can get copies of GNU software at no "
+"charge, from your friends or over the net.  But it does suggest the wrong "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid "<a name=\"f3\"></a>Several such companies now exist."
+msgstr "<a 
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f4\"></a> Although it is a charity rather than a company, the Free "
+"Software Foundation for 10 years raised most of its funds from its "
+"distribution service.  You can <a href=\"/order/order.html\">order things "
+"from the FSF</a> to support its work."
+msgstr ""
+"<a name=\"f4\"></a>会社ではなくå…
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f5\"></a>A group of computer companies pooled funds around 1991 to "
+"support maintenance of the GNU C Compiler."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f8\"></a>I think I was mistaken in saying that proprietary "
+"software was the most common basis for making money in software.  It seems "
+"that actually the most common business model was and is development of "
+"custom software.  That does not offer the possibility of collecting rents, "
+"so the business has to keep doing real work in order to keep getting "
+"income.  The custom software business would continue to exist, more or less "
+"unchanged, in a free software world.  Therefore, I no longer expect that "
+"most paid programmers would earn less in a free software world."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f6\"></a>In the 1980s I had not yet realized how confusing it was "
+"to speak of &ldquo;the issue&rdquo; of &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;.  "
+"That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the fact that it lumps "
+"together various disparate laws which raise very different issues.  Nowadays "
+"I urge people to reject the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; "
+"entirely, lest it lead others to suppose that those laws form one coherent "
+"issue.  The way to be clear is to discuss patents, copyrights, and "
+"trademarks separately.  See <a href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\">further "
+"explanation</a> of how this term spreads confusion and bias."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a name=\"f7\"></a>Subsequently we learned to distinguish between &ldquo;"
+"free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;freeware&rdquo;.  The term &ldquo;"
+"freeware&rdquo; means software you are free to redistribute, but usually you "
+"are not free to study and change the source code, so most of it is not free "
+"software.  See <a href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Freeware\"> "
+"<q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more explanation."
+msgstr ""
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
+#. type: Content of: <div>
+msgstr " "
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a 
+"\">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are also <a href=\"/contact/\">other 
ways "
+"to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions "
+"can be sent to <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden"
+msgstr ""
+#.  TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+#.         replace it with the translation of these two:
+#.         We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+#.         translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+#.         Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+#.         to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+#.         &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+#.         <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+#.         our web pages, see <a
+#.         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+#.         README</a>. 
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html"
+"\">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting "
+"translations of this article."
+msgstr ""
…¨ãªå ´åˆã‚‚あるかと思"
+"translations.html\">翻訳 README</a>をご覧ください。"
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free "
+"Software Foundation, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free "
+"Software Foundation, Inc."
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of "
+"this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and "
+"permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the "
+"recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice."
+msgstr ""
å¸ƒã®è¨±å¯ã‚’与える限り、誰にでも許可します。 "
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Modified versions may not be made."
+msgstr "変更バージョンの作成は不可。"
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div>
+msgstr " "
+#.  timestamp start 
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Updated:"
+msgstr "最終更新:"

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