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From: GNUN
Subject: www/philosophy government-free-software.pt-br.h...
Date: Mon, 22 Nov 2021 05:35:36 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     21/11/22 05:35:36

Modified files:
        philosophy     : government-free-software.pt-br.html 
Added files:
        philosophy/po  : government-free-software.pt-br-diff.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.


Index: government-free-software.pt-br.html
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/government-free-software.pt-br.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- government-free-software.pt-br.html 5 Sep 2021 10:06:05 -0000       1.7
+++ government-free-software.pt-br.html 22 Nov 2021 10:35:33 -0000      1.8
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" 
value="/philosophy/government-free-software.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/government-free-software.pt-br.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/government-free-software.pt-br.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" 
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2021-09-23" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/government-free-software.en.html" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.pt-br.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
@@ -14,6 +19,7 @@
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.pt-br.html" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/ph-breadcrumb.pt-br.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.pt-br.html" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.pt-br.html" -->
 <div class="article reduced-width">
 <h2 style="margin-bottom: .2em">
@@ -308,7 +314,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Última atualização:
-$Date: 2021/09/05 10:06:05 $
+$Date: 2021/11/22 10:35:33 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->

Index: po/government-free-software.pt-br-diff.html
RCS file: po/government-free-software.pt-br-diff.html
diff -N po/government-free-software.pt-br-diff.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/government-free-software.pt-br-diff.html 22 Nov 2021 10:35:36 -0000      
@@ -0,0 +1,318 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html --&gt;
+&lt;!--#set var="TAGS" value="essays upholding need" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Measures Governments Can Use to Promote Free Software
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/government-free-software.translist" 
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/ph-breadcrumb.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE--&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div class="article reduced-width"&gt;
+&lt;h2 style="margin-bottom: .2em"&gt;
+Measures Governments Can Use to Promote Free Software&lt;/h2&gt;
+&lt;h3 style="margin: 0 0 1.2em"&gt;
+And why it is their duty to do so&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;address class="byline"&gt;by &lt;a 
+&lt;div class="introduction"&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;This article suggests policies for a strong and firm effort to promote
+free software within the state, and to lead the rest of the country
+towards software freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The mission of the state is to organize society for the freedom and
+well-being of the people.  One aspect of this mission, in the
+computing field, is to encourage users to adopt free software:
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;software that respects the users'
+freedom&lt;/a&gt;.  A proprietary (nonfree) program tramples the freedom of
+those that use it; it is a social problem that the state should work
+to eradicate.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The state needs to insist on free software in its own computing for
+the sake of its computational sovereignty (the state's control over
+its own computing).  All users deserve control over their computing,
+but the state has a responsibility to the people to maintain control
+over the computing it does on their behalf.  Most government
+activities now depend on computing, and its control over those
+activities depends on its control over that computing.  Losing this
+control in an agency whose mission is critical undermines national
+&lt;p&gt;Moving state agencies to free software can also provide secondary
+benefits, such as saving money and encouraging local software support
+&lt;p&gt;In this text, &ldquo;state entities&rdquo; refers to all levels of 
government, and
+means public agencies including schools, public-private partnerships,
+largely state-funded activities such as charter schools, and 
+corporations controlled by the state or established with special
+privileges or functions by the state.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The most important policy concerns education, since that shapes
+the future of the country:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;b&gt;Teach only free software&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+Educational activities, or at least those of state entities, must
+teach only free software (thus, they should never lead students to use
+a nonfree program), and should teach the civic reasons for insisting
+on free software.  To teach a nonfree program is to teach dependence,
+which is contrary to the mission of the school.&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;h3&gt;The State and the Public&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Also crucial are state policies that influence what software
+individuals and organizations use:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Never require nonfree programs&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br 
+Laws and public sector practices must be changed so that they never
+require or pressure individuals or organizations to use a nonfree
+program.  They should also discourage communication and publication
+practices that imply such consequences (including
+Restrictions Management&lt;/a&gt;).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Distribute only free software&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+Whenever a state entity distributes software to the public,
+including programs included in or specified by its web pages, it must
+be distributed as free software, and must be capable of running on a
+platform containing exclusively free software.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;State web sites&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+State entity web sites and network services must be designed so
+that users can use them, without disadvantage, by means of free
+software exclusively.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Free formats and protocols&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+State entities must use only file formats and communication
+protocols that are well supported by free software, preferably with
+published specifications.  (We do not state this in terms of
+&ldquo;standards&rdquo; because it should apply to nonstandardized interfaces 
+well as standardized ones.)  For example, they must not distribute
+audio or video recordings in formats that require Flash or nonfree
+codecs, and public libraries must not distribute works with Digital
+Restrictions Management.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;To support the policy of distributing publications and works in
+freedom-respecting formats, the state must insist that all reports
+developed for it be delivered in freedom-respecting 
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Untie computers from licenses&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+Sale of computers must not require purchase of a proprietary
+software license.  The seller should be required by law to offer the
+purchaser the option of buying the computer without the proprietary
+software and without paying the license fee.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The imposed payment is a secondary wrong, and should not distract
+us from the essential injustice of proprietary software, the loss of
+freedom which results from using it.  Nonetheless, the abuse of
+forcing users to pay for it gives certain proprietary software
+developers an additional unfair advantage, detrimental to users'
+freedom.  It is proper for the state to prevent this abuse.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;h3&gt;Computational Sovereignty&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Several policies affect the computational sovereignty of the state.
+State entities must maintain control over their computing, not cede
+control to private hands.  These points apply to all computers,
+including smartphones.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Migrate to free software&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+State entities must migrate to free software, and must not install,
+or continue using, any nonfree software except under a temporary
+exception.  Only one agency should have the authority to grant these
+temporary exceptions, and only when shown compelling reasons.  This
+agency's goal should be to reduce the number of exceptions to 
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Develop free IT solutions&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+When a state entity pays for development of a computing solution, the
+contract must require it be delivered as free software, and that it be
+designed such that one can both run it and develop it on a 100%-free
+environment.  All contracts must require this, so that if the
+developer does not comply with these requirements, the work cannot be
+paid for.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Choose computers for free software&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br 
+When a state entity buys or leases computers, it must choose among
+the models that come closest, in their class, to being capable of
+running without any proprietary software.  The state should maintain,
+for each class of computers, a list of the models authorized based on
+this criterion.  Models available to both the public and the state
+should be preferred to models available only to the state.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Negotiate with manufacturers&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+The state should negotiate actively with manufacturers to bring
+about the availability in the market (to the state and the public) of
+suitable hardware products, in all pertinent product areas, that
+require no proprietary software.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Unite with other states&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+The state should invite other states to negotiate collectively with
+manufacturers about suitable hardware products.  Together they will
+have more clout.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;h3&gt;Computational Sovereignty II&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The computational sovereignty (and security) of the state includes
+control over the computers that do the state's work.  This requires
+avoiding &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;
+Service as a Software Substitute&lt;/a&gt;, unless the service is run by a 
+agency under the same branch of government, as well as other practices
+that diminish the state control over its computing.  Therefore,&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;b&gt;State must control its computers&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+Every computer that the state uses must belong to or be leased by
+the same branch of government that uses it, and that branch must not
+cede to outsiders the right to decide who has physical access to the
+computer, who can do maintenance (hardware or software) on it, or
+what software should be installed in it.  If the computer is not
+portable, then while in use it must be in a physical space of which
+the state is the occupant (either as owner or as tenant).&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;h3&gt;Influence Development&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;State policy affects free and nonfree software development:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Encourage free&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+The state should encourage developers to create or enhance free
+software and make it available to the public, e.g. by tax breaks
+and other financial incentive.  Contrariwise, no such incentives
+should be granted for development, distribution or use of nonfree
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Don't encourage nonfree&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+In particular, proprietary software developers should not be able to
+&ldquo;donate&rdquo; copies to schools and claim a tax write-off for the 
+value of the software.  Proprietary software is not legitimate in a
+&lt;p&gt;Freedom should not imply e-waste:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;Replaceable software&lt;/b&gt;&lt;br /&gt;
+Many modern computers are designed to make it impossible to
+replace their preloaded software with free software.  Thus, the only
+way to free them is to junk them.  This practice is harmful to
+&lt;p&gt;Therefore, it should be illegal, or at least substantially
+discouraged through heavy taxation, to sell, import or distribute in
+quantity a new computer (that is, not second-hand) or computer-based
+product for which secrecy about hardware interfaces or intentional
+restrictions prevent users from developing, installing and using
+replacements for any and all of the installed software that the
+manufacturer could upgrade.  This would apply, in particular, to any
+device on which &lt;a 
 is needed to install a
+different operating system, or in which the interfaces for some
+peripherals are secret.
+&lt;h3&gt;Technological neutrality&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;With the measures in this article, the state can recover control
+over its computing, and lead the country's citizens, businesses and
+organizations towards control over their computing.  However, some
+object on the grounds that this would violate the
+&ldquo;principle&rdquo; of technological neutrality.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;The idea of technological neutrality is that the state should not
+impose arbitrary preferences on technical choices.  Whether that is a
+valid principle is disputable, but it is limited in any case to issues
+that are merely technical.  The measures advocated here address issues
+of ethical, social and political importance, so they are
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/technological-neutrality.html"&gt;outside the scope
+of &lt;em&gt;technological&lt;/em&gt; neutrality&lt;/a&gt;.  Only those who 
wish to
+subjugate a country would suggest that its government be
+&ldquo;neutral&rdquo; about its sovereignty or its citizens' freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer" role="contentinfo"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to &lt;a
+href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"&gt;&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.  There are also 
+href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt; the FSF.  Broken links and 
+corrections or suggestions can be sent to &lt;a
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org"&gt;
+        &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and contributing translations 
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
README&lt;/a&gt; for
+information on coordinating and contributing translations of this 
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, 
standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; <span class="removed"><del><strong>Copyright 
&copy;</strong></del></span> 2011-2014, 2016, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2017</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2017, 2021</em></ins></span> Free Software
+Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2021/11/22 10:35:36 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include --&gt;

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