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www copyleft/copyleft.ru.html copyleft/po/copyl...


From: Yavor Doganov
Subject: www copyleft/copyleft.ru.html copyleft/po/copyl...
Date: Mon, 26 Dec 2011 09:29:42 +0000

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Yavor Doganov <yavor>   11/12/26 09:29:41

Modified files:
        copyleft       : copyleft.ru.html 
        copyleft/po    : copyleft.translist 
        distros        : common-distros.ru.html distros.ru.html 
                         free-distros.ru.html 
                         free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html 
        distros/po     : common-distros.ru-en.html distros.translist 
                         free-distros.ru-en.html 
                         free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist 
        gnu            : gnu-history.ru.html gnu-linux-faq.ru.html 
                         gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html 
                         gnu.ru.html initial-announcement.ru.html 
                         linux-and-gnu.ru.html manifesto.ru.html 
                         why-gnu-linux.ru.html 
        gnu/po         : gnu-history.translist gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html 
                         gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist 
                         gnu.translist initial-announcement.translist 
                         linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html manifesto.translist 
                         why-gnu-linux.translist 
        graphics       : agnuhead.ru.html 
        graphics/po    : agnuhead.ru-en.html agnuhead.translist 
        help           : help.ru.html 
        help/po        : help.translist 
        licenses       : gpl-faq.ru.html license-recommendations.ru.html 
                         quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html translations.ru.html 
        licenses/po    : gpl-faq.ru-en.html gpl-faq.translist 
                         license-recommendations.ru-en.html 
                         license-recommendations.translist 
                         quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html 
                         quick-guide-gplv3.translist 
                         translations.ru-en.html 
        philosophy     : bsd.ru.html categories.ru.html 
                         compromise.ru.html enforcing-gpl.ru.html 
                         free-software-for-freedom.ru.html 
                         free-software-intro.ru.html free-sw.ru.html 
                         freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html 
                         freedom-or-power.ru.html gif.ru.html 
                         gnutella.ru.html linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html 
                         microsoft-antitrust.ru.html 
                         microsoft-old.ru.html microsoft-verdict.ru.html 
                         microsoft.ru.html netscape-npl.ru.html 
                         netscape.ru.html no-word-attachments.ru.html 
                         not-ipr.ru.html 
                         open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html 
                         papadopoulos-response.ru.html 
                         philosophy.ru.html pirate-party.cs.html 
                         reevaluating-copyright.ru.html 
                         selling-exceptions.ru.html selling.ru.html 
                         shouldbefree.ru.html 
                         the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html udi.ru.html 
                         why-copyleft.ru.html why-free.ru.html x.ru.html 
        philosophy/po  : bsd.translist categories.ru-en.html 
                         categories.translist compromise.translist 
                         enforcing-gpl.translist 
                         free-software-for-freedom.translist 
                         free-software-intro.translist 
                         free-sw.ru-en.html free-sw.translist 
                         freedom-or-copyright-old.translist 
                         freedom-or-power.translist gif.translist 
                         gnutella.translist linux-gnu-freedom.translist 
                         microsoft-antitrust.translist 
                         microsoft-old.translist 
                         microsoft-verdict.translist microsoft.translist 
                         netscape-npl.translist netscape.translist 
                         no-word-attachments.ru-en.html 
                         not-ipr.translist 
                         open-source-misses-the-point.translist 
                         papadopoulos-response.translist 
                         philosophy.ru-en.html pirate-party.cs.po 
                         pirate-party.translist 
                         reevaluating-copyright.translist 
                         selling-exceptions.translist selling.translist 
                         shouldbefree.translist 
                         the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html 
                         the-danger-of-ebooks.translist udi.translist 
                         why-copyleft.translist why-free.translist 
                         x.translist 
Added files:
        copyleft/po    : copyleft.ru-en.html 
        distros/po     : distros.ru-en.html 
                         free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html 
        gnu/po         : gnu-history.ru-en.html 
                         gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html 
                         gnu.ru-en.html initial-announcement.ru-en.html 
                         manifesto.ru-en.html why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html 
        help/po        : help.ru-en.html 
        philosophy/po  : bsd.ru-en.html compromise.ru-en.html 
                         enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html 
                         free-software-for-freedom.ru-en.html 
                         free-software-intro.ru-en.html 
                         freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html 
                         freedom-or-power.ru-en.html gif.ru-en.html 
                         gnutella.ru-en.html 
                         linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html 
                         microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html 
                         microsoft-old.ru-en.html 
                         microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html 
                         microsoft.ru-en.html netscape-npl.ru-en.html 
                         netscape.ru-en.html not-ipr.ru-en.html 
                         open-source-misses-the-point.ru-en.html 
                         papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html 
                         pirate-party.cs-en.html 
                         reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html 
                         selling-exceptions.ru-en.html 
                         selling.ru-en.html shouldbefree.ru-en.html 
                         udi.ru-en.html why-copyleft.ru-en.html 
                         why-free.ru-en.html x.ru-en.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.37&r2=1.38
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/copyleft/po/copyleft.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/copyleft/po/copyleft.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/common-distros.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.21&r2=1.22
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/distros.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/free-distros.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.13&r2=1.14
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.12&r2=1.13
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/common-distros.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/distros.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/free-distros.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/distros.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.11&r2=1.12
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.10&r2=1.11
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/gnu.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.13&r2=1.14
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/manifesto.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu-history.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/manifesto.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu-history.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/gnu.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/initial-announcement.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/manifesto.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/graphics/agnuhead.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.13&r2=1.14
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/graphics/po/agnuhead.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/graphics/po/agnuhead.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/help/help.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.24&r2=1.25
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/help/po/help.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/help/po/help.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/translations.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.17&r2=1.18
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/gpl-faq.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/gpl-faq.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/license-recommendations.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/license-recommendations.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/translations.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/bsd.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.8&r2=1.9
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/categories.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.11&r2=1.12
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/compromise.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.9&r2=1.10
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.11&r2=1.12
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/gif.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.12&r2=1.13
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/gnutella.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.13&r2=1.14
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/netscape.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.12&r2=1.13
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.17&r2=1.18
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/philosophy.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.9&r2=1.10
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/udi.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/why-free.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.6&r2=1.7
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/x.ru.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/bsd.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/categories.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/categories.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/compromise.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-sw.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-sw.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/gif.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/gnutella.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/netscape.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/no-word-attachments.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/not-ipr.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/philosophy.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/udi.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/why-copyleft.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/why-free.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/x.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/bsd.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/compromise.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/free-software-intro.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/gif.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/gnutella.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-old.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/microsoft.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/netscape-npl.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/netscape.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/not-ipr.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/shouldbefree.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/udi.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/why-copyleft.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/why-free.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/x.ru-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: copyleft/copyleft.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.37
retrieving revision 1.38
diff -u -b -r1.37 -r1.38
--- copyleft/copyleft.ru.html   20 Sep 2011 17:08:41 -0000      1.37
+++ copyleft/copyleft.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:27:55 -0000      1.38
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 <p>
 Авторское лево также помогает 
программистам, желающим вносить
 <a href="/prep/tasks.html">улучшения</a> в
-<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободные 
программы</a>,
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободные программы</a>,
 получить разрешение делать это. Такие 
программисты нередко работают на
 компании либо университеты, которые 
делают всё, чтобы заработать побольше
 денег.
@@ -231,11 +231,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:08:41 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:27:55 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -265,6 +267,7 @@
 <!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -302,7 +305,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: copyleft/po/copyleft.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/copyleft/po/copyleft.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- copyleft/po/copyleft.translist      25 Dec 2011 05:17:23 -0000      1.2
+++ copyleft/po/copyleft.translist      26 Dec 2011 09:28:02 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,41 +2,41 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bosnian -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.bs.html">bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: distros/common-distros.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/common-distros.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.21
retrieving revision 1.22
diff -u -b -r1.21 -r1.22
--- distros/common-distros.ru.html      20 Dec 2011 09:26:51 -0000      1.21
+++ distros/common-distros.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:28:07 -0000      1.22
@@ -19,15 +19,15 @@
 конкретная система&nbsp;&mdash; обычно это 
популярный
 дистрибутив GNU/Linux. Краткий ответ на этот
 вопрос&nbsp;&mdash; потому что они не следуют <a
-href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">рекомендациям
-для свободных дистрибутивов систем</a>. Но 
поскольку не всегда легко понять,
-в каких отношениях конкретная система
+href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html">рекомендациям
 для
+свободных дистрибутивов систем</a>. Но 
поскольку не всегда легко понять, в
+каких отношениях конкретная система
 противоречит этим рекомендациям, нам 
продолжают задавать эти вопросы.
 Мы опубликовали этот список, чтобы 
облегчить ответы на них.</p>
 
 <p>Чтобы узнать подробнее о свободных 
альтернативах этим системам, обратитесь к
 нашему списку
-<a href="/distros/free-distros.ru.html">свободных 
дистрибутивов
+<a href="/distros/free-distros.html">свободных 
дистрибутивов
 GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
 
 <p>Кроме тех случаев, когда это отмечено, 
все дистрибутивы, перечисленные на
@@ -238,7 +238,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/20 09:26:51 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:07 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: distros/distros.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/distros.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- distros/distros.ru.html     20 Sep 2011 17:08:58 -0000      1.6
+++ distros/distros.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:07 -0000      1.7
@@ -26,8 +26,7 @@
 GNU/Linux,&mdash; таким, который не включает 
никакого несвободного
 программного обеспечения. Так вы сможете 
быть уверены, что не устанавливаете
 никаких несвободных программ. Вот наш 
список таких дистрибутивов:<br />
-<a href="/distros/free-distros.ru.html"> Свободные 
дистрибутивы
-GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
+<a href="/distros/free-distros.html"> Свободные 
дистрибутивы GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
 
 <p>
 Каждый из этих существующих дистрибутивов 
не отказался бы
@@ -41,15 +40,15 @@
 <p>
 Вот список проблем, которые могут помешать 
дистрибутиву
 считаться полностью свободным:<br />
-<a href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html"> Р
екомендации
+<a href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html"> Р
екомендации
 для свободных дистрибутивов систем</a>.</p>
 
 <h3 id="otherDistros">Популярные дистрибутивы</h3>
 <p>
 Много популярных и хорошо известных 
дистрибутивов GNU/Linux
 не отвечают нашим рекомендациям. Вы можете 
прочесть об их проблемах здесь:<br />
-<a href="/distros/common-distros.ru.html"> Почему мы не можем 
одобрить
-многих хорошо известных дистрибутивов 
GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
+<a href="/distros/common-distros.html"> Почему мы не можем 
одобрить многих
+хорошо известных дистрибутивов GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
 
 <p>
 Мы призываем разработчиков этих 
дистрибутивов удалить
@@ -102,11 +101,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:08:58 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:07 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -137,6 +138,7 @@
 <!--      -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -160,7 +162,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.sk.html">sloven&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li> 
-->
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: distros/free-distros.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/free-distros.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.13
retrieving revision 1.14
diff -u -b -r1.13 -r1.14
--- distros/free-distros.ru.html        22 Dec 2011 09:26:40 -0000      1.13
+++ distros/free-distros.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:28:07 -0000      1.14
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
 их своевременное обновление.</span></em></p>
 
 <p>Далее следуют известные нам 
дистрибутивы <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>, в политике 
которых
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>, в политике 
которых
 присутствует твердое намерение включать и 
предлагать только свободное
 программное обеспечение. Они отказываются 
от несвободных приложений,
 несвободных платформ программирования, 
несвободных драйверов и несвободных
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
 <p>Если вы не понимаете, почему 
определенный популярный
 дистрибутив не упомянут здесь, вы можете 
свериться с нашей
 страницей, объясняющей, <a
-href="/distros/common-distros.ru.html">почему нами не 
одобрены
+href="/distros/common-distros.html">почему нами не одобрены
 некоторые распространенные 
дистрибутивы</a>.
 Там нами перечислены пункты, в которых
 несколько из хорошо известных 
дистрибутивов противоречат
@@ -192,7 +192,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/22 09:26:40 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:07 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.12
retrieving revision 1.13
diff -u -b -r1.12 -r1.13
--- distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html 20 Sep 2011 17:08:59 
-0000      1.12
+++ distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:28:07 
-0000      1.13
@@ -265,7 +265,7 @@
 <h3 id="final-notes">Окончательные замечания</h3>
 
 <p>Мы поддерживаем перечень <a
-href="/distros/free-distros.ru.html">свободных 
дистрибутивов
+href="/distros/free-distros.html">свободных дистрибутивов
 систем</a>, о которых нам известно. Если вы 
знаете о свободном
 дистрибутиве, который там не перечислен, 
пожалуйста,
 попросите разработчиков прислать нам по 
адресу &lt;<a class="reference"
@@ -324,10 +324,12 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:08:59 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:07 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -358,6 +360,7 @@
 <!--      -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- German -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 -->
@@ -375,7 +378,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: distros/po/common-distros.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/po/common-distros.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- distros/po/common-distros.ru-en.html        20 Dec 2011 09:26:57 -0000      
1.2
+++ distros/po/common-distros.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:28:13 -0000      
1.3
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/20 09:26:57 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:13 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: distros/po/distros.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/po/distros.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- distros/po/distros.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:16:09 -0000      1.2
+++ distros/po/distros.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:28:13 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,29 +2,29 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/distros/distros.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/distros/distros.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/distros/distros.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/distros.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/distros/distros.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/distros/distros.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/distros/distros.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Slovak -->
-<li><a href="/distros/distros.sk.html">sloven&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.sk.html">slovenčina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/distros.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/distros/distros.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: distros/po/free-distros.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/distros/po/free-distros.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- distros/po/free-distros.ru-en.html  22 Dec 2011 09:26:46 -0000      1.2
+++ distros/po/free-distros.ru-en.html  26 Dec 2011 09:28:13 -0000      1.3
@@ -162,7 +162,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/22 09:26:46 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:13 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: 
/web/www/www/distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist    25 Dec 2011 
05:16:10 -0000      1.2
+++ distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist    26 Dec 2011 
09:28:14 -0000      1.3
@@ -6,17 +6,17 @@
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: gnu/gnu-history.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.11
retrieving revision 1.12
diff -u -b -r1.11 -r1.12
--- gnu/gnu-history.ru.html     24 Oct 2011 16:36:09 -0000      1.11
+++ gnu/gnu-history.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:19 -0000      1.12
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 
 <p>
 Слово &ldquo;свободная&rdquo; относится к <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободе</a>, а не к цене. 
Может быть, вы
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободе</a>, а не к цене. 
Может быть, вы
 заплатите за то, чтобы получить программы 
GNU, а может быть, и нет. В любом
 случае, как только вы получаете программу, 
вы получаете три особые свободы в
 её использовании. Первая&nbsp;&mdash; свобода 
копировать программу и
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 <p>
 В 1971&nbsp;году, когда Ричард Столмен начал 
свою карьеру в Массачусетском
 технологическом институте, он работал в 
группе, которая использовала
-исключительно <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободные
+исключительно <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободные
 программы</a>. Даже компьютерные компании 
нередко распространяли свободные
 программы. Программисты могли свободно 
сотрудничать друг с другом и часто
 так и поступали.</p>
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@
 1992&nbsp;году. Объединение Linux с почти 
законченной системой GNU дало
 полную операционную систему: систему 
GNU/Linux. Согласно оценкам, десятки
 миллионов людей сейчас используют системы 
GNU/Linux, обычно в виде <a
-href="/distros/distros.ru.html">дистрибутивов</a>, таких, 
как Slackware,
+href="/distros/distros.html">дистрибутивов</a>, таких, 
как Slackware,
 Debian, Red Hat и другие.</p>
 
 <p>
@@ -171,11 +171,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/24 16:36:09 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:19 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.10
retrieving revision 1.11
diff -u -b -r1.10 -r1.11
--- gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html   21 Nov 2011 09:26:50 -0000      1.10
+++ gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      1.11
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
   <blockquote><p>Другие сведения об этом вопросе 
можно получить на наших страницах <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Linux и проект GNU&rdquo;</a>, 
<a
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;Linux и проект GNU&rdquo;</a>, <a
 href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему
 &lsquo;GNU/Linux&rsquo;?&rdquo;</a> и <a
 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Пользователи
 GNU,
@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@
 Справедливости ради мы должны получить 
упоминание по меньшей мере на равных.</p>
 
 <p>Более подробно это объясняется в статьях 
<a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Linux и проект GNU&rdquo;</a> 
и <a
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;Linux и проект GNU&rdquo;</a> и 
<a
 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Пользователи
 GNU,
 которые никогда не слышали о GNU&rdquo;</a>; с 
историей можно ознакомиться
 на странице <a 
href="/gnu/the-gnu-project.ru.html">&ldquo;Проект
@@ -262,7 +262,7 @@
 <p>
 Называть систему &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; значит 
признавать роль, которую
 наша верность идеалам сыграла в 
построении нашего сообщества, а также <a
-href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">помогать обществу 
осознать практическую
+href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">помогать обществу 
осознать практическую
 важность этих идеалов</a>.</p>
 </dd>
 
@@ -365,7 +365,7 @@
 думать о нём. Названия &ldquo;свободные 
программы&rdquo; и &ldquo;программы
 с открытым исходным текстом&rdquo;&nbsp;&mdash; 
лозунги этих двух
 позиций. Смотрите также <a
-href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему
+href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">&ldquo;Почему
 &lsquo;открытый исходный текст&rsquo; не 
передает понятия &lsquo;свободная
 программа&rsquo;&rdquo;</a>.</p>
 <p>
@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@
 компьютеров вообще, часто ничего не знают 
о системе GNU. Большинство статей
 о системе не упоминает ни названия 
&ldquo;GNU&rdquo;, ни идеалов, которые
 отстаивает GNU. Статья <a
-href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Пользователи
 GNU,
+href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">&ldquo;Пользователи 
GNU,
 которые никогда не слышали о GNU&rdquo;</a> 
разъясняет этот вопрос
 подробнее.
 <p>
@@ -1129,7 +1129,7 @@
 цель&nbsp;&mdash; сделать систему более 
популярной, и он верит в то, что её
 ценность для общества состоит 
исключительно в практических достоинствах,
 которые она предоставляет: её возможностях
, надёжности и доступности. Он
-никогда не выступал за <a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ru.html">свободу
+никогда не выступал за <a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.html">свободу
 сотрудничества</a> как этический принцип, 
поэтому общественность и не
 связывает названия &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; с этим 
принципом.
 <p>
@@ -1448,7 +1448,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/21 09:26:50 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html    25 Oct 2011 08:45:18 -0000      
1.7
+++ gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      
1.8
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
   <blockquote><p>Чтобы узнать больше об этой 
проблеме, вы также можете прочитать нашу 
статью
-<a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о 
GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>,
+<a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о 
GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>,
 нашу страницу <a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему
 GNU/Linux?&rdquo;</a>, а также нашу страницу <a
 href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Linux и проект GNU&rdquo;</a>.
@@ -100,11 +100,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/25 08:45:18 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -131,6 +133,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -160,7 +163,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: gnu/gnu.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/gnu.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.13
retrieving revision 1.14
diff -u -b -r1.13 -r1.14
--- gnu/gnu.ru.html     24 Oct 2011 16:36:11 -0000      1.13
+++ gnu/gnu.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      1.14
@@ -11,12 +11,12 @@
 
 <ul>
   <li><a href="/gnu/about-gnu.html">Об операционной 
системе GNU</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">Исторический обзор 
GNU</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.ru.html">Более подробная 
история GNU</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">Первоначальное 
объявление</a> о
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">Исторический обзор 
GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">Более подробная 
история GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">Первоначальное 
объявление</a> о
 проекте</li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ru.html">Манифест GNU</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/byte-interview.ru.html">Интервью 
&ldquo;BYTE&rdquo; с Ричардом
+  <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">Манифест GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/byte-interview.html">Интервью &ldquo;BYTE&rdquo; 
с Ричардом
 Столменом</a> (1986&nbsp;год)</li>
   <li><a href="/gnu/rms-lisp.html">Мой опыт Лиспа и 
разработка GNU Emacs</a>
 (Ричард Столмен)</li>
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 статьи&nbsp;&mdash; в том, что в ней 
употребляется пропагандистский термин
 &ldquo;интеллектуальная собственность&rdquo; 
так, как будто это означает
 единое целое. Этот термин вводит в такое 
заблуждение, что употреблять его <a
-href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">нет никакого смысла</a>.  
Статья также
+href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">нет никакого смысла</a>.  
Статья также
 несколько заблуждается относительно 
Symbolics. На самом деле Столмен, еще
 работая в MIT, написал&nbsp;&mdash; 
независимо&nbsp;&mdash; улучшения
 альтернативной версии, сопоставимые с 
улучшениями, которые фирма Symbolics
@@ -41,12 +41,12 @@
 <h3><a id="gnulinux"></a>GNU и Linux</h3>
 
 <ul>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">Связь между GNU и 
Linux</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">Почему &ldquo;систему 
Linux&rdquo;
-следует называть &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a></li>
-  <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">Пользователи GNU,
-которые никогда не слышали о GNU</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html">Вопросы о GNU/Linux</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">Связь между GNU и 
Linux</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">Почему &ldquo;систему 
Linux&rdquo; следует
+называть &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a></li>
+  <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">Пользователи GNU, 
которые
+никогда не слышали о GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">Вопросы о GNU/Linux</a></li>
 </ul>
 
 
@@ -97,10 +97,12 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/24 16:36:11 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -131,6 +133,7 @@
 <!--      -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -164,7 +167,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Serbian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html    25 Oct 2011 08:45:19 -0000      1.4
+++ gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      1.5
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
 этого первоначального плана. Например, 
начало
 отдалилось до января 1984 года. Некоторые
 философские аспекты <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободных
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободных
 программ</a> прояснились только через 
несколько лет.</p>
 
 <h3>Свободу Unix!</h3>
@@ -303,11 +303,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/25 08:45:19 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -334,6 +336,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -365,7 +368,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Swedish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li> -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html   21 Nov 2011 09:26:50 -0000      1.7
+++ gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      1.8
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
   <blockquote><p>Дополнительные сведения можно 
найти на страницах <a
-href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о 
GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a> и <a
+href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a> 
и <a
 href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему GNU/Linux?&rdquo;</a></p>
   </blockquote>
 </div>
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 GNU</a>, даже не осознавая этого. В силу 
особого поворота событий версия
 GNU, которую сегодня широко используют, 
часто называется
 &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, и многим из ее пользователей <a
-href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html"> не известно</a>, 
что в
+href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html"> не известно</a>, 
что в
 основном это система GNU, разработанная <a
 href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">проектом GNU</a>.</p>
 
@@ -68,12 +68,12 @@
 
 <p>
 То, что они обнаружили, не было 
случайностью&nbsp;&mdash; это было не совсем
-полной системой GNU. Доступные <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободные программы</a> 
сложились в
-полную систему, потому что проект GNU 
работал над этим с 1984&nbsp;года. В
-<a href="/gnu/manifesto.ru.html">&ldquo;Манифесте GNU&rdquo;</a> мы
-поставили целью разработать свободную 
систему типа Unix под названием
-GNU. <a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">&ldquo;Первоначальное
+полной системой GNU. Доступные <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободные
+программы</a> сложились в полную систему, 
потому что проект GNU работал над
+этим с 1984&nbsp;года. В <a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ru.html">&ldquo;Манифесте
+GNU&rdquo;</a> мы поставили целью разработать 
свободную систему типа Unix
+под названием GNU. <a
+href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">&ldquo;Первоначальное
 объявление&rdquo;</a> проекта GNU также 
очерчивает некоторые из начальных
 планов по системе GNU. К тому времени, когда 
началась разработка Linux, GNU
 была почти завершена.</p>
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@
 Сегодня есть много разных вариантов 
системы GNU/Linux (часто называемых
 &ldquo;дистрибутивами&rdquo;). Большинство из них
 включает несвободные
 программы&nbsp;&mdash; их разработчики следуют 
философии Linux, а не GNU. Но
-есть и <a href="/distros/distros.ru.html">полностью 
свободные дистрибутивы
+есть и <a href="/distros/distros.html">полностью 
свободные дистрибутивы
 GNU/Linux</a>. ФСПО предоставляет технические 
ресурсы для двух из этих
 дистрибутивов, <a href="http://ututo.org";>Ututo</a> и <a
 href="http://gnewsense.org/";>gNewSense</a>.</p>
@@ -313,7 +313,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/21 09:26:50 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: gnu/manifesto.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/manifesto.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- gnu/manifesto.ru.html       25 Oct 2011 08:45:20 -0000      1.4
+++ gnu/manifesto.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:28:20 -0000      1.5
@@ -23,11 +23,11 @@
 
 <p>Свежие сведения о программах, доступных 
в рамках
 проекта GNU, пожалуйста, ищите на нашем <a
-href="/home.ru.html">сайте</a>, в
+href="/home.html">сайте</a>, в
 особенности, в нашем <a
 href="/software/software.html">списке
 программ</a>. Как помочь проекту, описано на 
странице <a
-href="/help/help.ru.html">http://www.gnu.org/help/help.ru.html</a>.  </p>
+href="/help/help.html">http://www.gnu.org/help/help.ru.html</a>.  </p>
 
 <h3>Что такое GNU? GNU&nbsp;&mdash; не Unix!</h3>
 
@@ -179,8 +179,7 @@
 проектов</a> и в <a 
href="http://savannah.gnu.org/people/?type_id=1";>списке
 &ldquo;GNU: Нужна помощь&rdquo;</a>, общем списке 
задач для пакетов
 GNU. Другие способы помочь указаны на <a
-href="/help/help.ru.html">руководстве по помощи 
операционной системе
-GNU</a>).
+href="/help/help.html">руководстве по помощи 
операционной системе GNU</a>).
 </p>
 </blockquote>
 
@@ -794,7 +793,7 @@
 других к мысли, что эти законы формируют 
один
 монолитный предмет. Чтобы излагать ясно, 
нужно обсуждать патенты, авторское
 право и товарные знаки раздельно.
-См. <a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">дальнейшее
+См. <a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">дальнейшее
 объяснение</a> того, почему этот термин 
вносит
 путаницу и необъективность.</li>
 
@@ -875,11 +874,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/25 08:45:20 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:20 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -906,6 +907,7 @@
 <!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -949,7 +951,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html   25 Oct 2011 08:45:22 -0000      1.4
+++ gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:28:21 -0000      1.5
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
   <blockquote><p>Чтобы узнать больше об этом 
вопросе, вы можете прочитать наши <a
-href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о 
GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>,
+href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">&ldquo;Вопросы о GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>,
 страницу <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;Linux и 
проект
 GNU&rdquo;</a>, на которой приведена история 
системы GNU/Linux в отношении к
 этой проблеме наименования, а также <a
@@ -33,16 +33,16 @@
 чего они хороши. Если вы называете нашу 
операционную систему
 &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, это передаёт неверное 
представление о её истоках,
 истории и назначении. Если вы называете её 
<a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>, это 
передаёт
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>, это 
передаёт
 (хоть и не во всех подробностях) правильное 
представление.</p>
 <p>
 Так ли это важно для нашего сообщества? Р
азве важно, знают ли люди об
 истоках системы, её истории и назначении? 
Да&nbsp;&mdash; потому что люди,
 забывающие историю, нередко обречены на её 
повторение. Нет гарантий, что
 Свободный мир, выросший вокруг <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>, выживет; мы ещё 
не
-полностью избавились от проблем, которые 
привели нас к разработке GNU, и они
-угрожают возобновиться.</p>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>, выживет; мы ещё не 
полностью
+избавились от проблем, которые привели нас 
к разработке GNU, и они угрожают
+возобновиться.</p>
 
 <p>
 Когда я объясняю, почему правильно 
называть систему &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;,
@@ -60,8 +60,8 @@
 отдыхать. Если бы только так было! Но 
трудностей более чем достаточно, и не
 время принимать будущее, как само собой 
разумеющееся. Сила нашего сообщества
 покоится на приверженности к свободе и 
сотрудничеству. Употребление названия
-<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a> — один 
из
-способов напомнить себе и поведать другим 
об этих целях.</p>
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>&nbsp;&mdash;
+один из способов напомнить себе и поведать 
другим об этих целях.</p>
 
 <p>
 Можно написать хорошую свободную 
программу, не думая о GNU; много хорошей
@@ -73,8 +73,8 @@
 <p>
 Опаснейшая угроза будущему свободного 
программного обеспечения исходит от
 склонности компаний, производящих 
дистрибутивы &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, включать
-в <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a> несвободные 
программы
-ради удобства и эффективности. Так 
поступают разработчики всех серьёзных
+в <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> несвободные 
программы ради
+удобства и эффективности. Так поступают 
разработчики всех серьёзных
 коммерческих дистрибутивов; никто не 
ограничивается свободными
 программами. Большинство из них не 
отличают отчётливо несвободные пакеты в
 своих дистрибутивах. Многие даже 
разрабатывают несвободные программы и
@@ -101,13 +101,12 @@
 -->
 <p>
 Добавление несвободных программ в систему 
<a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a> может увеличить
-популярность, если под популярностью мы 
понимаем количество людей,
-использующих какую-нибудь <a 
href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>
-в сочетании с несвободными программами. Но 
в то же время это неявно
-призывает сообщество воспринимать 
несвободные программы как нечто хорошее и
-забыть о целях свободы. Бессмысленно ехать 
быстрее, если вы не можете
-удержаться на дороге.</p>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> может увеличить 
популярность,
+если под популярностью мы понимаем 
количество людей, использующих
+какую-нибудь <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a> в 
сочетании
+с несвободными программами. Но в то же 
время это неявно призывает сообщество
+воспринимать несвободные программы как 
нечто хорошее и забыть о целях
+свободы. Бессмысленно ехать быстрее, если 
вы не можете удержаться на дороге.</p>
 
 <p>
 Если несвободное 
&ldquo;дополнение&rdquo;&nbsp;&mdash; это библиотека 
или
@@ -123,7 +122,7 @@
 
 <p>
 Если наше сообщество продолжит двигаться 
в этом направлении, оно может
-перенаправить будущее <a 
href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a> в
+перенаправить будущее <a 
href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> в
 сторону мозаики из свободных и несвободных
 компонентов. Через пять лет у
 нас, конечно, будет ещё много свободных 
программ; но если мы не будем
 осторожны, ими едва ли можно будет 
пользоваться без несвободных программ,
@@ -182,9 +181,8 @@
 сильное затруднение: преобладающая 
идеология побуждает людей отказаться от
 идеализма как чего-то 
&ldquo;непрактичного&rdquo;. Наш идеализм всегда 
был
 крайне практичным: это причина, по которой 
у нас есть свободная операционная
-система <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>. Люди, 
которые
-любят эту систему, обязаны знать, что 
именно наш идеализм воплотил её в
-жизнь.</p>
+система <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>. Люди, 
которые любят
+эту систему, обязаны знать, что именно наш 
идеализм воплотил её в жизнь.</p>
 
 <p>
 Если бы &ldquo;работа&rdquo; действительно была 
уже сделана, и если бы речь
@@ -192,7 +190,7 @@
 есть. Но это не так. Чтобы вдохновить людей 
на работу, которую нужно
 проделать, нам необходимо, чтобы за нами 
признавали то, что мы уже
 сделали. Пожалуйста, помогите нам, называя 
эту операционную систему <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>.</p>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>.</p>
 
 
 
@@ -236,11 +234,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/25 08:45:22 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:21 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -267,6 +267,7 @@
 <!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
@@ -306,7 +307,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: gnu/po/gnu-history.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/gnu-history.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/gnu-history.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:16:59 -0000      1.3
+++ gnu/po/gnu-history.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 -0000      1.4
@@ -2,59 +2,59 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Bosnian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.bs.html">bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
-<!-- Norwegian (Bokm&aring;l) -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.nb.html">norsk (bokm&aring;l)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<!-- Norwegian (Bokmål) -->
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.nb.html">norsk (bokmål)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Albanian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Swedish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: gnu/po/gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- gnu/po/gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html     21 Nov 2011 09:27:02 -0000      1.1
+++ gnu/po/gnu-linux-faq.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 -0000      1.2
@@ -1352,7 +1352,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/11/21 09:27:02 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:28 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:16:57 
-0000      1.3
+++ gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 
-0000      1.4
@@ -2,35 +2,35 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ca.html">català
</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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 <li><a 
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 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Albanian -->
 <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: gnu/po/gnu.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/gnu.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/gnu.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:17:00 -0000      1.3
+++ gnu/po/gnu.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.4
@@ -2,39 +2,39 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
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-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Kannada -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.kn.html">&#xC95;&#xCA8;&#xCCD;&#xCA8;&#xCA1;</a>&nbsp;[kn]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.kn.html">ಕನ್ನಡ</a>&nbsp;[kn]</li>
 <!-- Macedonian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.mk.html">&#x043c;&#x0430;&#x043a;&#x0435;&#x0434;&#x043e;&#x043d;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
-<!-- Norwegian (Bokm&aring;l) -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.nb.html">norsk (bokm&aring;l)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.mk.html">македонски</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
+<!-- Norwegian (Bokmål) -->
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.nb.html">norsk (bokmål)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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 <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/gnu.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:16:57 -0000      
1.3
+++ gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      
1.4
@@ -2,23 +2,23 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
@@ -26,9 +26,9 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Albanian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
 <!-- Swedish -->

Index: gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html     21 Nov 2011 09:27:02 -0000      1.1
+++ gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.2
@@ -287,7 +287,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
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-$Date: 2011/11/21 09:27:02 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:29 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: gnu/po/manifesto.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/manifesto.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/manifesto.translist  25 Dec 2011 05:16:59 -0000      1.3
+++ gnu/po/manifesto.translist  26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.4
@@ -2,49 +2,49 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Croatian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Macedonian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.mk.html">&#x043c;&#x0430;&#x043a;&#x0435;&#x0434;&#x043e;&#x043d;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.mk.html">македонски</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Albanian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Swedish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist      25 Dec 2011 05:16:56 -0000      1.3
+++ gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist      26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.4
@@ -2,45 +2,45 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
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href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Albanian -->
 <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.sq.html">Shqip</a>&nbsp;[sq]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: graphics/agnuhead.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/graphics/agnuhead.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.13
retrieving revision 1.14
diff -u -b -r1.13 -r1.14
--- graphics/agnuhead.ru.html   20 Nov 2011 09:26:10 -0000      1.13
+++ graphics/agnuhead.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:28:35 -0000      1.14
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@
 формате PNG (1200x1200).</p>
 
 <p>Эта голова GNU была рисунком &ldquo;по 
умолчанию&rdquo; для этого сайта,
-включая <a href="/home.ru.html">домашнюю страницу 
GNU</a>.</p>
+включая <a href="/home.html">домашнюю страницу 
GNU</a>.</p>
 
 <p>Эта голова GNU также используется на 
передней стороне <a
 href="/order/t-shirts.html">футболки GNU</a> 1997&nbsp;года.  
Еще она есть
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/20 09:26:10 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:35 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: graphics/po/agnuhead.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/graphics/po/agnuhead.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- graphics/po/agnuhead.ru-en.html     20 Nov 2011 09:26:17 -0000      1.2
+++ graphics/po/agnuhead.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:40 -0000      1.3
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
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-$Date: 2011/11/20 09:26:17 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:40 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: graphics/po/agnuhead.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/graphics/po/agnuhead.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- graphics/po/agnuhead.translist      25 Dec 2011 05:19:26 -0000      1.2
+++ graphics/po/agnuhead.translist      26 Dec 2011 09:28:40 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,37 +2,37 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/graphics/agnuhead.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a href="/graphics/agnuhead.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: help/help.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/help/help.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.24
retrieving revision 1.25
diff -u -b -r1.24 -r1.25
--- help/help.ru.html   20 Sep 2011 17:13:00 -0000      1.24
+++ help/help.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:28:45 -0000      1.25
@@ -122,8 +122,8 @@
 
         <li>объясняя друзьям, что операционную 
систему &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; на самом деле
 следует называть <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>, т.е. 
система
-GNU + ядро Linux; просто последовательно и 
безошибочно подчёркивая различия
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;</a>, т.е. 
система GNU
++ ядро Linux; просто последовательно и 
безошибочно подчёркивая различия
 между GNU/Linux как системой в целом и ядром 
Linux, когда пишете или
 говорите об этой операционной системе, вы <a
 href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">очень нам поможете</a>. Это 
будет занимать
@@ -245,11 +245,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:13:00 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:45 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -277,6 +279,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/help/help.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -312,7 +315,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/help/help.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/help/help.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: help/po/help.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/help/po/help.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- help/po/help.translist      25 Dec 2011 05:13:34 -0000      1.2
+++ help/po/help.translist      26 Dec 2011 09:28:50 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,23 +2,23 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/help/help.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bosnian -->
 <li><a href="/help/help.bs.html">bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/help/help.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/help/help.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/help/help.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/help/help.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/help/help.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/help/help.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/help/help.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/help/help.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
@@ -28,13 +28,13 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/help/help.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/help/help.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.pt-br.html">português do Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/help/help.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/help/help.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/help/help.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a href="/help/help.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html    13 Dec 2011 09:26:54 -0000      1.3
+++ licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:28:55 -0000      1.4
@@ -632,7 +632,7 @@
 Вовсе нет&nbsp;&mdash; есть много других 
лицензий свободных программ. У нас
 есть <a href="/licenses/license-list.html">неполный 
список</a>. Любая
 лицензия, которая предоставляет 
пользователю <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">определенные особые 
свободы</a> является
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">определенные особые 
свободы</a> является
 лицензией свободных программ.</p></dd>
 
 
@@ -640,12 +640,12 @@
 программ? <span class="anchor-reference-id">(<a href="#WhyUseGPL"
 >#WhyUseGPL</a>)</span></dt>
 <dd><p>
-GNU GPL требует, чтобы все <a
-href="/philosophy/pragmatic.ru.html">выпущенные улучшенные 
версии были
-свободными программами</a>. Это значит, что 
вы избегаете риска необходимости
-конкурировать с несвободной измененной 
версией вашей собственной
-работы. Однако в некоторых особых 
ситуациях может быть лучше пользоваться <a
-href="/licenses/why-not-lgpl.ru.html">более либеральной 
лицензией</a>.</p></dd>
+GNU GPL требует, чтобы все <a 
href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">выпущенные
+улучшенные версии были свободными 
программами</a>. Это значит, что вы
+избегаете риска необходимости 
конкурировать с несвободной измененной 
версией
+вашей собственной работы. Однако в 
некоторых особых ситуациях может быть
+лучше пользоваться <a 
href="/licenses/why-not-lgpl.ru.html">более
+либеральной лицензией</a>.</p></dd>
 
 
 <dt id="DoesAllGNUSoftwareUseTheGNUGPLAsItsLicense">Все ли 
программы GNU используют в качестве 
лицензии GNU GPL? <span
@@ -836,7 +836,7 @@
 Нет. Фактически подобное требование 
сделало бы программу несвободной. Если
 люди должны платить, когда они получают 
копию программы, или если они должны
 оповещать кого-то конкретно, то программа 
не свободна. См.&nbsp;<a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">определение свободной 
программы</a>.</p>
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">определение свободной 
программы</a>.</p>
 
 <p>GPL&nbsp;&mdash; лицензия свободных программ, и 
следовательно, она разрешает
 людям использовать и даже распространять 
программу без требования платить за
@@ -1327,7 +1327,7 @@
 работы, то она находится в общественном 
достоянии, то есть исключительное
 авторское право на нее не 
распространяется. Поскольку GNU GPL основана 
на
 авторском праве, такую программу нельзя 
выпустить под GNU GPL (что, однако,
-не мешает ей быть <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободной</a>:
+не мешает ей быть <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободной</a>:
 программа в общественном достоянии 
свободна).</p>
 
 <p>Однако когда федеральное 
государственное агентство США применяет 
для
@@ -1787,7 +1787,7 @@
 <dd><p>
 Она работает в соответствии с тем, как она 
составлена, для чего
 предназначена и так, как это задумано. 
Подробности см. в <a
-href="/licenses/lgpl-java.ru.html">отдельной 
статье</a>.</p></dd>
+href="/licenses/lgpl-java.html">отдельной статье</a>.</p></dd>
 
 
 <dt id="Consider">Рассмотрим ситуацию: 1) X 
выпускает версию V1 проекта под GPL. 2) Y вносит
@@ -1935,7 +1935,7 @@
 >#ModifiedJustBinary</a>)</span></dt>
 <dd><p>
 Нет. Весь смысл GPL заключается в том, что 
все модифицированные версии
-должны быть <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободными
+должны быть <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободными
 программами</a>&nbsp;&mdash; что означает, в 
частности, что исходный текст
 модифицированной версии доступен 
пользователям.</p></dd>
 
@@ -3531,7 +3531,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/13 09:26:54 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:55 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html    24 Dec 2011 17:28:17 -0000      
1.2
+++ licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:28:55 -0000      
1.3
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@
 лицензией без авторского лева. Если 
версия, которую вы создали, значительно
 полезнее, чем первоначальная, то к вашей 
работе имеет смысл применить
 авторское лево&nbsp;&mdash; по тем же <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">причинам, по которым мы 
обычно рекомендуем
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">причинам, по которым мы 
обычно рекомендуем
 авторское лево</a>. Если вы оказались в 
такой ситуации, следуйте,
 пожалуйста, нашим рекомендациям по 
лицензированию нового проекта.</p>
 
@@ -54,10 +54,9 @@
 <p>Мы рекомендуем разные лицензии для 
разных проектов в зависимости, главным
 образом, от назначения программ. В целом мы 
рекомендуем применять лицензию с
 наиболее сильным авторским левом, которое 
не мешало бы назначению
-программ. В нашем очерке <a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">&ldquo;Что
-такое авторское лево?&rdquo;</a> подробнее 
разъясняется понятие авторского
-лева и рассказывается, почему это, как 
правило, наилучшая стратегия
-лицензирования.</p>
+программ. В нашем очерке <a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">&ldquo;Что такое
+авторское лево?&rdquo;</a> подробнее 
разъясняется понятие авторского лева и
+рассказывается, почему это, как правило, 
наилучшая стратегия лицензирования.</p>
 
 <p>Есть только пара разновидностей 
проектов, в которых, как мы думаем, вообще
 не должно быть авторского лева. 
Первый&nbsp;&mdash; очень небольшие
@@ -100,7 +99,7 @@
 авторское лево, выгоды от которого могут 
получать пользователи, когда
 библиотеку используют они. Если вы хотите 
узнать подробнее о наших
 соображениях насчет этих случаев, 
прочтите статью <a
-href="/licenses/why-not-lgpl.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему вам не 
следует применять
+href="/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html">&ldquo;Почему вам не 
следует применять
 Меньшую GPL для своей следующей 
библиотеки&rdquo;</a>.</p>
 
 <p>Если вероятно, что программы вашего 
проекта будут выполняться на сервере
@@ -114,9 +113,9 @@
 смогут получить ее исходный текст. Это 
условие не решает всех проблем,
 которые могут возникнуть, когда 
пользователи проводят свои вычисления на
 сервере&nbsp;&mdash; оно не предохраняет 
пользователей от <a
-href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.ru.html">вреда,
-наносимого программами-услугами</a>,&mdash; но 
оно делает для этого все, что
-можно сделать в лицензии. Подробнее об этих
 вопросах см. в статье <a
+href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html">вреда, 
наносимого
+программами-услугами</a>,&mdash; но оно делает 
для этого все, что можно
+сделать в лицензии. Подробнее об этих 
вопросах см. в статье <a
 href="/licenses/why-affero-gpl.html">&ldquo;Почему GPL 
Афферо?&rdquo;</a></p>
 
 <p>Во всех других случаях мы рекомендуем 
вам применять для своего проекта
@@ -214,7 +213,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/24 17:28:17 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:55 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html  12 Dec 2011 09:27:31 -0000      1.1
+++ licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html  26 Dec 2011 09:28:55 -0000      1.2
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
 <li>свобода обмениваться изменениями, 
которые вы внесли.</li>
 </ul>
 <p>Когда программа предлагает 
пользователям все эти свободы, мы называем 
ее <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободной 
программой</a>.</p>
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободной 
программой</a>.</p>
 <p>Разработчики, пишущие программу, могут 
выпустить ее на условиях GNU
 GPL. Когда они это сделают, программа станет 
и навсегда останется свободной
 независимо от того, кто ее изменяет и 
распространяет. Мы называем это
@@ -307,14 +307,14 @@
 <p>Если вы хотите узнать больше о переводе 
своего проекта на GPLv3, Лаборатория
 лицензирования ФСПО с радостью вам 
поможет. На <a class="reference external"
 href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/";>нашем сайте</a> вы 
найдете <a class=
-"reference external" href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl-
-howto.html"> основные указания по применению 
лицензии</a> и <a class=
-"reference external" href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl-faq.
-html">Ответы на общие вопросы</a> о ней, 
которыми интересуются люди. В более
-сложной ситуации <a class="reference external" href="mailto:
-licensing&#64;fsf.org">обращайтесь, пожалуйста, к 
нам</a>, и мы сделаем все
-возможное, чтобы помочь вам в переходе. 
Вместе мы поможем защитить свободу
-всех пользователей.</p>
+"reference external"
+href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl-howto.html";> основные
+указания по применению лицензии</a> и <a 
class="reference external"
+href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl-faq.html";>Ответы на 
общие
+вопросы</a> о ней, которыми интересуются 
люди. В более сложной ситуации <a
+class="reference external" 
href="mailto:licensing&#64;fsf.org";>обращайтесь,
+пожалуйста, к нам</a>, и мы сделаем все 
возможное, чтобы помочь вам в
+переходе. Вместе мы поможем защитить 
свободу всех пользователей.</p>
 </div>
 
 <!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
@@ -373,7 +373,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/12 09:27:31 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:55 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: licenses/translations.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/translations.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.17
retrieving revision 1.18
diff -u -b -r1.17 -r1.18
--- licenses/translations.ru.html       4 Dec 2011 17:26:28 -0000       1.17
+++ licenses/translations.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:28:55 -0000      1.18
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 понять наши лицензии. Для этого переводы 
должны быть в основном точны, даже
 если они не совершенны. Чтобы сделать х
ороший перевод, важно до конца понять
 такие основополагающие концепции, как <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторское лево</a>, и <a
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторское лево</a>, и <a
 href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">определение свободной 
программы</a>. По
 этой причине люди, желающие предоставить 
перевод, должны убедиться, что они
 хорошо знакомы и с этими понятиями, и с 
другими философскими принципами,
@@ -481,7 +481,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/04 17:26:28 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:55 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: licenses/po/gpl-faq.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/gpl-faq.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- licenses/po/gpl-faq.ru-en.html      13 Dec 2011 09:26:59 -0000      1.2
+++ licenses/po/gpl-faq.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 -0000      1.3
@@ -3571,7 +3571,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/13 09:26:59 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:01 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: licenses/po/gpl-faq.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/gpl-faq.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- licenses/po/gpl-faq.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:21:55 -0000      1.4
+++ licenses/po/gpl-faq.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 -0000      1.5
@@ -2,27 +2,27 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: licenses/po/license-recommendations.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/license-recommendations.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- licenses/po/license-recommendations.ru-en.html      24 Dec 2011 17:28:22 
-0000      1.2
+++ licenses/po/license-recommendations.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 
-0000      1.3
@@ -184,7 +184,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/24 17:28:22 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:01 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: licenses/po/license-recommendations.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/license-recommendations.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- licenses/po/license-recommendations.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:21:55 
-0000      1.3
+++ licenses/po/license-recommendations.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 
-0000      1.4
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/licenses/license-recommendations.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/licenses/license-recommendations.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html    12 Dec 2011 09:27:36 -0000      
1.1
+++ licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.ru-en.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 -0000      
1.2
@@ -324,7 +324,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/12 09:27:36 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:01 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.translist     25 Dec 2011 05:21:54 -0000      
1.4
+++ licenses/po/quick-guide-gplv3.translist     26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 -0000      
1.5
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/licenses/quick-guide-gplv3.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: licenses/po/translations.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/translations.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- licenses/po/translations.ru-en.html 4 Dec 2011 17:26:34 -0000       1.7
+++ licenses/po/translations.ru-en.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:01 -0000      1.8
@@ -414,7 +414,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/04 17:26:34 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:01 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/bsd.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/bsd.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.8
retrieving revision 1.9
diff -u -b -r1.8 -r1.9
--- philosophy/bsd.ru.html      20 Sep 2011 17:15:10 -0000      1.8
+++ philosophy/bsd.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:10 -0000      1.9
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
 <!-- language, where necessary. -->
 <p>
     Лицензии свободных программ делятся на 
две большие категории: лицензии <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html"> с авторским левом </a> и <a
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html"> с авторским левом </a> и <a
 href="/philosophy/categories.ru.html#Non-CopyleftedFreeSoftware"> без
 авторского лева </a>.  <a
 href="/licenses/license-list.html#GPLCompatibleLicenses">Лицензии с
@@ -191,11 +191,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:10 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:10 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -221,6 +223,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Catalan -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
@@ -246,7 +249,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/bsd.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/categories.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/categories.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.11
retrieving revision 1.12
diff -u -b -r1.11 -r1.12
--- philosophy/categories.ru.html       15 Nov 2011 01:34:18 -0000      1.11
+++ philosophy/categories.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:12 -0000      1.12
@@ -31,11 +31,11 @@
 без них, за плату или безвозмездно. В 
частности, это означает, что исходный
 текст должен быть доступен: &ldquo;Без исх
одного текста нет
 программы&rdquo;. Это упрощенное описание; см. 
также <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">полное определение</a>.</p>
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">полное определение</a>.</p>
 
        <p>Если программа свободна, то она в 
принципе может входить в такую свободную
 операционную систему, как GNU, или в 
свободные версии <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">системы GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">системы GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
 
        <p>Есть много способов сделать 
программу свободной&nbsp;&mdash; много вопросов
 о деталях, которые можно решить по-разному, 
делая при этом программу
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@
 "/philosophy/fs-translations.html">переводов выражения 
&ldquo;свободные
 программы&rdquo;</a> на различные языки.</p>
 
-       <p>Свободные программы часто <a 
href="/software/reliability.ru.html">более
+       <p>Свободные программы часто <a 
href="/software/reliability.html">более
 надежны</a>, чем несвободные.</p>
 
 <h3 id="OpenSource">Программы с открытым исходным 
текстом</h3>
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@
 исходным текстом, и почти все программы с 
открытым исходным текстом
 свободны.</p>
        <p>Мы предпочитаем термин &ldquo;<a href=
-"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">свободные
+"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">свободные
 программы</a>&rdquo;, потому что он 
подразумевает свободу&nbsp;&mdash; то,
 чего термин &ldquo;открытый исходный 
текст&rdquo; не подразумевает. </p>
 
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@
 <em>каждому</em> пользователю свободы, 
подразумеваемые термином
 &ldquo;свободная программа&rdquo;. Более 
подробное объяснение того, как
 работает авторское лево и почему мы 
применяем его, см. в нашей <a href=
-"/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">статье об авторском 
леве</a>.</p>
+"/copyleft/copyleft.html">статье об авторском 
леве</a>.</p>
 
        <p>Авторское лево&nbsp;&mdash; абстрактная 
идея; чтобы применить его к
 конкретной программе, необходимо 
воспользоваться особым набором условий
@@ -176,14 +176,14 @@
 по крайней мере, были) популярные ЭВМ и 
графические платы персональных
 компьютеров, с которыми могли работать 
только несвободные версии. Если вы
 пользуетесь этой аппаратурой, то X11 для вас 
не свободна. <a
-href="/philosophy/x.ru.html">Разработчики X11 даже 
сделали X11
-несвободной</a> на некоторое время; они 
могли сделать это потому, что другие
-добавляли тексты программ под той же самой 
лицензией без авторского лева.</p>
+href="/philosophy/x.html">Разработчики X11 даже сделали 
X11 несвободной</a>
+на некоторое время; они могли сделать это 
потому, что другие добавляли
+тексты программ под той же самой лицензией 
без авторского лева.</p>
 
 <h3 id="LaxPermissiveLicensedSoftware">Программы с 
безрассудно либеральной лицензией</h3>
 
        <p>Безрассудно либеральные лицензии 
включают лицензию X11 и <a
-href="bsd.ru.html">две лицензии BSD</a>. Эти лицензии 
допускают почти любое
+href="bsd.html">две лицензии BSD</a>. Эти лицензии 
допускают почти любое
 применение исходного текста, включая 
несвободное распространение
 оттранслированных файлов с изменениями 
исходного текста или без них.</p>
 
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@
 
 <h3 id="TheGNUsystem">Операционная система GNU</h3>
 
-       <p><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">Операционная 
система GNU</a>&nbsp;&mdash;
+       <p><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">Операционная 
система GNU</a>&nbsp;&mdash;
 полностью свободная операционная система 
типа Unix, которую мы развиваем в
 рамках проекта GNU с 1984&nbsp;года.</p>
 
@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@
 2001&nbsp;году система GNU (включая GNU Hurd) начала 
работать вполне
 надежно, но ядру Hurd до сих пор не хватает 
некоторых важных особенностей,
 так что широко его не используют. Между тем 
<a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">система GNU/Linux</a>, 
ответвление
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">система GNU/Linux</a>, 
ответвление
 операционной системы GNU, в котором в 
качестве ядра вместо GNU Hurd
 применяется Linux, пользуется большим успех
ом начиная с девяностых годов.</p>
 
@@ -232,15 +232,15 @@
 <h3 id="GNUsoftware">Программы GNU</h3>
 
        <p><a href="/software/software.html">Программы 
GNU</a>&nbsp;&mdash; это
-программы, выпускаемые под эгидой <a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">проекта
+программы, выпускаемые под эгидой <a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">проекта
 GNU</a>. Если программа является программой 
GNU, мы также говорим, что
 это&nbsp;&mdash; пакет GNU. Это должно быть 
указано в руководстве
 пользователя или файле README пакета. Кроме 
того, все пакеты GNU отмечены в
 <a href="/directory">Каталоге свободных 
программ</a>.</p>
 
        <p>Большинство программ GNU выпускается 
с <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторским левом</a>, хотя 
некоторые
-программы выпускаются без него; однако все 
программы GNU должны быть <a
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторским левом</a>, хотя 
некоторые программы
+выпускаются без него; однако все программы 
GNU должны быть <a
 href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободными</a>.</p>
 
        <p>Некоторые программы GNU были написаны 
<a href=
@@ -419,7 +419,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/15 01:34:18 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:12 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: philosophy/compromise.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/compromise.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.9
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -b -r1.9 -r1.10
--- philosophy/compromise.ru.html       20 Sep 2011 17:15:13 -0000      1.9
+++ philosophy/compromise.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      1.10
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 <div style="float: right; font-size: 90%; width: 30em; margin: 1em;
 background-color: #ececec; padding: 1em; -moz-border-radius: 1em;
 margin-top: 4em;"><p><em>&ldquo;Двадцать пять лет назад, <a
-href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html"> 27 сентября 1983 года,
+href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html"> 27 сентября 1983 года,
 я объявил о плане</a>
 создать полностью свободную операционную 
систему под названием
 GNU, что означает
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 я написал эту статью о том, как наше 
сообщество может
 избежать разрушительных компромиссов. 
Кроме отказа от таких
 компромиссов у вас есть еще много способов
-<a href="/help/help.ru.html">помочь GNU</a> и свободным 
программам. Один из
+<a href="/help/help.html">помочь GNU</a> и свободным 
программам. Один из
 простейших способов&nbsp;&mdash;
 <a
 
href="https://www.fsf.org/associate/support_freedom/join_fsf?referrer=4052";>присоединиться
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
 
 <p>Цель движения за свободное программное 
обеспечение&nbsp;&mdash;
 социальная перемена: <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">сделать все программное
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">сделать все программное
 обеспечение свободным</a>, чтобы все 
пользователи программ были свободны и
 могли быть частью сообщества взаимопомощи.
 Каждая несвободная программа дает своему 
разработчику
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@
 
 <p>Но мы отказываемся от определенных 
компромиссов, даже если многие в
 нашем сообществе хотят пойти на них. 
Например, мы <a
-href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">одобряем
+href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html">одобряем
 только те дистрибутивы GNU/Linux</a>, у которых 
есть политика
 не включать несвободные программы и не 
побуждать
 пользователей устанавливать их. Одобрять 
несвободные дистрибутивы
@@ -126,7 +126,7 @@
 <p>Философия открытого исходного текста 
предполагает и взывает к
 потребительским ценностям, а это 
укрепляет и утверждает их.
 Вот почему мы <a
-href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">не
+href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">не
 поддерживаем открытый исходный текст</a>.</p>
 
 <img src="/graphics/gnulaptop.png" alt="" style="float: right;" />
@@ -162,7 +162,7 @@
 
 <p>Например, опыт показывает, что можно 
привлечь
 больше пользователей к системе
-<a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>, если включить
+<a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">GNU/Linux</a>, если включить
 некоторые несвободные программы. Это 
может быть хитроумное
 несвободное приложение, привлекательное 
для некоторых
 пользователей, или несвободная платформа 
программирования, такая,
@@ -211,9 +211,8 @@
 фонда</a>.
 Там перечислены аппаратура и конфигурации 
ЭВМ, которые
 работают со свободными программами, <a
-href="/distros/distros.ru.html">полностью свободные 
дистрибутивы
-GNU/Linux</a> и тысячи пакетов свободных 
программ, которые работают в
-стопроцентно
+href="/distros/distros.html">полностью свободные 
дистрибутивы GNU/Linux</a>
+и тысячи пакетов свободных программ, 
которые работают в стопроцентно
 свободной программной среде. Если вы х
отите помочь сообществу
 оставаться на пути к свободе, один из 
важных способов&nbsp;&mdash;
 открыто поддерживать гражданские 
ценности. Когда обсуждают, что хорошо, а
@@ -295,11 +294,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:13 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -331,6 +332,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
@@ -352,7 +354,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html    20 Sep 2011 17:15:14 -0000      1.7
+++ philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      1.8
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 почему всем это кажется удивительным: 
правовая охрана работ под этой
 лицензией&nbsp;&mdash; это то, что я делаю 
постоянно.</p>
 
-<p>Концепция <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободной 
программы</a> не
+<p>Концепция <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободной 
программы</a> не
 является общепринятой в современном 
обществе, поэтому люди склонны
 предполагать, что такой нетипичной цели 
можно достичь только с помощью особо
 хитроумного и потому хрупкого 
юридического аппарата. Однако такое
@@ -238,10 +238,12 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
 Перевод: Елена Тяпкина, 19 февраля 2002.</div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:14 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -268,6 +270,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
@@ -295,7 +298,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html        20 Sep 2011 17:15:18 
-0000      1.7
+++ philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 
-0000      1.8
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
 <!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
 <!-- language, where necessary. -->
 <div class="announcement">
-<blockquote><p><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">&ldquo;Почему
+<blockquote><p><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">&ldquo;Почему
 &lsquo;открытый исходный текст&rsquo; не 
передает понятия &lsquo;свободная
 программа&rsquo;&rdquo;</a>&nbsp;&mdash; обновленная 
версия этой статьи.</p></blockquote>
 </div>
@@ -482,11 +482,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:18 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -512,6 +514,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
@@ -543,7 +546,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html      20 Sep 2011 17:15:19 -0000      
1.5
+++ philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      
1.6
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 
 <p>
 Люди пользуются свободными операционными 
системами, такими, как
-<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>, по разным
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>, по разным
 причинам. Многие пользователи переходят 
на них по практическим
 соображениям: потому, что эта система 
эффективна, потому, что она надежна,
 или из-за удобства, которое дает 
возможность изменять программы,
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 <p>
 Идея движения за свободное программное 
обеспечение состоит
 в том, что у пользователей компьютеров <a
-href="/philosophy/why-free.ru.html">должно быть право
+href="/philosophy/why-free.html">должно быть право
 формировать сообщество</a>. У вас должна 
быть свобода помогать
 самим себе, изменяя исходный текст 
программ, чтобы они делали то, что вам
 нужно, и свобода помогать своему ближнему, 
передавая копии программ другим
@@ -44,10 +44,9 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>
-Наше <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">подробное 
определение</a>
-свободной программы показывает, как мы 
оцениваем лицензию, чтобы понять,
-делает ли она программы свободными.  У нас 
есть также определенное
-количество статей о <a
+Наше <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">подробное 
определение</a> свободной
+программы показывает, как мы оцениваем 
лицензию, чтобы понять, делает ли она
+программы свободными.  У нас есть также 
определенное количество статей о <a
 
href="/philosophy/essays-and-articles.html#LicensingFreeSoftware">конкретныÑ
…
 лицензиях</a>, объясняющих достоинства и 
недостатки некоторых лицензий,
 которые подходят под определение, и почему 
некоторые другие лицензии слишком
@@ -57,7 +56,7 @@
 <p>
 В 1998 году возник термин &ldquo;открытый исх
одный текст&rdquo;;
 он стал употребляться в связи со <a
-href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">взглядами,
+href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">взглядами,
 которые значительно отличаются от наших
</a>. Люди, разделяющие эти
 взгляды, обращают внимание только на 
практические достоинства
 свободных программ и тщательно избегают 
более глубоких вопросов
@@ -118,11 +117,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:19 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -149,6 +150,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -166,7 +168,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/free-sw.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.11
retrieving revision 1.12
diff -u -b -r1.11 -r1.12
--- philosophy/free-sw.ru.html  30 Nov 2011 01:26:44 -0000      1.11
+++ philosophy/free-sw.ru.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      1.12
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@
 Свобода 3 распространяется на свободу 
выпускать версии с вашими изменениями
 как свободные программы. Свободная 
лицензия может допускать также другие
 способы выпуска этих версий; другими 
словами, она не обязательно должна быть
-лицензией с <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторским 
левом</a>. Однако
+лицензией с <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторским 
левом</a>. Однако
 лицензия, которая требует, чтобы 
измененные версии были несвободны, не может
 считаться свободной.
 </p>
@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@
 важны. Может быть, вы заплатили деньги за 
то, чтобы получить свободные
 программы, а может быть, они вам достались 
бесплатно. Но независимо от того,
 как вы получили свои копии, вы всегда 
вольны копировать и изменять программы
-и даже <a href="/philosophy/selling.ru.html">продавать 
копии</a>.
+и даже <a href="/philosophy/selling.html">продавать 
копии</a>.
 </p>
 
 <p>
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>
-В проекте GNU мы пользуемся <a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторским
+В проекте GNU мы пользуемся <a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторским
 левом</a>, чтобы юридически защитить эти 
свободы для каждого. Но <a
 
href="/philosophy/categories.ru.html#Non-CopyleftedFreeSoftware">свободные
 программы без авторского лева</a> тоже 
существуют. Мы убеждены, что <a
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/30 01:26:44 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html 20 Oct 2011 08:45:04 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      
1.3
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@
 приучили к тому, что авторское право 
существует для &ldquo;защиты&rdquo;
 правообладателей, откуда следует, что 
общественные интересы значения не
 имеют. (Тенденциозный термин &ldquo;<a
-href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">интеллектуальная 
собственность</a>&rdquo;
+href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">интеллектуальная 
собственность</a>&rdquo;
 также поддерживает эту точку зрения; кроме 
того, он поощряет ошибочные
 попытки рассмотрения нескольких почти 
совершенно различных
 законов&nbsp;&mdash; таких, как авторское право 
и патентное
@@ -177,11 +177,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/10/20 08:45:04 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -206,6 +208,7 @@
 <!--       http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- German -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> 
-->
@@ -229,7 +232,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html">&#x0420;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->

Index: philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html 20 Sep 2011 17:15:21 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:13 -0000      1.7
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
 рассуждая о том, какие свободы необходимы 
для приличной жизни и
 дают возможность полезным программам 
воспитывать сообщество
 доброй воли, сотрудничества и 
взаимопомощи. <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">Наши критерии свободы
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">Наши критерии свободы
 программ</a>
 определяют свободы, которые нужны 
пользователям программы, чтобы
 они могли сотрудничать в сообществе.</p>
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@
 точно так же, как &ldquo;Билль о правах&rdquo; был 
предложен, чтобы
 употребить власть государства на 
обеспечение свободы каждого
 гражданина. Именно для этого 
предназначена <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">Стандартная 
общественная лицензия GNU</a>:
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">Стандартная общественная 
лицензия GNU</a>:
 она передает вам контроль над тем, как вы 
применяете программу, в то же
 время <a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html">защищая вас 
от тех</a>,
 кому хотелось бы получить контроль над 
вашими решениями.</p>
@@ -189,11 +189,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:21 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:13 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -220,6 +222,7 @@
 <!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Czech -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
@@ -247,7 +250,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/gif.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/gif.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.12
retrieving revision 1.13
diff -u -b -r1.12 -r1.13
--- philosophy/gif.ru.html      20 Sep 2011 17:15:23 -0000      1.12
+++ philosophy/gif.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.13
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
 
 <p>
 К сожалению, это не распространяется на <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободные программы</a>, 
которые можно
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободные программы</a>, 
которые можно
 использовать в такой свободной 
операционной системе, как GNU. Это также не
 имеет <em>никакого</em> отношения к 
применению алгоритма LZW в других целях,
 например, для сжатия файлов. Вот почему мы 
считаем, что все равно лучше
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>
-<a href="/philosophy/selling.ru.html">Коммерческое 
распространение свободных
+<a href="/philosophy/selling.html">Коммерческое 
распространение свободных
 программ</a> имеет очень большое значение, и 
мы хотим, чтобы систему GNU в
 целом распространяли коммерчески. Это 
значит, что мы не можем добавить
 программу, генерирующую файлы GIF (во всяком 
случае, на условиях Unisys).
@@ -263,11 +263,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:23 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -294,6 +296,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Catalan -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
@@ -319,7 +322,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Serbian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.sr.html">&#x0421;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/gnutella.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/gnutella.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.13
retrieving revision 1.14
diff -u -b -r1.13 -r1.14
--- philosophy/gnutella.ru.html 20 Sep 2011 17:15:23 -0000      1.13
+++ philosophy/gnutella.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.14
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
 какого-нибудь человека или компании есть 
естественное право запрещать обмен
 и диктовать, как именно людям разрешено 
пользоваться информацией. Даже
 правовая система США номинально <a
-href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html">отвергает</a> эту
+href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.html">отвергает</a> эту
 антиобщественную идею.</p>
 
 <!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
@@ -112,11 +112,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:23 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -142,6 +144,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Bosnian -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.bs.html">Bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li> -->
@@ -177,7 +180,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese(Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html        20 Sep 2011 17:15:30 -0000      
1.6
+++ philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      
1.7
@@ -150,10 +150,10 @@
 к нашим словам, и они от нас услышат: 
&ldquo;Эта система существует
 благодаря тем, кому небезразлична свобода. 
Присоединяйтесь к нам, цените
 свою свободу, и вместе мы сохраним ее&rdquo;. 
См. историю проекта на <a
-href="http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.ru.html";>http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.ru.html</a>.</p>
+href="http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html";>http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.ru.html</a>.</p>
 <p>
   Когда я прошу называть систему 
&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;, некоторые отвечают
-<a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.ru.html">глупыми оправданиями 
и ничтожными
+<a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">глупыми оправданиями и 
ничтожными
 аргументами</a>. Но мы, вероятно, ничего не 
теряем&nbsp;&mdash;
 хотя бы потому, что они, скорее всего, 
недружелюбно настроены. В то же время
 другие соглашаются с моими аргументами и 
употребляют это название. Этим
@@ -249,7 +249,7 @@
   <strong><a name="update">Обновление:</a></strong> С 2005 года
 BitKeeper больше не применяется для управления 
исходными
 текстами ядра Linux. См. статью  <a
-href="/philosophy/mcvoy.ru.html">&ldquo;Спасибо, Ларри
+href="/philosophy/mcvoy.html">&ldquo;Спасибо, Ларри
 Мак-Вой&rdquo;</a>. Исходные тексты Linux все еще 
содержат несвободные
 кляксы
 с программами для устройств, но с января 2008 
года поддерживается <a
@@ -309,11 +309,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:30 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -338,6 +340,7 @@
 <!--       http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Czech -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
@@ -363,7 +366,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese(Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->

Index: philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html      20 Sep 2011 17:15:31 -0000      
1.5
+++ philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      
1.6
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 альтернативные способы расстаться со 
своей свободой.</p>
 <p>
 Так что я предлагаю три меры, которые 
помогли бы таким <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободным</a> 
операционным системам, как
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободным</a> 
операционным системам, как
 GNU/Linux, быть конкурентоспособными тех
нически, уважая в то же время
 свободу пользователей. Эти три меры 
направлены на прямое устранение трех
 самых больших затруднений при разработке 
свободных операционных систем и
@@ -154,11 +154,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:31 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -188,6 +190,7 @@
 <!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Catalan -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
@@ -211,7 +214,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html">&#x0420;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html    20 Sep 2011 17:15:31 -0000      1.5
+++ philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.6
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 <h2>Microsoft: враг рода человеческого? </h2>
 
 <div class="announcement">
-<blockquote><p>Есть <a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html">обновленная версия</a> 
этой
+<blockquote><p>Есть <a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.html">обновленная версия</a> 
этой
 статьи.</p></blockquote>
 </div>
 
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
 
 <p>Это сказано не в оправдание Microsoft; мы х
отим сказать этим, что
 Microsoft&nbsp;&mdash; это естественное явление 
отрасли программирования,
-основанной на <a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html">разобщении
+основанной на <a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">разобщении
 пользователей и отнятии у них свободы</a>. 
Критикуя Microsoft, мы не должны
 обходить стороной другие компании, 
которые тоже производят несвободные
 программы. В ФСПО мы не работаем ни с 
какими несвободными программами: ни с
@@ -57,8 +57,7 @@
 если бы компания Microsoft нас совсем не 
замечала. В действительности
 единственное значение &ldquo;хэллоуинских 
документов&rdquo; состоит в том,
 что Microsoft, по-видимому, считает, что система 
<a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a> может достичь 
большого
-успеха.</p>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> может достичь 
большого успеха.</p>
 
 <p>Спасибо вам, Microsoft; будьте любезны, не 
стойте на пути!</p>
 
@@ -100,11 +99,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:31 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -131,6 +132,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -166,7 +168,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Serbian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.sr.html">&#1089;&#1088;&#1087;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html        20 Sep 2011 17:15:32 -0000      
1.7
+++ philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      
1.8
@@ -16,8 +16,8 @@
 <!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
 <!-- language, where necessary. -->
 <p>
-Многие пользователи <a 
href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>
-думают об этой системе как о конкуренте 
Microsoft. Но движение за свободное
+Многие пользователи <a 
href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> думают
+об этой системе как о конкуренте Microsoft. Но 
движение за свободное
 программное обеспечение направлено на 
решение проблемы, гораздо большей, чем
 Microsoft: проблемы несвободных программ, 
которые разрабатывают так, чтобы
 оставить пользователей беспомощными и 
помешать
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
 Microsoft, могли бы найти возможность более 
агрессивного наступления на
 свободное программное обеспечение, чем 
нынешняя объединенная компания.</p>
 <p>
-Я <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html">предложил 
меры</a> для
+Я <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.html">предложил 
меры</a> для
 этого процесса, которые помогли бы 
свободным программам конкурировать с
 Microsoft: например, потребовать от Microsoft 
публиковать документацию всех
 протоколов и пользоваться патентами 
только для защиты, а не для
@@ -109,11 +109,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:32 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -139,6 +141,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Catalan -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
@@ -162,7 +165,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/microsoft.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- philosophy/microsoft.ru.html        20 Sep 2011 17:15:33 -0000      1.7
+++ philosophy/microsoft.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.8
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
 <blockquote><p>Эта статья была серьезно 
переработана в 2009&nbsp;году. <a
-href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html">Старая версия</a> 
тоже доступна.</p></blockquote>
+href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.html">Старая версия</a> тоже 
доступна.</p></blockquote>
 </div>
 
 <p>Многие думают о Microsoft как об ужасном 
страшилище в отрасли
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 
 <p>Это сказано не в оправдание Microsoft; мы х
отим сказать этим, что
 Microsoft&nbsp;&mdash; это естественное явление 
отрасли программирования,
-основанной на <a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html">разобщении
+основанной на <a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">разобщении
 пользователей и порабощении их</a>. 
Критикуя Microsoft, мы не должны
 сосредоточиваться на Microsoft настолько узко, 
чтобы позволить другим
 разработчикам несвободных программ сойти 
с крючка.</p>
@@ -47,13 +47,12 @@
 <p>Нет нужды отказываться от непрограммных 
продуктов Microsoft или от услуг,
 которые вы можете получить без несвободных
 программ. (Когда вы пользуетесь
 службами Интернета, все равно, 
предоставляет их Microsoft или другая фирма,
-обратите внимание на <a
-href="/philosophy/javascript-trap.ru.html">несвободные 
программы на языке
-JavaScript</a>, которые могут попытаться 
проскользнуть в ваш браузер.) Когда
-Microsoft выпускает свободные программы, а она 
изредка делает это, они
-теоретически приемлемы; но большинство из 
них принципиально зависит от
-несвободных программ Microsoft, а от них нам 
отказываться нужно, и это
-делает их бесполезными для каждого, кто 
выбирает свободную жизнь.</p>
+обратите внимание на <a 
href="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html">несвободные
+программы на языке JavaScript</a>, которые могут 
попытаться проскользнуть в
+ваш браузер.) Когда Microsoft выпускает 
свободные программы, а она изредка
+делает это, они теоретически приемлемы; но 
большинство из них принципиально
+зависит от несвободных программ Microsoft, а от 
них нам отказываться нужно,
+и это делает их бесполезными для каждого, 
кто выбирает свободную жизнь.</p>
 
 <p>В &ldquo;хэллоуинских документах&rdquo;, 
получивших огласку в октябре
 1998&nbsp;года, руководители Microsoft выказали 
намерение применять
@@ -140,11 +139,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:33 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -171,6 +172,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -186,7 +188,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html     20 Sep 2011 17:15:34 -0000      1.4
+++ philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.5
@@ -15,9 +15,9 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
 <blockquote><p>
-(<a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl-old.ru.html">Первоначальная 
версия</a>
-этой статьи была написана в марте 
1998&nbsp;года о черновой редакции
-NPL. Нашей первой статьей на эту тему была <a
+(<a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl-old.html">Первоначальная 
версия</a> этой
+статьи была написана в марте 1998&nbsp;года о 
черновой редакции NPL. Нашей
+первой статьей на эту тему была <a
 href="/philosophy/netscape.ru.html">&ldquo;Netscape рассматривает
 возможность сделать браузер Netscape 
свободной программой&rdquo;</a>.</p></blockquote>
 </div>
@@ -264,11 +264,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:34 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -298,6 +300,7 @@
 <!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- English -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
@@ -313,7 +316,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/netscape.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/netscape.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/netscape.ru.html 20 Sep 2011 17:15:35 -0000      1.5
+++ philosophy/netscape.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      1.6
@@ -10,8 +10,7 @@
 
 <div class="announcement">
 <blockquote>
-<p><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html">Более свежие 
новости о
-Netscape</a>.</p>
+<p><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html">Более свежие 
новости о Netscape</a>.</p>
 </blockquote>
 </div>
 
@@ -21,7 +20,7 @@
 <p>Они немного опережают события. В 
объявлении, которое сделала компания
 Netscape, на самом деле не говорится, что они 
будут применять GNU GPL и не
 утверждается, что программа будет <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободной</a> в том 
смысле, какой наше
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободной</a> в том смысле, 
какой наше
 сообщество вкладывает в этот термин. Ясно, 
что Netscape сделает большой шаг
 в направлении к свободной программе, но мы 
не знаем, пройдут ли они весь
 путь или остановятся достаточно далеко. На 
самом деле Netscape еще думает,
@@ -80,10 +79,12 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:35 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -110,6 +111,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- German -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
@@ -123,7 +125,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.12
retrieving revision 1.13
diff -u -b -r1.12 -r1.13
--- philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html      28 Nov 2011 01:27:44 -0000      
1.12
+++ philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:14 -0000      
1.13
@@ -360,7 +360,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено
 
-$Date: 2011/11/28 01:27:44 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:14 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html  20 Sep 2011 17:15:38 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      1.7
@@ -235,7 +235,7 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>И когда дело дойдет до реформы ВОИС, вот <a
-href="http://fsfe.org/projects/wipo/wiwo.ru.html";>одно 
предложение по смене
+href="http://fsfe.org/projects/wipo/wiwo.html";>одно предложение 
по смене
 названия и сущности ВОИС</a>.
 
 </p>
@@ -280,11 +280,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:38 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -311,6 +313,7 @@
 <!-- non-w3c entities.  xhtml should be XML compliant -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Afrikaans -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.af.html">Afrikaans</a>&nbsp;[af]</li> -->
@@ -344,7 +347,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.17
retrieving revision 1.18
diff -u -b -r1.17 -r1.18
--- philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html     20 Sep 2011 17:15:40 
-0000      1.17
+++ philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 
-0000      1.18
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
 <p><strong>Ричард Столмен</strong></p>
 
 <p>Когда мы называем программу 
&ldquo;свободной&rdquo;, мы имеем в виду, что
-она уважает <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">основные 
свободы
+она уважает <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">основные 
свободы
 пользователей</a>: свободу исполнять ее, 
изучать и править ее, а также
 распространять с изменениями
 или без них. Это вопрос свободы, а не цены, 
так что представляйте себе
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
 <p>Десятки миллионов людей по всему миру 
используют сегодня свободные
 программы: общественные школы некоторых 
штатов Индии и провинций Испании
 теперь преподают всем учащимся работу в 
свободной <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">операционной системе 
GNU/Linux</a>. Однако
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">операционной системе 
GNU/Linux</a>. Однако
 большинство этих пользователей никогда не 
слышало об этических причинах, по
 которым мы разработали эту систему и 
построили сообщество свободного
 программного обеспечения, потому что 
сегодня об этой системе и сообществе
@@ -401,11 +401,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
 Перевод: jeder <a 
href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>, 2008</div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:40 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -422,6 +424,7 @@
 Translations of this page</h4> -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a hreflang="ar" 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -455,7 +458,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a hreflang="ta" 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a hreflang="tr" 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html    22 Sep 2011 08:38:34 -0000      
1.4
+++ philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      
1.5
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@
 </p><p>
 P.P.P.S. Чтобы объяснить более подробно, 
почему .doc не должен быть форматом
 обмена информацией, я приглашаю Вас 
прочесть страницу <a
-href="/philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html">
+href="/philosophy/no-word-attachments.html">
 http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/no-word-attachments.ru.html</a>.
 Она, возможно, великовата, но она хорошо 
освещает ущерб, который
 наносит обмен документами Microsoft Word как Вам, 
отправителю,
@@ -120,11 +120,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/22 08:38:34 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -151,6 +153,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Greek -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.el.html">&#x0395;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 -->
@@ -166,7 +169,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/philosophy.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/philosophy.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.9
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -b -r1.9 -r1.10
--- philosophy/philosophy.ru.html       20 Dec 2011 09:27:03 -0000      1.9
+++ philosophy/philosophy.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      1.10
@@ -40,21 +40,21 @@
 <!-- (e.g. foo.fr.html) from here.  It would be better to link them -->
 <!-- from philosophy.fr.html and the original documents. -mhatta -->
 <ul>
-  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">Что такое 
свободная программа?</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ru.html">История GNU/Linux</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ru.html">Почему у программ 
не должно быть
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">Что такое свободная 
программа?</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.html">История GNU/Linux</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.html">Почему у программ 
не должно быть
 владельцев</a></li>
   <li><a href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">Авторское лево: 
прагматический
 идеализм</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-doc.ru.html">Почему свободным 
программам нужна
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">Почему свободным 
программам нужна
 свободная документация</a></li>
   <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.html">Продажа свободных 
программ</a> вполне
 допустима!</li>
-  <li><a href="/philosophy/fs-motives.ru.html">Почему люди 
пишут свободные
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/fs-motives.html">Почему люди пишут 
свободные
 программы</a></li>
   <li><a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">Право читать: 
антиутопический
 рассказ</a> <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Ричарда 
Столмена</a></li>
-  <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">Почему
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">Почему
 &ldquo;открытый исходный текст&rdquo; не 
передает понятия &ldquo;свободная
 программа&rdquo;</a></li>
   <li><a href="/philosophy/government-free-software.html">Меры, 
которые
@@ -127,7 +127,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/12/20 09:27:03 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html     19 Nov 2011 17:36:29 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      1.7
@@ -5,93 +5,86 @@
 <title>Jak švédská Pirátská strana podkopává svobodný software</title>
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.cs.html" -->
-<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
- value='<a href="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po";>
- http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po</a>' -->
- <!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/pirate-party.html" -->
- <!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="" -->
- <!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.cs.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist" -->
 <h2>Jak švédská Pirátská strana podkopává svobodný software</h2>
 
-<p>od Richarda Stallmana</p>
+<p>od <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richarda Stallmana</a></p>
 
-<p>Šikana ze strany vlastníků autorských práv podnítila ve Švédsku 
vznik
-prvnípolitické strany, jež má ve vínku redukci ochrany autorských práv;
-Pirátskoustranu. Mezi jejími tezemi můžeme najít: zákaz správy 
digitálních
-práv(digital restrictions management - DRM), legalizaci nekomerčního 
sdílení
-publikovaných prací a zkrácení doby platnosti autorských práv při 
komerčním
-užití na pět let. Po pěti letech od vydání, by se každá publikovaná 
práce
-stalasoučástí veřejné domény (public domain).</p>
-
-<p>Obecně řečeno: tyto změny podporuji. Ironicky, podoba těchto změn
-zvolenášvédskou Pirátskou stranou podkopává svobodný software. Jsem si 
jist,
-ženezamýšleli svobodný software poškodit, přesto je to to, co by se 
stalo.</p>
-
-<p>GNU General Public License a ostatní copyleftové licence používají
-autorsképrávo k obraně svobody každého uživatele. GPL všem povoluje
-šířeníupravených prací, ale pouze pod tou samou licencí. Šíření 
nepozměněné
-prácetaktéž vyžaduje zachování licence. Stejně tak všichni šiřitelé
-musíuživatelům umožnit přístup ke zdrojovému kódu softwaru.</p>
-
-<p>Jak by tedy základní teze švédské Pirátské strany postihly svobodný
-softwarepod copyleftovou licencí? Za pět let by jejich zdrojové kódy se
-stalysoučástí veřejné domény a vývojáři proprietárního softwaru by 
ho
-mohlizačlenit do svých programů. A jak že to vypadá v případě 
opačném?</p>
-
-<p>Proprietární software je omezený licenčním ujednáním pro koncového
-uživatele(EULA), tedy nejen autorským právem, a uživatelé navíc nemají 
jeho
-zdrojovýkód. I pokud by autorské právo povolovalo nekomerční sdílení, 
EULA
-ho můžezakazovat. Navíc: uživatelé, nemajíce zdrojové kódy, nemají 
vliv na
-to, coprogram dělá, když ho spustí. Spouštěním takového programu se 
své
-svobodyvzdáváte a přenecháváte vývojáři vládu nad sebou samými.</p>
+<p>Šikana ze strany vlastníků autorských práv podnítila ve Švédsku 
vznik první
+politické strany, jež má ve vínku redukci ochrany autorských práv; 
Pirátskou
+stranu. Mezi jejími tezemi můžeme najít: digitální zákaz správy práv
+(digital restrictions management &mdash; DRM), legalizaci nekomerčního
+sdílení publikovaných prací a zkrácení doby platnosti autorských práv 
při
+komerčním užití na pět let. Po pěti letech od vydání, by se každá
+publikovaná práce stala součástí veřejné domény (public domain).</p>
+
+<p>Obecně řečeno: tyto změny podporuji. Ironicky, podoba těchto změn 
zvolená
+švédskou Pirátskou stranou podkopává svobodný software. Jsem si jist, že
+nezamýšleli svobodný software poškodit, přesto je to to, co by se 
stalo.</p>
+
+<p>GNU General Public License a ostatní copyleftové licence používají 
autorské
+právo k obraně svobody každého uživatele. GPL všem povoluje šíření
+upravených prací, ale pouze pod tou samou licencí. Šíření 
nepozměněné práce
+taktéž vyžaduje zachování licence. Stejně tak všichni šiřitelé musí
+uživatelům umožnit přístup ke zdrojovému kódu softwaru.</p>
+
+<p>Jak by tedy základní teze švédské Pirátské strany postihly svobodný 
software
+pod copyleftovou licencí? Za pět let by jejich zdrojové kódy se staly
+součástí veřejné domény a vývojáři proprietárního softwaru by ho 
mohli
+začlenit do svých programů. A jak že to vypadá v případě opačném?</p>
+
+<p>Proprietární software je omezený licenčním ujednáním pro koncového 
uživatele
+(EULA), tedy nejen autorským právem, a uživatelé navíc nemají jeho 
zdrojový
+kód. I pokud by autorské právo povolovalo nekomerční sdílení, EULA ho 
může
+zakazovat. Navíc: uživatelé, nemajíce zdrojové kódy, nemají vliv na to, 
co
+program dělá, když ho spustí. Spouštěním takového programu se své 
svobody
+vzdáváte a přenecháváte vývojáři vládu nad sebou samými.</p>
 
 <p>Jaký následek by mělo ukončení autorských práv k programu po 
uplynutí pěti
-let?Současný návrh by nevyžadoval, aby vývojář uvolnil zdrojový kód, 
a dá se
-předpokládat, že většina by to dobrovolně ani nikdy
-neudělala. Uživatelům,pořád bez přístupu ke zdrojovému kódu, by nebylo
-umožněno používat programve svobodném duchu. Program by dokonce mohl mít
-&bdquo;časovanoubombu&ldquo;, která by zajistila, že po pěti letech 
přestane
-fungovat; v tompřípadě by kopie ve &bdquo;veřejné doméně&ldquo; vůbec
-nefungovaly.</p>
-
-<p>Tedy, podle návrhu Pirátské strany by za pět let vývojáři
-proprietárníhosoftwaru dostali k využití kód pod GPL, ale vývojáři
-svobodného softwaruby na oplátku nedostali kód proprietární; ne za pět
-dokonce let ani za padesátlet ne. Svobodný svět by dostal to špatné, ale 
ne
-to dobré. Rozdíl mezizdrojovým kódem a objektovým kódem na straně 
jedné a
-praxí v používánílicenčních ujednání pro koncového uživatele na 
straně druhé
-by, dal proprietárnímu softwaru faktickou výjimku ze všeobecného pravidla 
o
-pětiletéochraně autorských práv &mdash; tu by ale svobodný software
-nesdílel.</p>
-
-<p>V neposlední řadě používáme autorské právo k částečnému 
odstínění
-nebezpečísoftwarových patentů. Nedokážeme zajistit, že naše programy 
jsou od
-problémůs nimi spojenými oproštěné (v zemi, která je zavede, nebude 
nikdy
-žádnýprogram v bezpečí), ale alespoň patentům zabraňujeme, aby udělaly
-program fakticky nesvobodným. Švédská Pirátská strana navrhuje zrušení
-softwarových patentů, a pokud by se tak i stalo, tento problém by
-zmizel. Ale dokud toho dosaženo není, nesmíme ztratit naši jedinou obranu
-před patenty.</p>
-
-<p>Když švédská Pirátská strana oznámila své základní teze, 
vývojáři
-svobodnéhosoftwaru si všimli tohoto následku a začali navrhovat zvláštní
-pravidlo prosvobodný software - pro ten by autorské právo trvalo déle, 
takže
-by mohlo dálepokračovat v šíření pod copyleftem. Tato výslovná 
výjimka pro
-svobodnýsoftware by vyvážila onu faktickou výjimku pro proprietární
-software.Myslím, že i jenom desetiletá výjimka by měla stačit. Avšak 
tento
-návrh sesetkal s odporem u lídrů Pirátské strany, kteří se stavěli 
proti
-ideji delšíplatnosti autorského práva v nějakém speciálním 
případě.</p>
-
-<p>Dokázal bych podpořit právní úpravu, která by po uplynutí pěti let
-zajistilauvolnění zdrojového kódu GPL softwaru do veřejné domény pod
-podmínkou, že tosamé bude platit pro proprietární zdrojový kód. Konec 
konců
-copyleft je jenprostředek vedoucí ke konci&nbsp;&ndash; svobodě
-uživatelů&nbsp;&ndash; ne koncem samotným. A osobně bych nerad obhajoval
-silnější ochranu autorských práv.</p>
-
-<p>Takže jsem navrhl, ať programové teze Pirátské strany požadují, aby v
-doběuvolnění binárních souborů byl zdrojový kód vydán &ldquo;do
-úschovy&rdquo;.Takto &ldquo;uschovaný&rdquo; zdrojový kód by mohl být po
+let? Současný návrh by nevyžadoval, aby vývojář uvolnil zdrojový kód, 
a dá
+se předpokládat, že většina by to dobrovolně ani nikdy
+neudělala. Uživatelům, pořád bez přístupu ke zdrojovému kódu, by 
nebylo
+umožněno používat program ve svobodném duchu. Program by dokonce mohl mít
+&bdquo;časovanou bombu&ldquo;, která by zajistila, že po pěti letech
+přestane fungovat; v tom případě by kopie ve &bdquo;veřejné 
doméně&ldquo;
+vůbec nefungovaly.</p>
+
+<p>Tedy, podle návrhu Pirátské strany by za pět let vývojáři 
proprietárního
+softwaru dostali k využití kód pod GPL, ale vývojáři svobodného 
softwaru by
+na oplátku nedostali kód proprietární; ne za pět dokonce let ani za 
padesát
+let ne. Svobodný svět by dostal to špatné, ale ne to dobré. Rozdíl mezi
+zdrojovým kódem a objektovým kódem na straně jedné a praxí v 
používání
+licenčních ujednání pro koncového uživatele na straně druhé by, dal
+proprietárnímu softwaru faktickou výjimku ze všeobecného pravidla o 
pětileté
+ochraně autorských práv &mdash; tu by ale svobodný software nesdílel.</p>
+
+<p>V neposlední řadě používáme autorské právo k částečnému 
odstínění nebezpečí
+softwarových patentů. Nedokážeme zajistit, že naše programy jsou od 
problémů
+s nimi spojenými oproštěné (v zemi, která je zavede, nebude nikdy žádný
+program v bezpečí), ale alespoň patentům zabraňujeme, aby udělaly program
+fakticky nesvobodným. Švédská Pirátská strana navrhuje zrušení 
softwarových
+patentů, a pokud by se tak i stalo, tento problém by zmizel. Ale dokud toho
+dosaženo není, nesmíme ztratit naši jedinou obranu před patenty.</p>
+
+<p>Když švédská Pirátská strana oznámila své základní teze, 
vývojáři svobodného
+softwaru si všimli tohoto následku a začali navrhovat zvláštní pravidlo 
pro
+svobodný software &mdash; pro ten by autorské právo trvalo déle, takže by
+mohlo dálepokračovat v šíření pod copyleftem. Tato výslovná výjimka 
pro
+svobodný software by vyvážila onu faktickou výjimku pro proprietární
+software. Myslím, že i jenom desetiletá výjimka by měla stačit. Avšak 
tento
+návrh se setkal s odporem u lídrů Pirátské strany, kteří se stavěli 
proti
+ideji delší platnosti autorského práva v nějakém speciálním 
případě.</p>
+
+<p>Dokázal bych podpořit právní úpravu, která by po uplynutí pěti let 
zajistila
+uvolnění zdrojového kódu GPL softwaru do veřejné domény pod podmínkou, 
že to
+samé bude platit pro proprietární zdrojový kód. Konec konců copyleft je 
jen
+prostředek vedoucí ke konci&nbsp;&ndash; svobodě uživatelů&nbsp;&ndash; ne
+koncem samotným. A osobně bych nerad obhajoval silnější ochranu 
autorských
+práv.</p>
+
+<p>Takže jsem navrhl, ať programové teze Pirátské strany požadují, aby 
v době
+uvolnění binárních souborů byl zdrojový kód vydán &ldquo;do
+úschovy&rdquo;. Takto &ldquo;uschovaný&rdquo; zdrojový kód by mohl být po
 pěti letech uvolněn do veřejné domény. Spíše než dělat ze svobodného
 softwaru oficiální výjimku v pětileté ochraně autorských práv, toto by
 eliminovalo neoficiální výjimku proprietárního softwaru. Ať tak či onak,
@@ -99,9 +92,9 @@
 
 <p>Jeden přívrženec Pirátské strany navrhl obecnější variantu onoho 
prvního
 návrhu: obecné schéma, díky kterému autorská práva trvají déle, pokud 
je
-veřejnosti dáváno více svobody při využívání dané práce. Výhoda
-tohotopřístupu je ta, že svobodný software se stává obecnějšího 
širšího
-proudu prací se vzájemně se lišícími licencemi a ne osamělou 
výjimkou.</p>
+veřejnosti dáváno více svobody při využívání dané práce. Výhoda 
tohoto
+přístupu je ta, že svobodný software se stává obecnějšího širšího 
proudu
+prací se vzájemně se lišícími licencemi a ne osamělou výjimkou.</p>
 
 <p>Preferoval bych řešení &ldquo;úschovou&rdquo;, ale jakákoliv z těchto 
metod
 by předešla specifickému předpojatému účinku proti svobodnému
@@ -109,7 +102,6 @@
 jako ta už zmíněná. Ať tak či onak, švédská Pirátská strana by 
měla předejít
 uvalení hendikepu na hnutí ochraňující veřejnosti před záškodnickými 
obry.</p>
 
-
 <div style="font-size: small;">
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.-->
@@ -118,13 +110,13 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/footer.cs.html" -->
 <div id="footer">
-
 <p>
 Dotazy ohledně FSF a GNU na <a
 href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>. Jsou zde také 
další <a
-href="/contact/">možnosti</a>, jak FSF kontaktovat. <br /> Nefungujícíodkazy
-a jiné opravy a návrhy posílejte na <a
-href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+href="/contact/">možnosti</a>, jak FSF kontaktovat.
+<br />
+Nefungujícíodkazy a jiné opravy a návrhy posílejte na <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
 </p>
 
 <p>
@@ -148,48 +140,61 @@
 <b>Překlad</b>: Michal Nowak <a
 href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>,
 2010.</div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Aktualizováno:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/19 17:36:29 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>
 
-<div id="translations">
-<h4>Překlady této stránky</h4>
+<!-- <div id="translations">
+ -->
+<!-- <h4>
+Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <gnun>
 
-<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code.
-     Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German.
-     Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text.
-     If you add a new language here, please
-     advise address@hidden and add it to
-      - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html
-      - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway"
-      - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias
-      to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases
-     Please also check you have the language code right; see:
-     http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php
-     If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available,
-     use the 3-letter ISO 639-2.
-     Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
-<ul class="translations-list">
+<ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> 
-->
 <!-- English -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a> [es]</li>
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a> 
[es]</li> -->
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
 <!-- Italian -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.it.html">Italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.it.html">Italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
 <!-- Polish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
+<!-- </div>
+ -->
 </div>
 </body>
 </html>

Index: philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html   20 Sep 2011 17:15:47 -0000      
1.4
+++ philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html   26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      
1.5
@@ -365,7 +365,7 @@
 <h3>Более поздние замечания</h3>
 
 <p id="later-1">[1] Эта статья была этапом пути, 
который привел меня к признанию <a
-href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">необъективности и 
неясности в термине
+href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">необъективности и 
неясности в термине
 &ldquo;интеллектуальная собственность&rdquo;</a>. 
В настоящее время я
 убежден, что термин не следует употреблять 
ни при каких обстоятельствах.</p>
 
@@ -419,11 +419,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:47 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -448,6 +450,7 @@
 <!--       http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Czech -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 -->
@@ -465,7 +468,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html       20 Sep 2011 17:15:48 -0000      
1.5
+++ philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      
1.6
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 
 <p><em>Что лишено всякого смысла&nbsp;&mdash; это 
предложение поменять
 лицензию MySQL на какую-нибудь лицензию без <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторского лева</a>.
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторского лева</a>.
 Это сделало бы платные исключения 
невозможными, но позволило бы
 делать всевозможные несвободные 
модифицированные версии.
 Это худший из выходов для MySQL.</em></p>
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@
 я объяснил им, что она подходит для их 
целей.</p>
 
 <p>Для платных исключений принципиально 
необходимо применение <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторского лева</a>, 
например,
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторского лева</a>, 
например,
 в виде лицензии GNU GPL, при выпуске свободной 
программы. Такая
 лицензия допускает включение в другую 
программу, только если вся
 производная программа выпускается под той 
же лицензией; именно так
@@ -209,10 +209,12 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:48 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -239,6 +241,7 @@
 <!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- German -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
@@ -248,7 +251,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/selling.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/selling.ru.html  20 Sep 2011 17:15:49 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/selling.ru.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:15 -0000      1.7
@@ -15,10 +15,9 @@
 <!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
 <!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
 <!-- language, where necessary. -->
-<p><em>У нас есть также <a
-href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html">некоторые 
соображения и мысли
-о платных исключениях из лицензий 
свободных программ, таких, как GNU
-GPL</a>.</em></p>
+<p><em>У нас есть также <a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">некоторые
+соображения и мысли о платных исключениях 
из лицензий свободных программ,
+таких, как GNU GPL</a>.</em></p>
 
 <p>
 Многие убеждены, что дух проекта GNU состоит 
в том, что вы не должны брать
@@ -27,7 +26,7 @@
 
 <p>
 В действительности мы призываем тех, кто 
перераспространяет <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободные программы</a> 
брать столько,
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободные программы</a> 
брать столько,
 сколько они хотят или могут. Если для вас 
это&nbsp;&mdash; неожиданность,
 прочтите, пожалуйста, эту статью.</p>
 
@@ -244,11 +243,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:49 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:15 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -274,6 +275,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -319,7 +321,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese(Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html     20 Sep 2011 17:15:49 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      1.7
@@ -48,9 +48,8 @@
 приводит к убыткам. Я прихожу к заключению, 
что долг
 программистов&nbsp;&mdash; поощрять других 
обмениваться друг с другом,
 распространять, изучать и улучшать 
программы, которые мы пишем; другим
-словами, писать  <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">&ldquo;свободные&rdquo; 
программы</a><a
-href="#f1">(1)</a>.</p>
+словами, писать  <a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">&ldquo;свободные&rdquo;
+программы</a><a href="#f1">(1)</a>.</p>
 
 <h3 id="owner-justification">Как владельцы оправдывают 
свою власть</h3>
 <p>
@@ -903,11 +902,13 @@
 Перевод на русский язык: <br /> Copyright &copy; 2000  
Сергей Короп <a
 href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> <br /> Copyright &copy;
 2010, 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:49 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -934,6 +935,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Catalan -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ca.html">catal&agrave;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
@@ -971,7 +973,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Chinese(Traditional) -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html     10 Nov 2011 09:39:03 -0000      
1.1
+++ philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      
1.2
@@ -44,9 +44,9 @@
 &ldquo;одолжить&rdquo;, на ограниченное время, но 
только указав имя другого
 пользователя той же самой системы. Никаких 
подарков или продаж.</li>
 <li>Копировать электронную книгу нельзя 
из-за <a
-href="/philosophy/right-to-read.ru.html">цифрового 
управления
-ограничениями</a> в проигрывателе; это 
также запрещено лицензией, более
-жесткой, чем авторское право.</li>
+href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">цифрового управления 
ограничениями</a>
+в проигрывателе; это также запрещено 
лицензией, более жесткой, чем авторское
+право.</li>
 <li>Amazon может удаленно стереть электронную 
книгу через черный ход. Они
 воспользовались этим черным ходом в 
2009&nbsp;году, чтобы стереть тысячи
 копий романа Джорджа Оруэлла &ldquo;1984&rdquo;.</li>
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.-->
 <h3>Примечания переводчика</h3> <ol> <li 
id="tfn1">Более подробно эти методы
 рассматриваются также в статье <a
-href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright.ru.html">&ldquo;Свобода или 
авторское
+href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright.html">&ldquo;Свобода или 
авторское
 право?&rdquo;</a></li></ol></div>
 </div>
 
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/11/10 09:39:03 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: philosophy/udi.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/udi.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- philosophy/udi.ru.html      20 Sep 2011 17:15:51 -0000      1.4
+++ philosophy/udi.ru.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      1.5
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@
 напрашиваться на неприятности.</p></li>
 
 <li> Люди могли бы выполнять несвободные 
драйверы Windows на системах <a
-href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.ru.html">GNU/Linux</a>
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>
 <p>
 Напрямую это не сказалось бы на спектре 
аппаратуры, поддерживаемой
 свободными программами. Но косвенно это 
привело бы к снижению спектра за
@@ -164,11 +164,13 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:51 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -195,6 +197,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- English -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
@@ -210,7 +213,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/udi.ru.html">&#x0420;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html     20 Sep 2011 17:15:54 -0000      1.4
+++ philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      1.5
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 
 <p>
 В проекте GNU мы обычно рекомендуем 
применять такие лицензии с <a
-href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">авторским левом</a>, как 
GNU GPL, а не
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">авторским левом</a>, как GNU 
GPL, а не
 либеральные лицензии свободных программ 
без авторского лева. Мы не выступаем
 ожесточенно против лицензий без 
авторского лева&nbsp;&mdash; мы даже
 рекомендуем их изредка в особых 
обстоятельствах&nbsp;&mdash; но сторонники
@@ -106,11 +106,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:54 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -136,6 +138,7 @@
 <!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -167,7 +170,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/why-free.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/why-free.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.6
retrieving revision 1.7
diff -u -b -r1.6 -r1.7
--- philosophy/why-free.ru.html 20 Sep 2011 17:15:55 -0000      1.6
+++ philosophy/why-free.ru.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      1.7
@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@
 
 <p>
 Вот почему мы говорим, что сущность <a
-href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">свободных 
программ</a>&nbsp;&mdash; в
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">свободных 
программ</a>&nbsp;&mdash; в
 свободе, а не в цене.</p>
 
 <p>
@@ -375,10 +375,12 @@
 найденных ошибках в <a
 href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ru";>русской группе 
переводов
 gnu.org</a>.</em></div>
+
+
  <p><!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:55 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -409,6 +411,7 @@
 <!--      -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- Arabic -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
@@ -460,7 +463,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
 <!-- Turkish -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/x.ru.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/x.ru.html,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/x.ru.html        20 Sep 2011 17:15:55 -0000      1.5
+++ philosophy/x.ru.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:16 -0000      1.6
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 <p>
 Некоторые разработчики свободных 
программ предпочитают распространение без
 авторского лева. Такие лицензии без 
авторского лева, как лицензии XFree86 и
-<a href="/philosophy/bsd.ru.html">BSD</a>, основаны на 
принципе незапрещения
+<a href="/philosophy/bsd.html">BSD</a>, основаны на принципе 
незапрещения
 чего бы то ни было кому бы то ни было&nbsp;&mdash; 
даже тому, кто стремится
 воспользоваться вашей работой как основой 
для ограничения других. В
 лицензировании без авторского лева нет 
ничего дурного, но оно упускает
@@ -204,11 +204,13 @@
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
  </div>
+
+
  <p>
 <!-- timestamp start -->
 Обновлено:
 
-$Date: 2011/09/20 17:15:55 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:16 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
@@ -233,6 +235,7 @@
 <!--       http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
 <!--  -->
 <!-- <gnun>
+
 <ul class="translations-list"> -->
 <!-- English -->
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/x.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
@@ -252,7 +255,8 @@
 <!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/x.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
 <!-- Russian -->
 <!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/x.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
-<!-- </ul></gnun> -->
+<!-- </ul>
+</gnun> -->
 <!-- </div>
  -->
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/bsd.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/bsd.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/bsd.translist 25 Dec 2011 05:18:20 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/bsd.translist 26 Dec 2011 09:29:26 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,29 +2,29 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/bsd.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/bsd.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/bsd.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/categories.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/categories.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- philosophy/po/categories.ru-en.html 15 Nov 2011 01:34:25 -0000      1.1
+++ philosophy/po/categories.ru-en.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:26 -0000      1.2
@@ -421,7 +421,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/11/15 01:34:25 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:26 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/categories.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/categories.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/categories.translist  25 Dec 2011 05:18:18 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/categories.translist  26 Dec 2011 09:29:26 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,45 +2,45 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Slovenian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.sl.html">sloven&scaron;&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sl]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.sl.html">slovenščina</a>&nbsp;[sl]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/categories.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/categories.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/compromise.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/compromise.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- philosophy/po/compromise.translist  25 Dec 2011 05:18:08 -0000      1.3
+++ philosophy/po/compromise.translist  26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 -0000      1.4
@@ -2,29 +2,29 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/compromise.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:18:07 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hungarian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.hu.html">magyar</a>&nbsp;[hu]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
@@ -18,15 +18,15 @@
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist   25 Dec 2011 05:18:21 
-0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist   26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 
-0000      1.3
@@ -2,35 +2,35 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist 25 Dec 2011 05:18:14 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist 26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,21 +2,21 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/free-sw.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/free-sw.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- philosophy/po/free-sw.ru-en.html    30 Nov 2011 01:26:54 -0000      1.1
+++ philosophy/po/free-sw.ru-en.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 -0000      1.2
@@ -434,7 +434,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/11/30 01:26:54 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:27 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/free-sw.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/free-sw.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/free-sw.translist     25 Dec 2011 05:18:21 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/free-sw.translist     26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 -0000      1.3
@@ -4,39 +4,39 @@
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.af.html">Afrikaans</a>&nbsp;[af]</li>
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Azerbaijani -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.az.html">Az&#x0259;rbaycanca</a>&nbsp;[az]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.az.html">Azərbaycanca</a>&nbsp;[az]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Bengali -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.bn.html">&#2476;&#2494;&#2434;&#2482;&#2494;</a>&nbsp;[bn]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.bn.html">বাংলা</a>&nbsp;[bn]</li>
 <!-- Bosnian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.bs.html">bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- Danish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.da.html">dansk</a>&nbsp;[da]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Esperanto -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.eo.html">Esperanto</a>&nbsp;[eo]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Galician -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.gl.html">galego</a>&nbsp;[gl]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Croatian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li>
 <!-- Hungarian -->
@@ -46,39 +46,39 @@
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
-<!-- Norwegian (Bokm&aring;l) -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.nb.html">norsk 
(bokm&aring;l)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<!-- Norwegian (Bokmål) -->
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.nb.html">norsk (bokmål)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Slovak -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.sk.html">sloven&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.sk.html">slovenčina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li>
 <!-- Slovenian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.sl.html">sloven&scaron;&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sl]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.sl.html">slovenščina</a>&nbsp;[sl]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Swedish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Tagalog -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.tl.html">Tagalog</a>&nbsp;[tl]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist    25 Dec 2011 05:18:15 
-0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist    26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 
-0000      1.3
@@ -6,23 +6,23 @@
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Croatian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist    25 Dec 2011 05:18:16 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist    26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,31 +2,31 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/gif.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/gif.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/gif.translist 25 Dec 2011 05:18:25 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/gif.translist 26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,29 +2,29 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
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+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
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href="/philosophy/gif.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gif.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
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 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/gnutella.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/gnutella.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- philosophy/po/gnutella.translist    25 Dec 2011 05:18:21 -0000      1.3
+++ philosophy/po/gnutella.translist    26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      1.4
@@ -4,15 +4,15 @@
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.bs.html">bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li>
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-<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
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+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li>
 <!-- Hungarian -->
@@ -20,23 +20,23 @@
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist   25 Dec 2011 05:18:19 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist   26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,29 +2,29 @@
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 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist 25 Dec 2011 05:18:12 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist 26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,27 +2,27 @@
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 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ca.html">català
</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:18:18 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,21 +2,21 @@
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
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-<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.hu.html">magyar</a>&nbsp;[hu]</li>
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@@ -24,17 +24,17 @@
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist   25 Dec 2011 05:18:06 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist   26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,27 +2,27 @@
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 <ul class="translations-list">
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/microsoft.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/microsoft.translist   25 Dec 2011 05:18:24 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft.translist   26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,19 +2,19 @@
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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-<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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href="/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:18:09 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      
1.3
@@ -4,9 +4,9 @@
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
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href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/netscape.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/netscape.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/netscape.translist    25 Dec 2011 05:18:10 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/netscape.translist    26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      1.3
@@ -4,15 +4,15 @@
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href="/philosophy/netscape.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/no-word-attachments.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/no-word-attachments.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- philosophy/po/no-word-attachments.ru-en.html        28 Nov 2011 01:27:56 
-0000      1.1
+++ philosophy/po/no-word-attachments.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:31 
-0000      1.2
@@ -312,7 +312,7 @@
 <p>
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-$Date: 2011/11/28 01:27:56 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:31 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/not-ipr.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/not-ipr.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/not-ipr.translist     25 Dec 2011 05:18:21 -0000      1.2
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@@ -4,39 +4,39 @@
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href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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href="/philosophy/not-ipr.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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-<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/not-ipr.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist        25 Dec 2011 
05:18:07 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist        26 Dec 2011 
09:29:31 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,37 +2,37 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
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href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist       25 Dec 2011 05:18:26 
-0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist       26 Dec 2011 09:29:32 
-0000      1.3
@@ -2,19 +2,19 @@
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href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/papadopoulos-response.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/philosophy.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/philosophy.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- philosophy/po/philosophy.ru-en.html 20 Dec 2011 09:27:08 -0000      1.3
+++ philosophy/po/philosophy.ru-en.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:32 -0000      1.4
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/12/20 09:27:08 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:32 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po    26 Dec 2011 08:18:39 -0000      1.5
+++ philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs.po    26 Dec 2011 09:29:32 -0000      1.6
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Index: philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:18:14 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:29:33 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,21 +2,21 @@
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 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist      25 Dec 2011 05:18:19 
-0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist      26 Dec 2011 09:29:33 
-0000      1.3
@@ -2,13 +2,13 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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 <li><a 
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 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
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@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
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href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
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href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist  25 Dec 2011 05:18:18 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist  26 Dec 2011 09:29:33 -0000      
1.3
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
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href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/selling.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/selling.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/selling.translist     25 Dec 2011 05:18:09 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/selling.translist     26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,49 +2,49 @@
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 <ul class="translations-list">
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
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 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
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-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/selling.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:18:21 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,21 +2,21 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Finnish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.fi.html">suomi</a>&nbsp;[fi]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
@@ -24,19 +24,19 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Serbian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.sr.html">српски</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 <!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.zh-tw.html">繁體中文</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html       10 Nov 2011 09:39:10 
-0000      1.1
+++ philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 
-0000      1.2
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@
 
 <p>Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/11/10 09:39:10 $
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:34 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>

Index: philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:18:07 
-0000      1.3
+++ philosophy/po/the-danger-of-ebooks.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 
-0000      1.4
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a 
href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/udi.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/udi.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/udi.translist 25 Dec 2011 05:18:10 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/udi.translist 26 Dec 2011 09:29:35 -0000      1.3
@@ -4,9 +4,9 @@
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/udi.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/udi.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/udi.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/udi.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/udi.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/udi.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/udi.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/why-copyleft.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/why-copyleft.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/why-copyleft.translist        25 Dec 2011 05:18:15 -0000      
1.2
+++ philosophy/po/why-copyleft.translist        26 Dec 2011 09:29:35 -0000      
1.3
@@ -2,37 +2,37 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Hebrew -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.he.html">עברית</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/why-free.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/why-free.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/why-free.translist    25 Dec 2011 05:18:20 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/why-free.translist    26 Dec 2011 09:29:35 -0000      1.3
@@ -2,31 +2,31 @@
 <div id="translations">
 <ul class="translations-list">
 <!-- Arabic -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ar.html">العربية</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 <!-- Azerbaijani -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.az.html">Az&#x0259;rbaycanca</a>&nbsp;[az]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.az.html">Azərbaycanca</a>&nbsp;[az]</li>
 <!-- Bulgarian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.bg.html">български</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 <!-- Bengali -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.bn.html">&#2476;&#2494;&#2434;&#2482;&#2494;</a>&nbsp;[bn]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.bn.html">বাংলা</a>&nbsp;[bn]</li>
 <!-- Catalan -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ca.html">català</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 <!-- Czech -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.cs.html">Česky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 <!-- Danish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.da.html">dansk</a>&nbsp;[da]</li>
 <!-- German -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 <!-- Greek -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.el.html">ελληνικά</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.fa.html">فارسی</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Croatian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li>
 <!-- Hungarian -->
@@ -36,25 +36,25 @@
 <!-- Italian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Malayalam -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
+<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ml.html">മലയാളം</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.pt-br.html">português do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li>
 <!-- Romanian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ro.html">română</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 <!-- Tamil -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.ta.html">தமிழ்</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 <!-- Turkish -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/why-free.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/why-free.tr.html">Türkçe</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: philosophy/po/x.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/x.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- philosophy/po/x.translist   25 Dec 2011 05:18:11 -0000      1.2
+++ philosophy/po/x.translist   26 Dec 2011 09:29:35 -0000      1.3
@@ -4,21 +4,21 @@
 <!-- English -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/x.en.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 <!-- Spanish -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/x.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/x.es.html">español</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 <!-- French -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/x.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/x.fr.html">français</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 <!-- Indonesian -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/x.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li>
 <!-- Japanese -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/x.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/x.ja.html">日本語</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li>
 <!-- Korean -->
-<li><a href="/philosophy/x.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/x.ko.html">한국어</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 <!-- Dutch -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/x.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li>
 <!-- Polish -->
 <li><a href="/philosophy/x.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 <!-- Russian -->
-<li><a 
href="/philosophy/x.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
+<li><a href="/philosophy/x.ru.html">русский</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 </ul>
 </div> <!-- id="translations" -->
 <!-- end translinks file -->

Index: copyleft/po/copyleft.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: copyleft/po/copyleft.ru-en.html
diff -N copyleft/po/copyleft.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ copyleft/po/copyleft.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:02 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,248 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>What is Copyleft? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, Copyleft" />
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/copyleft/po/copyleft.translist" -->
+   
+<h2>What is Copyleft?</h2>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a general method for making a program (or
+other work) free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the
+program to be free as well.</p>
+
+<p>
+The simplest way to make a program free software is to put it in the
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#PublicDomainSoftware">public
+domain</a>, uncopyrighted.  This allows people to
+share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded.  But
+it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">proprietary
+software</a>.  They can make changes, many or few,
+and distribute the result as a proprietary product.  People who
+receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that
+the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away.</p>
+
+<p>
+In the <a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">GNU project</a>, our aim is
+to give <em>all</em> users the freedom to redistribute and change GNU
+software.  If middlemen could strip off the freedom, we might have
+many users, but those users would not have freedom.  So instead of
+putting GNU software in the public domain, we &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;
+it.  Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or
+without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and
+change it.  Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft also provides an
+<a href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">incentive</a>
+for other programmers to add to free software.
+Important free programs such as the GNU C++ compiler exist
+only because of this.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft also helps programmers who want to contribute
+<a href="/prep/tasks.html">improvements</a> to
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> get permission to
+do so.  These programmers often work for companies or universities
+that would do almost anything to get more money.  A programmer may
+want to contribute her changes to the community, but her employer may
+want to turn the changes into a proprietary software product.</p>
+
+<p>
+When we explain to the employer that it is illegal to distribute the
+improved version except as free software, the employer usually decides
+to release it as free software rather than throw it away.</p>
+
+<p>
+To copyleft a program, we first state that it is copyrighted; then we
+add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives
+everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the program's
+code, <em>or any program derived from it</em>, but only if the
+distribution terms are unchanged.  Thus, the code and the freedoms
+become legally inseparable.</p>
+
+<p>
+Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users'
+freedom; we use copyright to guarantee their freedom.  That's why we
+reverse the name, changing &ldquo;copyright&rdquo; into
+&ldquo;copyleft.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a way of using of the copyright on the program.  It
+doesn't mean abandoning the copyright; in fact, doing so would make
+copyleft impossible.  The &ldquo;left&rdquo; in
+&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; is not a reference to the verb &ldquo;to
+leave&rdquo;&mdash;only to the direction which is the inverse of
+&ldquo;right&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a general concept, and you can't use a general concept
+directly; you can only use a specific implementation of the concept.
+In the GNU Project, the specific distribution terms that we use for
+most software are contained in the
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl.html">GNU General Public License (available in
+HTML</a>, <a href="/copyleft/gpl.txt">text</a>, and
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl.texi">Texinfo</a> format).  The GNU General
+Public License is often called the GNU GPL for short. There is also a
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl-faq.html">Frequently Asked Questions</a> page
+about the GNU GPL.  You can also read about
+<a href="/copyleft/why-assign.html">why the FSF gets copyright
+assignments from contributors</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+An alternate form of copyleft, the <a href="/licenses/lgpl.html">GNU
+Lesser General Public License (LGPL) (available in HTML</a>, <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.txt">text</a>, and <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.texi">Texinfo</a> format), applies to a few (but not
+all) GNU libraries. To learn more about properly using the LGPL, please
+read the article <a href="/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html"><cite>Why you
+shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library</cite></a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The <a href="/copyleft/fdl.html">GNU Free Documentation License (FDL)
+(available in HTML</a>, <a href="/copyleft/fdl.txt">text</a> and
+<a href="/copyleft/fdl.texi">Texinfo)</a> is a form of copyleft intended
+for use on a manual, textbook or other document to assure everyone the
+effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
+modifications, either commercially or noncommercially.</p>
+
+<p>
+The appropriate license is included in many manuals and in each GNU
+source code distribution.</p>
+
+<p>
+All these licenses are designed so that you can easily apply them to
+your own works, assuming you are the copyright holder.  You don't have
+to modify the license to do this, just include a copy of the license
+in the work, and add notices in the source files that refer properly
+to the license.</p>
+
+<p>
+Using the same distribution terms for many different programs makes it
+easy to copy code between various different programs.  When they all
+have the same distribution terms, there is no problem.  The Lesser
+GPL, version 2, includes a provision that lets you alter the
+distribution terms to the ordinary GPL, so that you can copy code into
+another program covered by the GPL.  Version 3 of the Lesser GPL is
+built as an exception added to GPL version 3, making the compatibility
+automatic.</p>
+
+<p>
+If you would like to copyleft your program with the GNU GPL or the GNU
+LGPL, please see the <a href="/copyleft/gpl-howto.html">license
+instructions page</a> for advice.  Please note that you must use the entire
+text of the license you choose.  Each is an integral whole, and
+partial copies are not permitted.</p>
+
+<p>
+If you would like to copyleft your manual with the GNU FDL, please
+see the instructions at the
+<a href="/copyleft/fdl.html#SEC4">end</a> of the FDL text, and
+the <a href="/copyleft/fdl-howto.html">GFDL instructions page</a>.  Again,
+partial copies are not permitted.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
+2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:02 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
+<!-- language if possible, otherwise default to English -->
+<!-- If you do not have it English, please comment what the -->
+<!-- English is.  If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--      one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--    - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--      to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Bosnian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.bs.html">Bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> 
-->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/copyleft/copyleft.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Tamil -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.ta.html">&#2980;&#2990;&#3007;&#2996;&#3021;</a>&nbsp;[ta]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Turkish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/copyleft/copyleft.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: distros/po/distros.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: distros/po/distros.ru-en.html
diff -N distros/po/distros.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ distros/po/distros.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:28:13 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>GNU/Linux Distros - GNU Operating System</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/distros/po/distros.translist" -->
+
+<h2>GNU/Linux Distros</h2>
+
+<p>
+Free GNU/Linux system distributions (or &ldquo;distros&rdquo;) only
+include and only propose free software.  They reject non-free
+applications, non-free programming platforms, non-free drivers,
+non-free firmware &ldquo;blobs&rdquo;, and any other non-free software
+and documentation.  If they discover that by mistake some had been
+included, they remove it.
+</p>
+
+<h3 id="freeDistros">Free GNU/Linux Distros</h3>
+<p>
+We recommend that you use a free GNU/Linux system distribution, one that does 
+not include proprietary software at all.  That way you can be sure that you are
+not installing any non-free programs. Here is our list of such distros:<br />
+<a href="/distros/free-distros.html">
+Free GNU/Linux distributions</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+All of these existing distros could use more development help.  Thus,
+if you want to make an effective contribution to free GNU/Linux
+distributions, we suggest that you join the development of an existing
+free distro rather that starting a new free distro.
+</p>
+
+<h3 id="distroGuidelines">Free Distro Guidelines</h3>
+<p>
+Here is the list of problems that can prevent a distro from being
+considered entirely free:<br />
+<a href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html">
+Guidelines for free system distributions</a>.</p>
+
+<h3 id="otherDistros">Common Distros</h3>
+<p>
+Many common and well-known GNU/Linux software distributions don't meet
+our guidelines. You can read about their problems here:<br />
+<a href="/distros/common-distros.html">
+Why we can't endorse many well-known GNU/Linux distros</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+We appeal to the developers of these distros to remove the non-free parts and
+thus make them entirely free software.
+</p>
+
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:13 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!--      See also '(web-trans)Capitalization': -->
+<!--      
http://gnu.org/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/html_node/Capitalization.html
 -->
+<!--      -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.es.html">espa&ntilde;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Slovak -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/distros/distros.sk.html">sloven&#269;ina</a>&nbsp;[sk]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/distros.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html
diff -N distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru-en.html   26 Dec 2011 
09:28:13 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,316 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Guidelines for Free System Distributions - GNU Project - Free Software 
Foundation</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include 
virtual="/distros/po/free-system-distribution-guidelines.translist" -->
+<h2>Guidelines for Free System Distributions</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendix C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<!-- This document was originally written in the Campaigns Wiki, at -->
+<!-- /licensing/writings/free-system-distribution-guidelines.txt. -->
+
+<h3 id="introduction">Introduction</h3>
+
+<p>The purpose of these guidelines is to explain what it means for a
+system distribution (such as a GNU/Linux distribution) to qualify as free,
+and help distribution developers make their distributions qualify.</p>
+
+<p>These guidelines are not complete.  We have mentioned the issues we
+are aware of now, but we're sure there are more.  We will add them
+when we come across them.</p>
+
+<p>We would like to thank the Fedora Project for their help in focusing
+these policies, and allowing us to use their own distribution license
+guidelines as a basis for this document.</p>
+
+<h3 id="license-rules">License Rules</h3>
+
+<p>&ldquo;Information for practical use&rdquo;
+includes software, documentation, fonts, and other data that has
+direct functional applications.  It does not include artistic works
+that have an aesthetic (rather than functional) purpose, or statements
+of opinion or judgment.</p>
+
+<p>All information for practical use in a free distribution must be
+available in source form.  (&ldquo;Source&rdquo; means the form of the
+information that is preferred for making changes to it.)</p>
+
+<p>The information, and the source, must be provided under an
+appropriate free license.  We list the ones we have evaluated
+on <a class="reference" href="/licenses/license-list.html">our license
+list</a>, with separate sections for licenses that are suitable for
+software, documentation, fonts, and other useful works.  If such a
+work is released under multiple licenses, at least one of which is
+free, it can be included in the system; the system developers just
+need to follow the terms of the available free license(s) when they
+distribute and/or modify it.</p>
+
+<p>A free system distribution must not steer users towards obtaining
+any nonfree information for practical use, or encourage them to do so.
+There should be no repositories or ports for nonfree software.  Nor
+should the distribution refer to third-party repositories that are not
+committed to only including free software; even if they only have free
+software today, that may not be true tomorrow.  Programs in the system
+should not suggest installing nonfree plugins, documentation, and so
+on.</p>
+
+<p>A free system distribution should be self-hosting.  This means that
+you must be able to develop and build the system with tools that the
+system provides you.  As a result, a free system distribution cannot
+include free software that can only be built by using nonfree
+software.</p>
+
+<p>There's a lot of code in most free system distributions today; the
+amount of effort it would take to audit it all directly is impractical
+for most teams.  In the past, some nonfree code has accidentally been
+included in free system distributions.  We don't de-list distributions
+because of this; instead, we only ask that a distribution put forth a
+good faith effort to avoid including nonfree software, and commit
+itself to removing such programs if they are discovered later.</p>
+
+<p>Certain kinds of license situations merit special attention for people
+creating or considering free software distributions; those are
+discussed in the sections below.</p>
+
+<h3 id="nonfree-firmware">Nonfree Firmware</h3>
+
+<p>Some applications and drivers require firmware to function, and
+sometimes that firmware is distributed only in object code form, under
+a nonfree license.  We call these firmware programs
+&ldquo;blobs.&rdquo; On most GNU/Linux systems, you'll typically find
+these accompanying some drivers in the kernel Linux.  Such firmware
+should be removed from a free system distribution.</p>
+
+<p>Blobs can take many forms.  Sometimes, they will be provided in
+separate files.  Other times, they may be incorporated into the source
+of the driver itself&mdash;for example, it could be encoded as a large
+array of numbers.  But no matter how it's encoded, any nonfree
+firmware needs to be removed from a free system.</p>
+
+<p>(To be clear, not every array of numbers in a driver is firmware.
+It's important to understand the purpose of the data before deciding
+whether or not it's appropriate for a free system.)</p>
+
+<p>Brian Brazil, Jeff Moe, and Alexandre Oliva have developed a series
+of <a class="reference"
+href="http://www.fsfla.org/svn/fsfla/software/linux-libre/scripts/";>scripts
+to remove nonfree firmware</a> from a stock version of the Linux kernel.
+You may find them helpful if you would like to develop your own free
+GNU/Linux distribution&mdash;although we recommend joining development
+of an existing free distro rather than fragmenting effort by starting a
+new one.  The complete source for a blob-free version of the Linux
+kernel is also available; you can learn more about this project from the
+<a class="reference" href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/linux/";>Free
+Software Directory</a>.</p>
+
+<h3 id="non-functional-data">Non-functional Data</h3>
+
+<p>Data that isn't functional, that doesn't do a practical job, is
+more of an adornment to the system's software than a part of it.
+Thus, we don't insist on the free license criteria for non-functional
+data.  It can be included in a free system distribution as long as its
+license gives you permission to copy and redistribute, both for
+commercial and non-commercial purposes.  For example, some game
+engines released under the GNU GPL have accompanying game
+information&mdash;a fictional world map, game graphics, and so
+on&mdash;released under such a verbatim-distribution license.  This
+kind of data can be part of a free system distribution, even though
+its license does not qualify as free, because it is non-functional.</p>
+
+<h3 id="trademarks">Trademarks</h3>
+
+<p>Trademarks are associated with some software.  For example, the
+name of a program may be trademarked, or its interface may display a
+trademarked logo.  Often, the use of these marks will be controlled
+in some way; in particular, developers are commonly asked to remove
+references to the trademark from the software when they modify
+it.</p>
+
+<p>In extreme cases, these restrictions may effectively render the
+program nonfree.  It is unfair for someone to ask you to remove a
+trademark from modified code if that trademark is scattered all
+throughout the original source.  As long as the practical
+requirements are reasonable, however, free system distributions may
+include these programs, either with or without the trademarks.</p>
+
+<p>Similarly, the distribution itself may hold particular trademarks.
+It is not a problem if modification requires removal of these
+trademarks, as long as they can readily be removed without losing
+functionality.</p>
+
+<p>However, it is unacceptable to use trademarks to restrict verbatim
+copying and redistribution of the whole distribution, or any part.</p>
+
+<h3 id="documentation">Documentation</h3>
+
+<p>All the documentation in a free system distribution must be released
+under an appropriate free license.  Additionally, it must take care
+not to recommend nonfree software.</p>
+
+<p>In general, something that helps people who already use nonfree
+software to use the free software better with it is acceptable, but
+something that encourages users of the free software to install
+nonfree software is harmful.</p>
+
+<p>For example, a free system distribution may have documentation for
+users setting up dual boot systems.  It could explain how to access
+filesystems of the proprietary operating system, import settings
+from it, and so on.  That would be helping people install a free
+system distribution on a machine which already has proprietary
+software, which is good.</p>
+
+<p>What would be unacceptable is for the documentation to give people
+instructions for installing a nonfree program on the system, or
+mention conveniences they might gain by doing so.</p>
+
+<p>For a borderline case, a clear and serious exhortation not to use the
+nonfree program would clearly make it acceptable.</p>
+
+<h3 id="patents">Patents</h3>
+
+<p>It is effectively impossible for free software developers and
+distributors to know whether or not a given piece of software
+infringes any patents: there are too many of them, they vary from
+country to country, they're often worded so as to make it hard to tell
+what they do or don't cover, and it isn't easy to tell which ones are
+valid.  Therefore, we don't generally ask free system distributions to
+exclude software because of possible threats from patents.  On the
+other hand, we also don't object if a distributor chooses to omit some
+software in order to avoid patent risk.</p>
+
+<h3 id="mistakes">Commitment to Correct Mistakes</h3>
+
+<p>Most distribution development teams don't have the resources to
+perfectly check and make sure that their distribution meet all these
+criteria.  Neither do we.  So we expect developers to occasionally
+make mistakes that let some nonfree software slip through, and we
+don't reject a distribution just for that.  What is crucial is for the
+distribution developers to have a firm commitment to promptly correct
+any mistakes that are reported to them.</p>
+
+<h3 id="maintenance">Maintenance</h3>
+
+<p>To be listed, a distribution should be actively maintained,
+and should give the GNU Project a clear and specific way to report problems
+of nonfree software that we find out about.  It should also
+inform us when the problems we have reported are fixed.</p>
+
+<h3 id="name-confusion">Name Confusion</h3>
+
+<p>We will not list a distribution whose name makes confusion with
+nonfree distributions likely.  For example, if Foobar Light is a free
+distribution and Foobar is a nonfree distribution, we will not list
+Foobar Light.  This is because we expect that the distinction between
+the two would be lost in the process of communicating the message.</p>
+
+<h3 id="upstream">Contacting Upstream If You're Downstream</h3>
+
+<p>For distro developers (or anyone else) who have sent an important bug
+report for a GNU package: if it has gone unheeded by the package
+maintainer after a reasonable time (please allow at least two weeks),
+you can escalate the bug by writing to &lt;address@hidden&gt;.
+This is especially warranted if you can't find evidence of recent
+activity by the package maintainer.</p>
+
+<h3 id="final-notes">Final Notes</h3>
+
+<p>We maintain a list of the <a href="/distros/free-distros.html">free
+system distributions</a> we know about.  If you know about a free
+distribution that isn't listed there, please have the developers write
+to &lt;<a class="reference"
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>address@hidden</a>&gt; with a description of
+their system and a link to their web page.</p>
+
+<p>Our list consists of systems based on GNU which acknowledge that
+they are based on GNU.  At present, we know of no other systems
+that would qualify.  If someday there is one, we will list it,
+but not necessarily in same way.</p>
+
+<p>If you have questions or comments about these guidelines
+themselves, feel free to send those to &lt;<a class="reference"
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>address@hidden</a>&gt;.  We hope
+that they help everyone better understand the issues that are important
+for free system distributions, and we look forward to promoting more
+of them in the future.</p>
+
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Please see the <a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:13 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!--      See also '(web-trans)Capitalization': -->
+<!--      
http://gnu.org/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/html_node/Capitalization.html
 -->
+<!--      -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li>
 -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/distros/free-system-distribution-guidelines.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/gnu-history.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/gnu-history.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/gnu-history.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/gnu-history.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,232 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Overview of the GNU System - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+
+<meta name="Keywords" content="GNU, GNU Project, FSF, Free Software, Free 
Software Foundation, History" />
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/gnu-history.translist" -->
+
+<h2>Overview of the GNU System</h2>
+
+<p>
+The GNU operating system is a complete free software system,
+upward-compatible with Unix.  GNU stands for &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix&rdquo;.
+<a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a> made the
+<a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">Initial Announcement</a> of
+the GNU Project in September 1983.  A longer version called
+the <a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">GNU Manifesto</a> was published in
+March 1985.  It has been translated into several
+<a href="/gnu/manifesto.html#translations">other languages</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The name &ldquo;GNU&rdquo; was chosen because it met a few
+requirements; first, it was a recursive acronym for &ldquo;GNU's Not
+Unix&rdquo;, second, because it was a real word, and third, it was fun
+to say (or
+<a href="http://www.poppyfields.net/poppy/songs/gnu.html";>Sing</a>).</p>
+
+<p>
+The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; in &ldquo;free software&rdquo; pertains to
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">freedom</a>, not price.  You may or
+may not pay a price to get GNU software.  Either way, once you have
+the software you have three specific freedoms in using it.  First, the
+freedom to copy the program and give it away to your friends and
+co-workers; second, the freedom to change the program as you wish, by
+having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute an
+improved version and thus help build the community.  (If you
+redistribute GNU software, you may charge a fee for the physical act
+of transferring a copy, or you may give away copies.)</p>
+
+<p>
+The project to develop the GNU system is called the &ldquo;GNU
+Project&rdquo;.  The GNU Project was conceived in 1983 as a way of
+bringing back the cooperative spirit that prevailed in the computing
+community in earlier days&mdash;to make cooperation possible once again by
+removing the obstacles to cooperation imposed by the owners of
+proprietary software.</p>
+
+<p>
+In 1971, when Richard Stallman started his career at MIT, he worked in
+a group which used <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free
+software</a> exclusively.  Even computer companies often distributed
+free software.  Programmers were free to cooperate with each other,
+and often did.</p>
+
+<p>
+By the 1980s, almost all software was
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">proprietary</a>,
+which means that it had owners who forbid and
+prevent cooperation by users.  This made the GNU Project necessary.</p>
+
+<p>
+Every computer user needs an operating system; if there is no free
+operating system, then you can't even get started using a computer
+without resorting to proprietary software.  So the first item on the
+free software agenda obviously had to be a free operating system.</p>
+
+<p>
+We decided to make the operating system compatible with Unix because
+the overall design was already proven and portable, and because
+compatibility makes it easy for Unix users to switch from Unix to GNU.</p>
+
+<p>
+A Unix-like operating system is much more than a kernel; it also
+includes compilers, editors, text formatters, mail software, and many
+other things.  Thus, writing a whole operating system is a very large
+job.  We started in January 1984.  It took many years.
+The <a href="http://fsf.org/";>Free Software Foundation</a> was
+founded in October 1985, initially to raise funds to help develop GNU.</p>
+
+<p>By 1990 we had either found or written all the major components
+except one&mdash;the kernel.  Then Linux, a Unix-like kernel, was
+developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 and made free software in 1992.
+Combining Linux with the almost-complete GNU system resulted in a
+complete operating system: the GNU/Linux system.  Estimates are that
+tens of millions of people now use GNU/Linux systems, typically
+via <a href="/distros">distributions</a> such as Slackware, Debian,
+Red Hat, and others.</p>
+
+<p>
+(The principal version of Linux now contains non-free firmware
+&ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.  Free software activists now maintain a modified
+<a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/linux";>free version</a>
+of Linux.)</p>
+
+<p>
+However, the GNU Project is not limited to the core operating system.
+We aim to provide a whole spectrum of software, whatever many users
+want to have.  This includes application software.  See
+the <a href="/directory">Free Software Directory</a> for a catalogue
+of free software application programs.</p>
+
+<p>
+We also want to provide software for users who are not computer
+experts.  Therefore we developed a
+<a href="http://www.gnome.org/";>graphical desktop (called GNOME)</a> to help
+beginners use the GNU system.</p>
+
+<p>We also want to provide games and other recreations.  Plenty of <a
+href="http://directory.fsf.org/wiki/Category/Game";>free games</a> are
+already available.</p>
+
+<p>
+How far can free software go?  There are no limits, except when <a
+href="/philosophy/fighting-software-patents.html">laws such as the
+patent system prohibit free software</a> entirely.  The ultimate goal is
+to provide free software to do all of the jobs computer users want to
+do&mdash;and thus make proprietary software a thing of the past.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007,
+2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Persian (Farsi) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Bahasa Indonesia -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li> -->
+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Romanian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ro.html">Rom&#x00e2;n&#x00e3;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Swedish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li> -->
+<!-- Chinese (Simplified) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Chinese (Traditional) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-history.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,145 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>GNU Users Who Have Never Heard of GNU - GNU Project - Free Software 
Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.translist" -->
+<h2>GNU Users Who Have Never Heard of GNU</h2>
+
+<p><strong>by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard 
Stallman</a></strong></p>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+  <blockquote><p>To learn more about this issue, you can also read
+our <a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">GNU/Linux FAQ</a>, our page on 
+<a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">Why GNU/Linux?</a> 
+and our page on <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">Linux and the GNU 
Project</a>.
+</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>Most people have never heard of GNU.  Even most of the people who use
+the GNU system have never heard of GNU, thanks to so many people and
+companies who teach them to call it &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  Nonetheless,
+the name GNU has certain associations, which people will discover once
+they hear the name.  GNU is associated with the ideals of freedom of the
+free software movement.  That association is no accident; the motive for
+developing GNU was specifically to make it possible to use a computer
+and have freedom.</p>
+
+<p>The association between the name GNU and our goals of freedom and
+social solidarity exists in the minds of hundreds of thousands of
+GNU/Linux users that do know about GNU.  It exists in Wikipedia.  And it
+exists around the web; if these users search for GNU, they will find <a
+href="http://www.gnu.org";>www.gnu.org</a>, which talks about free
+software and freedom.</p>
+
+<p>A person seeing the name &ldquo;GNU&rdquo; for the first time in
+&ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; won't immediately associate it with anything.
+However, when people know that the system is basically GNU, that brings
+them a step closer to learning about our ideals.  For instance, they
+might become curious and look for more information about GNU.</p>
+
+<p>If they don't look for it, they may encounter it anyway.  The
+&ldquo;open source&rdquo; rhetoric tends to lead people's attention away
+from issues of users' freedom, but not totally; there is still
+discussion of GNU and free software, and people have some chance of
+coming across it.  When that happens, the reader is more likely to pay
+attention to information about GNU (such as that it's the work of a
+campaign for freedom and community) if he knows he is a user of the GNU
+system.</p>
+
+<p>Over time, calling the system &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; spreads
+awareness of the ideals of freedom for which we developed the GNU
+system.  It is also useful as a reminder for people in our community who
+know about these ideals, in a world where much of discussion of free
+software takes a totally practical (and thus amoral) approach.  When we
+ask you to call the system &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;, we do so because
+awareness of GNU slowly but surely brings with it awareness of the free
+software ideals of freedom and community.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li>
 -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
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+<!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/gnu.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/gnu.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/gnu.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/gnu.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:28:28 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,153 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>The GNU Operating System
+- GNU project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/gnu.translist" -->
+
+<h2>The GNU Operating System</h2>
+
+<ul>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/about-gnu.html">About the GNU Operating System</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html">A historical overview of GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">A more detailed history of GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">The initial announcement</a>
+      of the project</li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">The GNU Manifesto</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/byte-interview.html">BYTE interview with Richard
+      Stallman</a> (1986)</li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/rms-lisp.html">My Lisp Experiences and the
+       Development of GNU Emacs</a> (by Richard Stallman)</li>
+  <li><a 
href="http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFDE123AF932A25752C0A96F948260&amp;sec=&amp;spon=&amp;pagewanted=1";>
     
+      One Man's Fight for Free Software</a>, an article about Richard
+      Stallman and the early GNU development, published at <cite>The
+      New York Times</cite> on January 11, 1989. One problem with the
+      article is that it uses the propaganda term &ldquo;intellectual
+      property&rdquo; as if that referred to something coherent.  The
+      term is such a confusion that talking about it <a
+      href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">makes no sense</a>. The article
+      is also somewhat confused in regard to Symbolics.  What Stallman
+      did, while still working at MIT, was to write, independently,
+      replacement improvements comparable to the improvements that
+      Symbolics made in its version of the MIT Lisp Machine
+      System.</li>
+  <li><a href="/philosophy/15-years-of-free-software.html">15 Years
+       of Free Software</a> (1999)</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<h3><a id="gnulinux"></a>GNU and Linux</h3>
+
+<ul>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">The relationship between GNU and
+      Linux</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">Why the &lsquo;Linux
+      system&rsquo; should be called GNU/Linux</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">GNU Users Who
+      Have Never Heard of GNU</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">A GNU/Linux FAQ</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<h3><a id="misc"></a>Other GNU-related resources</h3>
+
+<ul>
+  <li><a href="http://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group_list";>GNU/Linux,
+      GNU/Hurd, and free software user groups</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general,
+     all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about
+     verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking
+     with the webmasters first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document
+     and that it is like this: "2001, 2002", not this: "2001-2002". -->
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Please see the <a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!--      See also '(web-trans)Capitalization': -->
+<!--      
http://gnu.org/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/html_node/Capitalization.html
 -->
+<!--      -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
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+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.es.html">espa&ntilde;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Kannada -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.kn.html">&#xC95;&#xCA8;&#xCCD;&#xCA8;&#xCA1;</a>&nbsp;[kn]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Macedonian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.mk.html">&#x043c;&#x0430;&#x043a;&#x0435;&#x0434;&#x043e;&#x043d;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
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+<!-- Norwegian (bokmål) -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.nb.html">norsk (bokm&aring;l)</a>&nbsp;[nb]</li> -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/gnu.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
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+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/gnu.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/initial-announcement.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/initial-announcement.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/initial-announcement.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/initial-announcement.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,322 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>About the GNU Project - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/initial-announcement.translist" -->
+
+<h2>Initial Announcement</h2>
+
+<p> This is the original announcement of the GNU Project, posted by
+<a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a> on September
+27, 1983.</p>
+
+<p> The actual history of the GNU Project differs in many ways from
+this initial plan. For example, the beginning was delayed until
+January 1984. Several of the philosophical concepts
+of <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> were not
+clarified until a few years later.</p>
+
+<h3>Free Unix!</h3>
+
+<p>Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete
+Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix), and
+give it away free<a href="#f1">(1)</a> to everyone who can use it.
+Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are greatly
+needed.</p>
+
+<p>To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed
+to write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker,
+assembler, and a few other things.  After this we will add a text
+formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of
+other things.  We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that
+normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including
+on-line and hardcopy documentation.</p>
+
+<p>GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to
+Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our
+experience with other operating systems.  In particular, we plan to
+have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof file system,
+filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and
+eventually a Lisp-based window system through which several Lisp
+programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.  Both C and
+Lisp will be available as system programming languages.  We will have
+network software based on MIT's chaosnet protocol, far superior to
+UUCP.  We may also have something compatible with UUCP.</p>
+
+
+<h3>Who Am I?</h3>
+
+<p>I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS
+editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.  I have worked
+extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters,
+the Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating
+system.  I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS.  In
+addition I have implemented one crashproof file system and two window
+systems for Lisp machines.</p>
+
+<h3>Why I Must Write GNU</h3>
+
+<p>I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I
+must share it with other people who like it.  I cannot in good
+conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license
+agreement.</p>
+
+<p>So that I can continue to use computers without violating my
+principles, I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free
+software so that I will be able to get along without any software that
+is not free.</p>
+
+
+<h3>How You Can Contribute</h3>
+
+<p>I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and
+money.  I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.</p>
+
+<p>One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine.  But
+we could use more.  One consequence you can expect if you donate
+machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date.  The machine had
+better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require
+sophisticated cooling or power.</p>
+
+<p>Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate
+of some Unix utility and giving it to me.  For most projects, such
+part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the
+independently-written parts would not work together.  But for the
+particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent.  Most
+interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each
+contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work
+with the rest of GNU.</p>
+
+<p>If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or
+part time.  The salary won't be high, but I'm looking for people for
+whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money.  I view
+this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to
+working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way.</p>
+
+
+<p>For more information, contact me.</p>
+
+<p>Arpanet mail:<br />
+  address@hidden</p>
+
+<p>Usenet:<br />
+  address@hidden<br />
+  address@hidden</p>
+
+<p>US Snail:<br />
+  Richard Stallman<br />
+  166 Prospect St<br />
+  Cambridge, MA 02139</p>
+
+
+<h4 id="f1">Poor choice of wording around &ldquo;free&rdquo;</h4>
+
+<p>The wording here was careless.  The intention was that nobody would
+have to pay for <b>permission</b> to use the GNU system.  But the
+words don't make this clear, and people often interpret them as saying
+that copies of GNU should always be distributed at little or no
+charge.  That was never the intent.</p>
+
+<h3>Original message</h3>
+
+<p>For completeness, the original email is reproduced here, in its
+original form.</p>
+
+<div dir="ltr">
+<pre><!--TRANSLATORS: Don't translate anything except the headers.-->
+From CSvax:pur-ee:address@hidden
+From: address@hidden
+Newsgroups: net.unix-wizards,net.usoft
+Subject: new Unix implementation
+Date: Tue, 27-Sep-83 12:35:59 EST
+Organization: MIT AI Lab, Cambridge, MA
+
+Free Unix!
+
+Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete
+Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix), and
+give it away free<a href="#f1">(1)</a> to everyone who can use it.
+Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are greatly
+needed.
+
+To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to
+write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker,
+assembler, and a few other things.  After this we will add a text
+formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of
+other things.  We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that
+normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including
+on-line and hardcopy documentation.
+
+GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical
+to Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based
+on our experience with other operating systems.  In particular,
+we plan to have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof
+file system, filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent
+display support, and eventually a Lisp-based window system through
+which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.
+Both C and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.
+We will have network software based on MIT's chaosnet protocol,
+far superior to UUCP.  We may also have something compatible
+with UUCP.
+
+
+Who Am I?
+
+I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS
+editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.  I have worked
+extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters, the
+Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating system.
+I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS.  In addition I
+have implemented one crashproof file system and two window systems for
+Lisp machines.
+
+
+Why I Must Write GNU
+
+I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I
+must share it with other people who like it.  I cannot in good
+conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license
+agreement.
+
+So that I can continue to use computers without violating my principles,
+I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that
+I will be able to get along without any software that is not free.
+
+
+How You Can Contribute
+
+I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.
+I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.
+
+One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine.  But
+we could use more.  One consequence you can expect if you donate
+machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date.  The machine had
+better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require
+sophisticated cooling or power.
+
+Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate
+of some Unix utility and giving it to me.  For most projects, such
+part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the
+independently-written parts would not work together.  But for the
+particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent.  Most
+interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each
+contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work
+with the rest of GNU.
+
+If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or
+part time.  The salary won't be high, but I'm looking for people for
+whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money.  I view
+this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to
+working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way.
+
+
+For more information, contact me.
+Arpanet mail:
+  address@hidden
+
+Usenet:
+  address@hidden
+  address@hidden
+
+US Snail:
+  Richard Stallman
+  166 Prospect St
+  Cambridge, MA 02139
+</pre>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1983, 1999, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Swedish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/initial-announcement.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li> -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/manifesto.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/manifesto.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/manifesto.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/manifesto.ru-en.html 26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,765 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>The GNU Manifesto - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
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+<h2>The GNU Manifesto</h2>
+
+<p> The GNU Manifesto (which appears below) was written by <a
+href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a> at the beginning
+of the GNU Project, to ask for participation and support.  For the
+first few years, it was updated in minor ways to account for
+developments, but now it seems best to leave it unchanged as most
+people have seen it.</p>
+
+<p>Since that time, we have learned about certain common
+misunderstandings that different wording could help avoid.  Footnotes
+added since 1993 help clarify these points.</p>
+
+<p>For up-to-date information about the available GNU software, please
+see the information available on our <a href="/home.html">web
+server</a>, in particular our <a href="/software/software.html">list
+of software</a>.  For how to contribute, see <a
+href="/help/">http://www.gnu.org/help</a>.  </p>
+
+<h3>What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!</h3>
+
+<p>
+   GNU, which stands for Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete
+Unix-compatible software system which I am writing so that I can give
+it away free to everyone who can use it.<a href="#f1">(1)</a> Several
+other volunteers are helping me.  Contributions of time, money,
+programs and equipment are greatly needed.</p>
+
+<p>
+   So far we have an Emacs text editor with Lisp for writing editor
+commands, a source level debugger, a yacc-compatible parser generator,
+a linker, and around 35 utilities.  A shell (command interpreter) is
+nearly completed.  A new portable optimizing C compiler has compiled
+itself and may be released this year.  An initial kernel exists but
+many more features are needed to emulate Unix.  When the kernel and
+compiler are finished, it will be possible to distribute a GNU system
+suitable for program development.  We will use TeX as our text
+formatter, but an nroff is being worked on.  We will use the free,
+portable X Window System as well.  After this we will add a portable
+Common Lisp, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other
+things, plus online documentation.  We hope to supply, eventually,
+everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and more.</p>
+
+<p>
+   GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to
+Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our
+experience with other operating systems.  In particular, we plan to
+have longer file names, file version numbers, a crashproof file system,
+file name completion perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and
+perhaps eventually a Lisp-based window system through which several
+Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.  Both C
+and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.  We will
+try to support UUCP, MIT Chaosnet, and Internet protocols for
+communication.</p>
+
+<p>
+   GNU is aimed initially at machines in the 68000/16000 class with
+virtual memory, because they are the easiest machines to make it run
+on.  The extra effort to make it run on smaller machines will be left
+to someone who wants to use it on them.</p>
+
+<p>
+   To avoid horrible confusion, please pronounce the <em>g</em> in the
+word &ldquo;GNU&rdquo; when it is the name of this project.</p>
+
+<h3>Why I Must Write GNU</h3>
+
+<p>
+   I consider that the Golden Rule requires that if I like a program I
+must share it with other people who like it.  Software sellers want to
+divide the users and conquer them, making each user agree not to share
+with others.  I refuse to break solidarity with other users in this
+way.  I cannot in good conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a
+software license agreement.  For years I worked within the Artificial
+Intelligence Lab to resist such tendencies and other inhospitalities,
+but eventually they had gone too far: I could not remain in an
+institution where such things are done for me against my will.</p>
+
+<p>
+   So that I can continue to use computers without dishonor, I have
+decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I
+will be able to get along without any software that is not free.  I
+have resigned from the AI Lab to deny MIT any legal excuse to prevent
+me from giving GNU away.<a href="#f2a">(2)</a></p>
+
+<h3>Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix</h3>
+
+<p>
+   Unix is not my ideal system, but it is not too bad.  The essential
+features of Unix seem to be good ones, and I think I can fill in what
+Unix lacks without spoiling them.  And a system compatible with Unix
+would be convenient for many other people to adopt.</p>
+
+<h3>How GNU Will Be Available</h3>
+
+<p>
+   GNU is not in the public domain.  Everyone will be permitted to
+modify and redistribute GNU, but no distributor will be allowed to
+restrict its further redistribution.  That is to say,
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">proprietary</a>
+modifications will not be allowed.  I want to make sure that all
+versions of GNU remain free.</p>
+
+<h3>Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help</h3>
+
+<p>
+   I have found many other programmers who are excited about GNU and
+want to help.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Many programmers are unhappy about the commercialization of system
+software.  It may enable them to make more money, but it requires them
+to feel in conflict with other programmers in general rather than feel
+as comrades.  The fundamental act of friendship among programmers is the
+sharing of programs; marketing arrangements now typically used
+essentially forbid programmers to treat others as friends.  The
+purchaser of software must choose between friendship and obeying the
+law.  Naturally, many decide that friendship is more important.  But
+those who believe in law often do not feel at ease with either choice.
+They become cynical and think that programming is just a way of making
+money.</p>
+
+<p>
+   By working on and using GNU rather than proprietary programs, we can
+be hospitable to everyone and obey the law.  In addition, GNU serves as
+an example to inspire and a banner to rally others to join us in
+sharing.  This can give us a feeling of harmony which is impossible if
+we use software that is not free.  For about half the programmers I
+talk to, this is an important happiness that money cannot replace.</p>
+
+<h3>How You Can Contribute</h3>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p>
+(Nowadays, for software tasks to work on, see the <a 
href="http://fsf.org/campaigns/priority-projects";>High Priority Projects 
list</a> and the <a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/people/?type_id=1";>GNU Help 
Wanted list</a>, the general task list for GNU software packages. For other 
ways to help, see <a href="http://gnu.org/help/help.html";>the guide to helping 
the GNU operating system</a>.)
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+   I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and
+money.  I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.</p>
+
+<p>
+   One consequence you can expect if you donate machines is that GNU
+will run on them at an early date.  The machines should be complete,
+ready to use systems, approved for use in a residential area, and not
+in need of sophisticated cooling or power.</p>
+
+<p>
+   I have found very many programmers eager to contribute part-time
+work for GNU.  For most projects, such part-time distributed work would
+be very hard to coordinate; the independently written parts would not
+work together.  But for the particular task of replacing Unix, this
+problem is absent.  A complete Unix system contains hundreds of utility
+programs, each of which is documented separately.  Most interface
+specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each contributor
+can write a compatible replacement for a single Unix utility, and make
+it work properly in place of the original on a Unix system, then these
+utilities will work right when put together.  Even allowing for Murphy
+to create a few unexpected problems, assembling these components will
+be a feasible task.  (The kernel will require closer communication and
+will be worked on by a small, tight group.)</p>
+
+<p>
+   If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full
+or part time.  The salary won't be high by programmers' standards, but
+I'm looking for people for whom building community spirit is as
+important as making money.  I view this as a way of enabling dedicated
+people to devote their full energies to working on GNU by sparing them
+the need to make a living in another way.</p>
+
+<h3>Why All Computer Users Will Benefit</h3>
+
+<p>
+   Once GNU is written, everyone will be able to obtain good system
+software free, just like air.<a href="#f2">(3)</a></p>
+
+<p>
+   This means much more than just saving everyone the price of a Unix
+license.  It means that much wasteful duplication of system programming
+effort will be avoided.  This effort can go instead into advancing the
+state of the art.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Complete system sources will be available to everyone.  As a result,
+a user who needs changes in the system will always be free to make them
+himself, or hire any available programmer or company to make them for
+him.  Users will no longer be at the mercy of one programmer or company
+which owns the sources and is in sole position to make changes.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Schools will be able to provide a much more educational environment
+by encouraging all students to study and improve the system code.
+Harvard's computer lab used to have the policy that no program could be
+installed on the system if its sources were not on public display, and
+upheld it by actually refusing to install certain programs.  I was very
+much inspired by this.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Finally, the overhead of considering who owns the system software
+and what one is or is not entitled to do with it will be lifted.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Arrangements to make people pay for using a program, including
+licensing of copies, always incur a tremendous cost to society through
+the cumbersome mechanisms necessary to figure out how much (that is,
+which programs) a person must pay for.  And only a police state can
+force everyone to obey them.  Consider a space station where air must
+be manufactured at great cost: charging each breather per liter of air
+may be fair, but wearing the metered gas mask all day and all night is
+intolerable even if everyone can afford to pay the air bill.  And the
+TV cameras everywhere to see if you ever take the mask off are
+outrageous.  It's better to support the air plant with a head tax and
+chuck the masks.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Copying all or parts of a program is as natural to a programmer as
+breathing, and as productive.  It ought to be as free.</p>
+
+<h3>Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's Goals</h3>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Nobody will use it if it is free, because that means
+they can't rely on any support.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;You have to charge for the program to pay for providing
+the support.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   If people would rather pay for GNU plus service than get GNU free
+without service, a company to provide just service to people who have
+obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.<a href="#f3">(4)</a></p>
+
+<p>
+   We must distinguish between support in the form of real programming
+work and mere handholding.  The former is something one cannot rely on
+from a software vendor.  If your problem is not shared by enough
+people, the vendor will tell you to get lost.</p>
+
+<p>
+   If your business needs to be able to rely on support, the only way
+is to have all the necessary sources and tools.  Then you can hire any
+available person to fix your problem; you are not at the mercy of any
+individual.  With Unix, the price of sources puts this out of
+consideration for most businesses.  With GNU this will be easy.  It is
+still possible for there to be no available competent person, but this
+problem cannot be blamed on distribution arrangements.  GNU does not
+eliminate all the world's problems, only some of them.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Meanwhile, the users who know nothing about computers need
+handholding: doing things for them which they could easily do
+themselves but don't know how.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Such services could be provided by companies that sell just
+handholding and repair service.  If it is true that users would rather
+spend money and get a product with service, they will also be willing
+to buy the service having got the product free.  The service companies
+will compete in quality and price; users will not be tied to any
+particular one.  Meanwhile, those of us who don't need the service
+should be able to use the program without paying for the service.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;You cannot reach many people without advertising, and
+you must charge for the program to support that.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;It's no use advertising a program people can get
+free.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   There are various forms of free or very cheap publicity that can be
+used to inform numbers of computer users about something like GNU.  But
+it may be true that one can reach more microcomputer users with
+advertising.  If this is really so, a business which advertises the
+service of copying and mailing GNU for a fee ought to be successful
+enough to pay for its advertising and more.  This way, only the users
+who benefit from the advertising pay for it.</p>
+
+<p>
+   On the other hand, if many people get GNU from their friends, and
+such companies don't succeed, this will show that advertising was not
+really necessary to spread GNU.  Why is it that free market advocates
+don't want to let the free market decide this?<a href="#f4">(5)</a></p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;My company needs a proprietary operating system to get
+a competitive edge.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   GNU will remove operating system software from the realm of
+competition.  You will not be able to get an edge in this area, but
+neither will your competitors be able to get an edge over you.  You and
+they will compete in other areas, while benefiting mutually in this
+one.  If your business is selling an operating system, you will not
+like GNU, but that's tough on you.  If your business is something else,
+GNU can save you from being pushed into the expensive business of
+selling operating systems.</p>
+
+<p>
+   I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many
+manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.<a href="#f5">(6)</a></p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Don't programmers deserve a reward for their
+creativity?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   If anything deserves a reward, it is social contribution.
+Creativity can be a social contribution, but only in so far as society
+is free to use the results.  If programmers deserve to be rewarded for
+creating innovative programs, by the same token they deserve to be
+punished if they restrict the use of these programs.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Shouldn't a programmer be able to ask for a reward for
+his creativity?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   There is nothing wrong with wanting pay for work, or seeking to
+maximize one's income, as long as one does not use means that are
+destructive.  But the means customary in the field of software today
+are based on destruction.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Extracting money from users of a program by restricting their use of
+it is destructive because the restrictions reduce the amount and the
+ways that the program can be used.  This reduces the amount of wealth
+that humanity derives from the program.  When there is a deliberate
+choice to restrict, the harmful consequences are deliberate destruction.</p>
+
+<p>
+   The reason a good citizen does not use such destructive means to
+become wealthier is that, if everyone did so, we would all become
+poorer from the mutual destructiveness.  This is Kantian ethics; or,
+the Golden Rule.  Since I do not like the consequences that result if
+everyone hoards information, I am required to consider it wrong for one
+to do so.  Specifically, the desire to be rewarded for one's creativity
+does not justify depriving the world in general of all or part of that
+creativity.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Won't programmers starve?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   I could answer that nobody is forced to be a programmer.  Most of us
+cannot manage to get any money for standing on the street and making
+faces.  But we are not, as a result, condemned to spend our lives
+standing on the street making faces, and starving.  We do something
+else.</p>
+
+<p>
+   But that is the wrong answer because it accepts the questioner's
+implicit assumption: that without ownership of software, programmers
+cannot possibly be paid a cent.  Supposedly it is all or nothing.</p>
+
+<p>
+   The real reason programmers will not starve is that it will still be
+possible for them to get paid for programming; just not paid as much as
+now.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software.
+It is the most common basis<a href="#f8">(7)</a> because it brings in
+the most money.  If it
+were prohibited, or rejected by the customer, software business would
+move to other bases of organization which are now used less often.
+There are always numerous ways to organize any kind of business.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Probably programming will not be as lucrative on the new basis as it
+is now.  But that is not an argument against the change.  It is not
+considered an injustice that sales clerks make the salaries that they
+now do.  If programmers made the same, that would not be an injustice
+either.  (In practice they would still make considerably more than
+that.)</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Don't people have a right to control how their
+creativity is used?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+&ldquo;Control over the use of one's ideas&rdquo; really constitutes
+control over other people's lives; and it is usually used to make
+their lives more difficult.</p>
+
+<p>
+   People who have studied the issue of intellectual property
+rights<a href="#f6">(8)</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say that there
+is no intrinsic right to intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed
+intellectual property rights that the government recognizes were
+created by specific acts of legislation for specific purposes.</p>
+
+<p>
+   For example, the patent system was established to encourage
+inventors to disclose the details of their inventions.  Its purpose was
+to help society rather than to help inventors.  At the time, the life
+span of 17 years for a patent was short compared with the rate of
+advance of the state of the art.  Since patents are an issue only among
+manufacturers, for whom the cost and effort of a license agreement are
+small compared with setting up production, the patents often do not do
+much harm.  They do not obstruct most individuals who use patented
+products.</p>
+
+<p>
+   The idea of copyright did not exist in ancient times, when authors
+frequently copied other authors at length in works of nonfiction.  This
+practice was useful, and is the only way many authors' works have
+survived even in part.  The copyright system was created expressly for
+the purpose of encouraging authorship.  In the domain for which it was
+invented&mdash;books, which could be copied economically only on a printing
+press&mdash;it did little harm, and did not obstruct most of the individuals
+who read the books.</p>
+
+<p>
+   All intellectual property rights are just licenses granted by society
+because it was thought, rightly or wrongly, that society as a whole
+would benefit by granting them.  But in any particular situation, we
+have to ask: are we really better off granting such license?  What kind
+of act are we licensing a person to do?</p>
+
+<p>
+   The case of programs today is very different from that of books a
+hundred years ago.  The fact that the easiest way to copy a program is
+from one neighbor to another, the fact that a program has both source
+code and object code which are distinct, and the fact that a program is
+used rather than read and enjoyed, combine to create a situation in
+which a person who enforces a copyright is harming society as a whole
+both materially and spiritually; in which a person should not do so
+regardless of whether the law enables him to.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Competition makes things get done
+better.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   The paradigm of competition is a race: by rewarding the winner, we
+encourage everyone to run faster.  When capitalism really works this
+way, it does a good job; but its defenders are wrong in assuming it
+always works this way.  If the runners forget why the reward is offered
+and become intent on winning, no matter how, they may find other
+strategies&mdash;such as, attacking other runners.  If the runners get into
+a fist fight, they will all finish late.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Proprietary and secret software is the moral equivalent of runners
+in a fist fight.  Sad to say, the only referee we've got does not seem
+to object to fights; he just regulates them (&ldquo;For every ten
+yards you run, you can fire one shot&rdquo;).  He really ought to
+break them up, and penalize runners for even trying to fight.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Won't everyone stop programming without a monetary
+incentive?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   Actually, many people will program with absolutely no monetary
+incentive.  Programming has an irresistible fascination for some
+people, usually the people who are best at it.  There is no shortage of
+professional musicians who keep at it even though they have no hope of
+making a living that way.</p>
+
+<p>
+   But really this question, though commonly asked, is not appropriate
+to the situation.  Pay for programmers will not disappear, only become
+less.  So the right question is, will anyone program with a reduced
+monetary incentive?  My experience shows that they will.</p>
+
+<p>
+   For more than ten years, many of the world's best programmers worked
+at the Artificial Intelligence Lab for far less money than they could
+have had anywhere else.  They got many kinds of nonmonetary rewards:
+fame and appreciation, for example.  And creativity is also fun, a
+reward in itself.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Then most of them left when offered a chance to do the same
+interesting work for a lot of money.</p>
+
+<p>
+   What the facts show is that people will program for reasons other
+than riches; but if given a chance to make a lot of money as well, they
+will come to expect and demand it.  Low-paying organizations do poorly
+in competition with high-paying ones, but they do not have to do badly
+if the high-paying ones are banned.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;We need the programmers desperately.  If they demand
+that we stop helping our neighbors, we have to obey.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   You're never so desperate that you have to obey this sort of demand.
+Remember: millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>&ldquo;Programmers need to make a living somehow.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+   In the short run, this is true.  However, there are plenty of ways
+that programmers could make a living without selling the right to use a
+program.  This way is customary now because it brings programmers and
+businessmen the most money, not because it is the only way to make a
+living.  It is easy to find other ways if you want to find them.  Here
+are a number of examples.</p>
+
+<p>
+   A manufacturer introducing a new computer will pay for the porting of
+operating systems onto the new hardware.</p>
+
+<p>
+   The sale of teaching, handholding and maintenance services could
+also employ programmers.</p>
+
+<p>
+   People with new ideas could distribute programs as
+freeware<a href="#f7">(9)</a>, asking for donations from satisfied
+users, or selling handholding services.  I have met people who are
+already working this way successfully.</p>
+
+<p>
+   Users with related needs can form users' groups, and pay dues.  A
+group would contract with programming companies to write programs that
+the group's members would like to use.</p>
+
+<p>
+   All sorts of development can be funded with a Software Tax:</p>
+
+<p>
+     Suppose everyone who buys a computer has to pay x percent of the
+     price as a software tax.  The government gives this to an agency
+     like the NSF to spend on software development.</p>
+
+<p>
+     But if the computer buyer makes a donation to software development
+     himself, he can take a credit against the tax.  He can donate to
+     the project of his own choosing&mdash;often, chosen because he hopes to
+     use the results when it is done.  He can take a credit for any
+     amount of donation up to the total tax he had to pay.</p>
+
+<p>
+     The total tax rate could be decided by a vote of the payers of the
+     tax, weighted according to the amount they will be taxed on.</p>
+
+<p>
+     The consequences:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>The computer-using community supports software development.</li>
+<li>This community decides what level of support is needed.</li>
+<li>Users who care which projects their share is spent on can
+          choose this for themselves.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+   In the long run, making programs free is a step toward the
+postscarcity world, where nobody will have to work very hard just to
+make a living.  People will be free to devote themselves to activities
+that are fun, such as programming, after spending the necessary ten
+hours a week on required tasks such as legislation, family counseling,
+robot repair and asteroid prospecting.  There will be no need to be
+able to make a living from programming.</p>
+
+<p>
+   We have already greatly reduced the amount of work that the whole
+society must do for its actual productivity, but only a little of this
+has translated itself into leisure for workers because much
+nonproductive activity is required to accompany productive activity.
+The main causes of this are bureaucracy and isometric struggles against
+competition.  Free software will greatly reduce these drains in the
+area of software production.  We must do this, in order for technical
+gains in productivity to translate into less work for us.</p>
+
+
+<h4>Footnotes</h4>
+
+<!-- The anchors do not match the actual footnote numbers because of
+     revisions over time.  And if a new footnote is added, the references
+     to existing footnotes that follow the new one must be changed.  -->
+<ol>
+<li><a name="f1"></a>The wording here was careless.  The intention
+was that nobody would have to pay for <b>permission</b> to use the GNU
+system.  But the words don't make this clear, and people often
+interpret them as saying that copies of GNU should always be
+distributed at little or no charge.  That was never the intent; later
+on, the manifesto mentions the possibility of companies providing the
+service of distribution for a profit.  Subsequently I have learned to
+distinguish carefully between &ldquo;free&rdquo; in the sense of
+freedom and &ldquo;free&rdquo; in the sense of price.  Free software
+is software that users have the freedom to distribute and change.
+Some users may obtain copies at no charge, while others pay to obtain
+copies&mdash;and if the funds help support improving the software, so much
+the better.  The important thing is that everyone who has a copy has
+the freedom to cooperate with others in using it.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f2a"></a>The expression &ldquo;give away&rdquo; is another
+indication that I had not yet clearly separated the issue of price
+from that of freedom.  We now recommend avoiding this expression when
+talking about free software.  See
+<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#GiveAwaySoftware">
+<q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more explanation.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f2"></a>This is another place I failed to distinguish
+carefully between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free&rdquo;.
+The statement as it stands is not false&mdash;you can get copies of GNU
+software at no charge, from your friends or over the net.  But it does
+suggest the wrong idea.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f3"></a>Several such companies now exist.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f4"></a> Although it is a
+charity rather than a company, the Free Software Foundation for 10 years raised
+most of its funds from its distribution service.  You
+can <a href="/order/order.html">order things from the FSF</a>
+to support its work.
+</li>
+
+<li><a name="f5"></a>A group of computer companies pooled funds
+around 1991 to support maintenance of the GNU C Compiler.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f8"></a>I think I was mistaken in saying that proprietary
+software was the most common basis for making money in software.
+It seems that actually the most common business model was and is
+development of custom software.  That does not offer the possibility
+of collecting rents, so the business has to keep doing real work
+in order to keep getting income.  The custom software business would
+continue to exist, more or less unchanged, in a free software world.
+Therefore, I no longer expect that most paid programmers would earn less
+in a free software world.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f6"></a>In the 1980s I had not yet realized how confusing
+it was to speak of &ldquo;the issue&rdquo; of &ldquo;intellectual
+property&rdquo;.  That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the
+fact that it lumps together various disparate laws which raise very
+different issues.  Nowadays I urge people to reject the term
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; entirely, lest it lead others to
+suppose that those laws form one coherent issue.  The way to be clear
+is to discuss patents, copyrights, and trademarks separately.
+See <a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">further explanation</a> of how
+this term spreads confusion and bias.</li>
+
+<li><a name="f7"></a>Subsequently we learned to distinguish
+between &ldquo;free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;freeware&rdquo;.  The
+term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; means software you are free to
+redistribute, but usually you are not free to study and change the
+source code, so most of it is not free software.  See
+<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Freeware">
+<q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more explanation.</li>
+
+</ol>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>
+Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies
+of this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and
+permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the
+recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this
+notice.
+<br />
+Modified versions may not be made.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
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+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.el.html">&#x3b5;&#x3bb;&#x3bb;&#x3b7;&#x3bd;&#x3b9;&#x3ba;&#x3ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
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+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Croatian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.hr.html">hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li> -->
+<!-- Macedonian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/manifesto.mk.html">&#x043c;&#x0430;&#x043a;&#x0435;&#x0434;&#x043e;&#x043d;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[mk]</li>
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+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
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+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Swedish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/manifesto.sv.html">svenska</a>&nbsp;[sv]</li> -->
+<!-- Tamil -->
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+<!-- Turkish -->
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+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html
diff -N gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:29 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,299 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Why GNU/Linux? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/why-gnu-linux.translist" -->
+
+<h2>What's in a Name?</h2>
+
+<p><strong>by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard 
Stallman</a></strong></p>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+  <blockquote><p>To learn more about this issue, you can read
+our <a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html">GNU/Linux FAQ</a>, our page on 
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">Linux and the GNU Project</a>, which gives a 
history of the GNU/Linux system as it relates to this issue of naming, 
+and our page on <a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html">GNU
+Users Who Have Never Heard of GNU</a>.
+
+</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+Names convey meanings; our choice of names determines the meaning of
+what we say.  An inappropriate name gives people the wrong idea.  A
+rose by any other name would smell as sweet&mdash;but if you call it a pen,
+people will be rather disappointed when they try to write with it.
+And if you call pens &ldquo;roses&rdquo;, people may not realize what
+they are good for.  If you call our operating system
+Linux, that conveys a mistaken idea of the system's
+origin, history, and purpose.  If you call
+it <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>, that conveys
+(though not in detail) an accurate idea.</p>
+<p>
+Does this really matter for our community?  Is it important whether people
+know the system's origin, history, and purpose?  Yes&mdash;because people
+who forget history are often condemned to repeat it.  The Free World
+that has developed around <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>
+is not guaranteed to survive; the problems that
+led us to develop GNU are not completely eradicated, and they threaten
+to come back.</p>
+
+<p>
+When I explain why it's appropriate to call the operating system
+GNU/Linux rather than Linux, people
+sometimes respond this way:</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+<em>
+    Granted that the GNU Project deserves credit for this work, is
+    it really worth a fuss when people don't give credit?  Isn't the
+    important thing that the job was done, not who did it?  You
+    ought to relax, take pride in the job well done, and not worry
+    about the credit.
+</em>
+</p></blockquote>
+<p>
+This would be wise advice, if only the situation were like that&mdash;if
+the job were done and it were time to relax.  If only that were true!
+But challenges abound, and this is no time to take the future for
+granted.  Our community's strength rests on commitment to freedom and
+cooperation.  Using the name <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>
+is a way for people to remind
+themselves and inform others of these goals.</p>
+
+<p>
+It is possible to write good free software without thinking of GNU;
+much good work has been done in the name of Linux also.  But the term
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; has been associated ever since it was first coined
+with a philosophy that does not make a commitment to the freedom to
+cooperate.  As the name is increasingly used by business, we will
+have even more trouble making it connect with community spirit.</p>
+
+<p>
+A great challenge to the future of free software comes from the
+tendency of the &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; distribution companies to add
+nonfree software to <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>
+in the name of convenience and power.  All the major commercial
+distribution developers do this; none limits itself to free software.
+Most of them do not clearly identify the nonfree
+packages in their distributions.  Many even develop nonfree software
+and add it to the system.  Some outrageously advertise
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; systems that are &ldquo;licensed per seat&rdquo;,
+which give the user as much freedom as Microsoft Windows.</p>
+
+<p>
+People try to justify adding nonfree software in the name of the
+&ldquo;popularity of Linux&rdquo;&mdash;in effect, valuing popularity above
+freedom.  Sometimes this is openly admitted.  For instance, Wired
+Magazine said that Robert McMillan, editor of Linux Magazine, &ldquo;feels
+that the move toward open source software should be fueled by
+technical, rather than political, decisions.&rdquo; And Caldera's
+<acronym title="Chief Executive Officer">CEO</acronym> openly urged
+users to drop the goal of freedom and work instead for the
+&ldquo;popularity of Linux&rdquo;.</p>
+<!--Link is dead
+<a 
href="http://www.zdnet.com/filters/printerfriendly/0,6061,2552025-2,00.html";>
+(http://www.zdnet.com/filters/printerfriendly/0,6061,2552025-2,00.html.)</a>
+-->
+
+<p>
+Adding nonfree software to the <a
+href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> system may increase the
+popularity, if by popularity we mean the number of people using some
+of <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> in combination with
+nonfree software.  But at the same time, it implicitly encourages the
+community to accept nonfree software as a good thing, and forget the
+goal of freedom.  It is not good to drive faster if you can't stay on the
+road.</p>
+
+<p>
+When the nonfree &ldquo;add-on&rdquo; is a library or programming
+tool, it can become a trap for free software developers.  When they
+write free software that depends on the nonfree package, their
+software cannot be part of a completely free system.  Motif and Qt
+trapped large amounts of free software in this way in the past,
+creating problems whose solutions took years.  Motif remained somewhat
+of a problem until it became obsolete and was no longer used.  Later,
+Sun's nonfree Java implementation had a similar effect:
+the <a href="/philosophy/java-trap.html">Java Trap</a>, fortunately now
+mostly corrected.</p>
+
+<p>
+If our community keeps moving in this direction, it could redirect the
+future of <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> into a mosaic of 
free and nonfree components.
+Five years from now, we will surely still have plenty of free
+software; but if we are not careful, it will hardly be usable without
+the nonfree software that users expect to find with it.  If this
+happens, our campaign for freedom will have failed.</p>
+
+<p>
+If releasing free alternatives were simply a matter of programming,
+solving future problems might become easier as our community's
+development resources increase.  But we face obstacles that threaten
+to make this harder: laws that prohibit free software.  As software
+patents mount up, and as laws like the
+<acronym title="Digital Millennium Copyright Act">DMCA</acronym> are
+used to prohibit the development of free software for important jobs
+such as viewing a DVD or listening to a RealAudio stream, we will find
+ourselves with no clear way to fight the patented and secret data
+formats except to <strong>reject the nonfree programs that use
+them</strong>.</p>
+
+<p>
+Meeting these challenges will require many different kinds of effort.
+But what we need above all, to confront any kind of challenge, is to
+remember the goal of freedom to cooperate.  We can't expect a mere
+desire for powerful, reliable software to motivate people to make
+great efforts.  We need the kind of determination that people have
+when they fight for their freedom and their community&mdash;determination
+to keep on for years and not give up.</p>
+
+<p>
+In our community, this goal and this determination emanate mainly from
+the GNU Project.  We're the ones who talk about freedom and community
+as something to stand firm for; the organizations that speak of
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; normally don't say this.  The magazines about
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; are typically full of ads for nonfree software;
+the companies that package &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; add nonfree software
+to the system; other companies &ldquo;support Linux&rdquo; by
+developing nonfree applications to run on GNU/Linux; the user groups
+for &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; typically invite salesman to present those
+applications.  The main place people in our community are likely to
+come across the idea of freedom and determination is in the GNU
+Project.</p>
+
+<p>
+But when people come across it, will they feel it relates to them?</p>
+
+<p>
+People who know they are using a system that came out of the GNU
+Project can see a direct relationship between themselves and GNU.
+They won't automatically agree with our philosophy, but at least they
+will see a reason to think seriously about it.  In contrast, people
+who consider themselves &ldquo;Linux users&rdquo;, and believe that
+the GNU Project &ldquo;developed tools which proved to be useful in
+Linux&rdquo;, typically perceive only an indirect relationship between
+GNU and themselves.  They may just ignore the GNU philosophy when they
+come across it.</p>
+
+<p>
+The GNU Project is idealistic, and anyone encouraging idealism today
+faces a great obstacle: the prevailing ideology encourages people to
+dismiss idealism as &ldquo;impractical&rdquo;.  Our idealism has been
+extremely practical: it is the reason we have a
+free <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> operating system.
+People who love this system ought to know that it is our idealism made
+real.</p>
+
+<p>
+If &ldquo;the job&rdquo; really were done, if there were nothing at
+stake except credit, perhaps it would be wiser to let the matter drop.
+But we are not in that position.  To inspire people to do the work
+that needs to be done, we need to be recognized for what we have
+already done.  Please help us, by calling the operating
+system <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
+
+
+</div>
+
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2000, 2006, 2007 Richard Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:28:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ca.html">catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.cs.html">&#268;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.el.html">&#x03b5;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Romanian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ro.html">rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.sr.html">&#x0441;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Turkish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.tr.html">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: help/po/help.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: help/po/help.ru-en.html
diff -N help/po/help.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ help/po/help.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:28:50 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,312 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>How you can help the GNU Project - GNU Project - Free Software 
Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/help/po/help.translist" -->
+
+<h2>A guide to helping the GNU operating system</h2>
+
+<p>The GNU Volunteer Coordinators <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> can assist you if you
+wish to help the GNU Project. They will be able to put you in touch with
+other people interested in or working on similar projects. When you have
+selected a task from our task lists, please let them know you're
+interested in working on it.</p>
+
+<p>Please let the GNU Volunteer Coordinators <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> know if you take on
+any task from this list.  We want to keep track of what tasks our
+volunteers are working on.</p>
+
+<p>For general questions about the GNU project, mail <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> and for questions and
+suggestions about this web site, mail <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+
+<h3 id="helpgnu">How to help the GNU Project</h3>
+<p>
+This list is ordered roughly with the more urgent items near the top.
+Please note that many things on this list link to larger, expanded lists.
+</p>
+<ul>
+  <li>Help with <a href="http://savannah.gnu.org";>Savannah</a>. We are
+  especially looking for technical sysadmin volunteers to help with
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href="http://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/savannah-hackers-public";>savannah-hackers-public</a>
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+
+    <li>Organize a new <a 
href="http://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group_list";>GNU/Linux
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+
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+
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to the FSF</a> 
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+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
+2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
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+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
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Index: philosophy/po/bsd.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/bsd.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/bsd.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/bsd.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:26 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,233 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>BSD License Problem - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/bsd.translist" -->
+<h2>The BSD License Problem</h2>
+
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<p>
+    The two major categories of free software license are <a
+        href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> and <a
+        href="/philosophy/categories.html#Non-CopyleftedFreeSoftware">
+        non-copyleft </a>.  <a
+        href="/licenses/license-list.html#GPLCompatibleLicenses">Copyleft
+        licenses</a> such as the <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GNU
+        GPL</a> insist that modified versions of the program must be
+    free software as well.  Non-copyleft licenses do not insist on this.
+    <a href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.html">We recommend copyleft</a>,
+    because it protects freedom for all users, but non-copylefted
+    software can still be free software, and useful to the free software
+    community.
+</p>
+
+<p>There are many variants of simple <a
+href="/licenses/license-list.html#GPLCompatibleLicenses">non-copyleft
+free software licenses</a>, such as the Expat license, FreeBSD license,
+X10 license, the X11 license, and the two BSD (Berkeley Software
+Distribution) licenses.  Most of them are equivalent except for details
+of wording, but the license used for BSD until 1999 had a special
+problem: the &ldquo;obnoxious BSD advertising clause&rdquo;. It said that every
+advertisement mentioning the software must include a particular
+sentence:</p>
+
+<pre>
+3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+   must display the following acknowledgement:
+     This product includes software developed by the University of
+     California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+    Initially the obnoxious BSD advertising clause was used only in the
+    Berkeley Software Distribution.  That did not cause any particular
+    problem, because including one sentence in an ad is not a great
+    practical difficulty.
+</p>
+<p>
+    If other developers who used BSD-like licenses had copied the BSD
+    advertising clause verbatim&mdash;including the sentence that refers to
+    the University of California&mdash;then they would not have made the
+    problem any bigger.
+</p>
+<p>
+    But, as you might expect, other developers did not copy the clause
+    verbatim.  They changed it, replacing &ldquo;University of 
California&rdquo;
+    with their own institution or their own names.  The result is a
+    plethora of licenses, requiring a plethora of different sentences.
+</p>
+<p>
+    When people put many such programs together in an operating system,
+    the result is a serious problem.  Imagine if a software system
+    required 75 different sentences, each one naming a different author
+    or group of authors.  To advertise that, you would need a full-page
+    ad.
+</p>
+<p>
+    This might seem like extrapolation ad absurdum, but it is actual
+    fact.  In a 1997
+    version of NetBSD, I counted 75 of these sentences.  (Fortunately
+    NetBSD has decided to stop adding them, and to remove those it could.)
+</p>
+<p>
+    To address this problem, in my &ldquo;spare time&rdquo; I talk with
+    developers who have used BSD-style licenses, asking them if they would
+    please remove the advertising clause.  Around 1996 I spoke with the
+    developers of FreeBSD about this, and they decided to remove the
+    advertising clause from all of their own code.  In May 1998 the developers
+    of Flick, at the University of Utah, removed this clause.
+</p>
+<p>
+    Dean Hal Varian at the University of California took up the cause,
+    and championed it with the administration.  In June 1999, after two
+    years of discussions, the University of California removed this
+    clause from the license of BSD.
+</p>
+<p>
+    Thus, there is now a new BSD license which does not contain the
+    advertising clause.  Unfortunately, this does not eliminate the
+    legacy of the advertising clause: similar clauses are still present
+    in the licenses of many packages which are not part of BSD.  The
+    change in license for BSD has no effect on the other packages which
+    imitated the old BSD license; only the developers who made them can
+    change them.
+</p>
+<p>
+    But if they followed Berkeley's lead before, maybe Berkeley's
+    change in policy will convince some of them to change.  It's worth
+    asking.
+</p>
+<p>
+    So if you have a favorite package which still uses the BSD license
+    with the advertising clause, please ask the maintainer to look at
+    this web page, and consider making the change.
+</p>
+<p>
+    And if you want to release a program as non-copylefted free
+    software, please don't use the advertising clause.  Thus, instead of
+    copying the BSD license from some released package&mdash;which might
+    still have the old version of the license in it&mdash;please use one
+    of the other permissive licenses, such as Expat or FreeBSD.
+</p>
+<p>
+    You can also help spread awareness of the issue by not using the
+    term &ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo;, and not saying &ldquo;the BSD license&rdquo;
+    which implies there is only one.  You see, when people refer to all
+    non-copyleft free software licenses as &ldquo;BSD-style licenses&rdquo;,
+    some new free software developer who wants to use a non-copyleft free
+    software license might take for granted that the place to get it is from
+    BSD.  He or she might copy the license with the advertising clause, not by
+    specific intention, just by chance.
+</p>
+<p>
+    If you would like to cite one specific example of a non-copyleft
+    license, and you have no particular preference, please pick an
+    example which has no particular problem.  For instance, if you talk
+    about &ldquo;X11-style licenses&rdquo;, you will encourage people to copy 
the
+    license from X11, which avoids the advertising clause for certain,
+    rather than take a risk by randomly choosing one of the two BSD
+    licenses.
+</p>
+<p>
+    When you want to refer specifically to one of the BSD licenses,
+    please always state which one: the &ldquo;original BSD license&rdquo; or 
the
+    &ldquo;revised BSD license&rdquo;.
+</p>
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
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+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1998, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:26 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is Deutsch. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
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+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
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+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/bsd.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.id.html">Bahasa Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> 
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+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/bsd.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
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+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/compromise.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/compromise.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/compromise.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/compromise.ru-en.html 26 Dec 2011 09:29:26 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,296 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Avoiding Ruinous Compromises - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/compromise.translist" -->
+
+<div style="float: right; font-size: 90%; width: 30em; margin: 1em;
+background-color: #ececec; padding: 1em; -moz-border-radius: 1em;
+margin-top: 4em;"><p><em>&ldquo;Twenty-five years
+ago <a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html">on September 27, 1983, I
+announced a plan</a> to create a completely free operating system
+called GNU&mdash;for &lsquo;GNU's Not Unix&rsquo;.  As part of the
+25th anniversary of the GNU system, I have written this article on how
+our community can avoid ruinous compromises.  In addition to avoiding
+such compromises, there are many ways you can <a href="/help/">help
+GNU</a> and free software.  One basic way is
+to <a 
href="https://www.fsf.org/associate/support_freedom/join_fsf?referrer=4052";>
+join the Free Software Foundation</a> as an Associate
+Member.&rdquo;</em>&mdash;<b>Richard Stallman</b></p></div>
+
+<h2>Avoiding Ruinous Compromises</h2>
+
+<p>by <strong>Richard Stallman</strong></p>
+
+<p>The free software movement aims for a social
+change: <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">to make all software
+free</a> so that all software users are free and can be part of a
+community of cooperation.  Every nonfree program gives its developer
+unjust power over the users.  Our goal is to put an end to that
+injustice.</p>
+
+<p>The road to freedom
+is <a 
href="http://www.fsf.org/bulletin/2008/spring/the-last-mile-is-always-the-hardest/";>
+a long road</a>.  It will take many steps and many years to reach a
+world in which it is normal for software users to have freedom.  Some
+of these steps are hard, and require sacrifice.  Some of them become easier
+if we make compromises with people that have different goals.</p>
+
+<p>Thus, the <a href="http://www.fsf.org/";>Free Software
+Foundation</a> makes compromises&mdash;even major ones.  For
+instance, we made compromises in the patent provisions of version 3 of
+the <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GNU General Public License</a> (GNU GPL) so
+that major companies would contribute to and distribute GPLv3-covered
+software and thus bring some patents under the effect of these
+provisions.  </p>
+
+<img src="/graphics/gplv3-large.png" alt="" style="float: left;" />
+
+<p><a href="/licenses/lgpl.html">The Lesser GPL</a>'s purpose is a
+compromise: we use it on certain chosen free libraries to permit their
+use in nonfree programs because we think that legally prohibiting
+this would only drive developers to proprietary libraries instead.  We
+accept and install code in GNU programs to make them work together
+with common nonfree programs, and we document and publicize this in
+ways that encourage users of the latter to install the former, but not
+vice versa.  We support specific campaigns we agree with, even when we
+don't fully agree with the groups behind them.</p>
+
+<p>But we reject certain compromises even though many others in our
+community are willing to make them.  For instance,
+we <a href="/philosophy/free-system-distribution-guidelines.html">
+endorse only the GNU/Linux distributions</a> that have policies not to
+include nonfree software or lead users to install it.  To endorse
+nonfree distributions would be a <acronym title="ruinous
+(r&#363;'&#601;-n&#601;s) adj. 1. Causing or apt to cause ruin;
+destructive.  2. Falling to ruin; dilapidated or
+decayed.">ruinous</acronym> compromise.</p>
+
+<p>Compromises are ruinous if they would work against our aims in the
+long term.  That can occur either at the level of ideas or at the level of
+actions.</p>
+
+<p>At the level of ideas, ruinous compromises are those that reinforce
+the premises we seek to change.  Our goal is a world in which software
+users are free, but as yet most computer users do not even recognize
+freedom as an issue.  They have taken up &ldquo;consumer&rdquo;
+values, which means they judge any program only on practical characteristics
+such as price and convenience.</p>
+
+<p>Dale Carnegie's classic self-help book, <cite>How to Win Friends and
+Influence People</cite>, advises that the most effective way to
+persuade someone to do something is to present arguments that appeal
+to his values.  There are ways we can appeal to the consumer values
+typical in our society.  For instance, free software obtained gratis
+can save the user money.  Many free programs are convenient and
+reliable, too.  Citing those practical benefits has succeeded in
+persuading many users to adopt various free programs, some of which
+are now quite successful.</p>
+
+<p>If getting more people to use some free programs is as far as you
+aim to go, you might decide to keep quiet about the concept of
+freedom, and focus only on the practical advantages that make sense
+in terms of consumer values.  That's what the term &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo; and its associated rhetoric do.</p>
+
+<p>That approach can get us only part way to the goal of freedom.  People
+who use free software only because it is convenient will stick with it
+only as long as it is convenient.  And they will see no reason not to
+use convenient proprietary programs along with it.</p>
+
+<p>The philosophy of open source presupposes and appeals to consumer
+values, and this affirms and reinforces them.  That's why we
+<a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">do not support
+open source.</a></p>
+
+<img src="/graphics/gnulaptop.png" alt="" style="float: right;" />
+
+<p>To establish a free community fully and lastingly, we need to do
+more than get people to use some free software.  We need to spread the
+idea of judging software (and other things) on &ldquo;citizen
+values&rdquo;, based on whether it respects users' freedom and
+community, not just in terms of convenience.  Then people will not
+fall into the trap of a proprietary program baited by an attractive,
+convenient feature.</p>
+
+<p>To promote citizen values, we have to talk about them and show how
+they are the basis of our actions.  We must reject the Dale Carnegie
+compromise that would influence their actions by endorsing their
+consumer values.</p>
+
+<p>This is not to say we cannot cite practical advantage at all&mdash;we can
+and we do.  It becomes a problem only when the practical advantage steals
+the scene and pushes freedom into the background.  Therefore,
+when we cite the practical advantages of free software, we reiterate
+frequently that those are just <em>additional, secondary</em> reasons
+to prefer it.</p>
+
+<p>It's not enough to make our words accord with our ideals; our
+actions have to accord with them too.  So we must also avoid
+compromises that involve doing or legitimizing the things we aim to
+stamp out.</p>
+
+<p>For instance, experience shows that you can attract some users to
+<a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">GNU/Linux</a> if you include some
+nonfree programs.  This could mean a cute nonfree application that
+will catch some user's eye, or a nonfree programming platform such
+as <a href="/philosophy/java-trap.html">Java</a> (formerly) or the
+Flash runtime (still), or a nonfree device driver that enables
+support for certain hardware models.</p>
+
+<p>These compromises are tempting, but they undermine the goal.  If
+you distribute nonfree software, or steer people towards it, you will
+find it hard to say, &ldquo;Nonfree software is an injustice, a
+social problem, and we must put an end to it.&rdquo; And even if you
+do continue to say those words, your actions will undermine them.</p>
+
+<p>The issue here is not whether people should be <em>able</em>
+or <em>allowed</em> to install nonfree software; a general-purpose
+system enables and allows users to do whatever they wish.  The issue
+is whether we guide users towards nonfree software.  What they do on
+their own is their responsibility; what we do for them, and what we
+direct them towards, is ours.  We must not direct the
+users towards proprietary software as if it were a solution, because
+proprietary software is the problem.</p>
+
+<p>A ruinous compromise is not just a bad influence on others.  It can
+distort your own values, too, through cognitive dissonance.  If you
+have certain values, but your actions imply other, conflicting values,
+you are likely to change your values or your actions so as to resolve the
+contradiction.  Thus, projects that argue only from practical
+advantages, or direct people toward some nonfree software, nearly
+always shy away from even <em>suggesting</em> that nonfree software
+is unethical.  For their participants, as well as for the public, they
+reinforce consumer values.  We must reject these compromises if we wish
+to keep our values straight.</p>
+
+<p>If you want to move to free software without compromising the goal
+of freedom, look at <a href="http://www.fsf.org/resources";>the FSF's
+resources area</a>.  It lists hardware and machine configurations that
+work with free software, <a href="/distros"> totally free GNU/Linux
+distros</a> to install, and thousands of free software packages that
+work in a 100 percent free software environment.  If you want to help the
+community stay on the road to freedom, one important way is to
+publicly uphold citizen values.  When people are discussing what is
+good or bad, or what to do, cite the values of freedom and community
+and argue from them.</p>
+
+<p>A road that lets you go faster is no improvement if it leads to the
+wrong place.  Compromise is essential to achieve an ambitious goal,
+but beware of compromises that lead away from the goal.</p>
+
+<hr />
+
+<p>
+For a similar point in a different area of life,
+see <a 
href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/19/nudge-is-not-enough-behaviour-change";>"'Nudge'
+is not enough"</a>.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2008, 2009 <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard
+Stallman</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Richard Stallman is the founder of the Free Software Foundation.
+You can copy and redistribute this article under the <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution Noderivs 3.0 license</a>.</p>
+
+<!--
+<rdf:RDF xmlns="http://creativecommons.org/ns#";
+    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/";
+    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#";>
+<Work rdf:about="">
+<license rdf:resource="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/"; />
+</Work>
+
+<License rdf:about="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/";>
+   <requires rdf:resource="http://creativecommons.org/ns#Attribution"; />
+   <permits rdf:resource="http://creativecommons.org/ns#Reproduction"; />
+
+   <permits rdf:resource="http://creativecommons.org/ns#Distribution"; />
+   <requires rdf:resource="http://creativecommons.org/ns#Notice"; />
+</License>
+
+</rdf:RDF>
+
+-->
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:26 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
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+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/compromise.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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Index: philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,266 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Enforcing the GNU GPL 
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, violation, general, public, license, gpl, general public license, 
enforcing, freedom, software, Eben, Moglen, Eben Moglen" />
+<meta http-equiv="Description" content="In his essay, Enforcing the GNU GPL, 
Eben Moglen, legal counsel to the FSF, talks about how enforcement of the GNU 
General Public License is typically carried out." />
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/enforcing-gpl.translist" -->
+<h2>Enforcing the GNU GPL</h2>
+
+<p>by <a href="http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/";><strong>Eben 
Moglen</strong></a></p>
+<p><em>10 September 2001</em></p>
+
+<p>Microsoft's anti-GPL offensive this summer has sparked renewed
+speculation about whether the GPL is &ldquo;enforceable.&rdquo; This
+particular example of &ldquo;FUD&rdquo; (fear, uncertainty and doubt)
+is always a little amusing to me.  I'm the only lawyer on earth who
+can say this, I suppose, but it makes me wonder what everyone's
+wondering about: Enforcing the <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GPL</a> is
+something that I do all the time.</p>
+
+<p>Because <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> is an
+unorthodox concept in contemporary society, people tend to assume that
+such an atypical goal must be pursued using unusually ingenious, and
+therefore fragile, legal machinery.  But the assumption is faulty.  The
+goal of the Free Software Foundation in designing and publishing the GPL,
+<em>is</em> unfortunately unusual: we're reshaping how programs are made in
+order to give everyone the right to understand, repair, improve, and
+redistribute the best-quality software on earth.  This is a transformative
+enterprise; it shows how in the new, networked society traditional ways of
+doing business can be displaced by completely different models of
+production and distribution.  But the GPL, the legal device that makes
+everything else possible, is a very robust machine precisely because it is
+made of the simplest working parts.</p>
+
+<p>The essence of copyright law, like other systems of property rules, is the
+power to exclude.  The copyright holder is legally empowered to exclude
+all others from copying, distributing, and making derivative works.</p>
+
+<p>This right to exclude implies an equally large power to
+license&mdash;that is, to grant permission to do what would otherwise
+be forbidden.  Licenses are not contracts: the work's user is obliged
+to remain within the bounds of the license not because she voluntarily
+promised, but because she doesn't have any right to act at all except
+as the license permits.</p>
+
+<p>But most proprietary software companies want more power than copyright
+alone gives them.  These companies say their software is
+&ldquo;licensed&rdquo; to consumers, but the license contains
+obligations that copyright law knows nothing about.  Software you're
+not allowed to understand, for example, often requires you to agree
+not to decompile it.  Copyright law doesn't prohibit decompilation,
+the prohibition is just a contract term you agree to as a condition of
+getting the software when you buy the product under shrink wrap in a
+store, or accept a &ldquo;clickwrap license&rdquo; on line.  Copyright
+is just leverage for taking even more away from users.</p>
+
+<p>The GPL, on the other hand, subtracts from copyright rather than adding to
+it.  The license doesn't have to be complicated, because we try to control
+users as little as possible.  Copyright grants publishers power to forbid
+users to exercise rights to copy, modify, and distribute that we believe
+all users should have; the GPL thus relaxes almost all the restrictions of
+the copyright system.  The only thing we absolutely require is that anyone
+distributing GPL'd works or works made from GPL'd works distribute in turn
+under GPL.  That condition is a very minor restriction, from the copyright
+point of view.  Much more restrictive licenses are routinely held
+enforceable: every license involved in every single copyright lawsuit is
+more restrictive than the GPL.</p>
+
+<p>Because there's nothing complex or controversial about the license's
+substantive provisions, I have never even seen a serious argument that the
+GPL exceeds a licensor's powers.  But it is sometimes said that the GPL
+can't be enforced because users haven't &ldquo;accepted&rdquo; it.</p>
+
+<p>This claim is based on a misunderstanding.  The license does not require
+anyone to accept it in order to acquire, install, use, inspect, or even
+experimentally modify GPL'd software.  All of those activities are either
+forbidden or controlled by proprietary software firms, so they require you
+to accept a license, including contractual provisions outside the reach of
+copyright, before you can use their works.  The free software movement
+thinks all those activities are rights, which all users ought to have; we
+don't even <em>want</em> to cover those activities by license.  Almost
+everyone who uses GPL'd software from day to day needs no license, and
+accepts none.  The GPL only obliges you if you distribute software made
+from GPL'd code, and only needs to be accepted when redistribution occurs.
+And because no one can ever redistribute without a license, we can safely
+presume that anyone redistributing GPL'd software intended to accept the
+GPL.  After all, the GPL requires each copy of covered software to include
+the license text, so everyone is fully informed.</p>
+
+<p>Despite the FUD, as a copyright license the GPL is absolutely solid.
+That's why I've been able to enforce it dozens of times over nearly ten
+years, without ever going to court.</p>
+
+<p>Meanwhile, much murmuring has been going on in recent months to the
+supposed effect that the absence of judicial enforcement, in US or other
+courts, somehow demonstrates that there is something wrong with the GPL,
+that its unusual policy goal is implemented in a technically indefensible
+way, or that the Free Software Foundation, which authors the license, is
+afraid of testing it in court.  Precisely the reverse is true.  We do not
+find ourselves taking the GPL to court because no one has yet been willing
+to risk contesting it with us there.</p>
+
+<p>So what happens when the GPL is violated?  With software for which the
+Free Software Foundation holds the copyright (either because we wrote
+the programs in the first place, or because free software authors have
+assigned us the copyright, in order to take advantage of our expertise
+in protecting their software's
+freedom), <a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html">the first step is a
+report</a>, usually received by email
+to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+<a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html">We ask the reporters of
+violations to help us establish necessary facts</a>, and then we
+conduct whatever further investigation is required.</p>
+
+<p>We reach this stage dozens of times a year.  A quiet initial contact is
+usually sufficient to resolve the problem.  Parties thought they were
+complying with GPL, and are pleased to follow advice on the correction of
+an error.  Sometimes, however, we believe that confidence-building
+measures will be required, because the scale of the violation or its
+persistence in time makes mere voluntary compliance insufficient.  In such
+situations we work with organizations to establish GPL-compliance programs
+within their enterprises, led by senior managers who report to us, and
+directly to their enterprises' managing boards, regularly.  In
+particularly complex cases, we have sometimes insisted upon measures that
+would make subsequent judicial enforcement simple and rapid in the event
+of future violation.</p>
+
+<p>In approximately a decade of enforcing the GPL, I have never insisted on
+payment of damages to the Foundation for violation of the license, and I
+have rarely required public admission of wrongdoing.  Our position has
+always been that compliance with the license, and security for future good
+behavior, are the most important goals.  We have done everything to make
+it easy for violators to comply, and we have offered oblivion with respect
+to past faults.</p>
+
+<p>In the early years of the free software movement, this was probably the
+only strategy available.  Expensive and burdensome litigation might have
+destroyed the FSF, or at least prevented it from doing what we knew was
+necessary to make the free software movement the permanent force in
+reshaping the software industry that it has now become.  Over time,
+however, we persisted in our approach to license enforcement not because
+we had to, but because it worked.  An entire industry grew up around free
+software, all of whose participants understood the overwhelming importance
+of the GPL&mdash;no one wanted to be seen as the villain who stole free
+software, and no one wanted to be the customer, business partner, or even
+employee of such a bad actor.  Faced with a choice between compliance
+without publicity or a campaign of bad publicity and a litigation battle
+they could not win, violators chose not to play it the hard way.</p>
+
+<p>We have even, once or twice, faced enterprises which, under US
+copyright law, were engaged in deliberate, criminal copyright
+infringement: taking the source code of GPL'd software, recompiling it
+with an attempt to conceal its origin, and offering it for sale as a
+proprietary product.  I have assisted free software developers other
+than the FSF to deal with such problems, which we have
+resolved&mdash;since the criminal infringer would not voluntarily
+desist and, in the cases I have in mind, legal technicalities
+prevented actual criminal prosecution of the violators&mdash;by
+talking to redistributors and potential customers.  &ldquo;Why would
+you want to pay serious money,&rdquo; we have asked, &ldquo;for
+software that infringes our license and will bog you down in complex
+legal problems, when you can have the real thing for free?&rdquo;
+Customers have never failed to see the pertinence of the question.
+The stealing of free software is one place where, indeed, crime
+doesn't pay.</p>
+
+<p>But perhaps we have succeeded too well.  If I had used the courts to
+enforce the GPL years ago, Microsoft's whispering would now be falling
+on deaf ears.  Just this month I have been working on a couple of
+moderately sticky situations.  &ldquo;Look,&rdquo; I say, &ldquo;at
+how many people all over the world are pressuring me to enforce the
+GPL in court, just to prove I can.  I really need to make an example
+of someone.  Would you like to volunteer?&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>Someday someone will.  But that someone's customers are going to go
+elsewhere, talented technologists who don't want their own reputations
+associated with such an enterprise will quit, and bad publicity will
+smother them.  And that's all before we even walk into court.  The first
+person who tries it will certainly wish he hadn't.  Our way of doing law
+has been as unusual as our way of doing software, but that's just the
+point.  Free software matters because it turns out that the different way
+is the right way after all.</p>
+
+<p><cite>
+Eben Moglen is professor of law and legal history at Columbia University
+Law School.  He serves without fee as General Counsel of the Free Software
+Foundation.
+</cite></p>
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF.<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2001 Eben Moglen</p>
+
+<p>Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in
+any medium, provided this notice is preserved.</p>
+
+<p>Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
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Index: philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
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-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,506 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Why &ldquo;Free Software&rdquo; is better than &ldquo;Open
+Source&rdquo; - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/free-software-for-freedom.translist" -->
+<h2>Why &ldquo;Free Software&rdquo; is better than &ldquo;Open 
Source&rdquo;</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<div class="announcement">
+<blockquote><p><a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">&ldquo;Open
+Source&rdquo; misses the point of Free Software</a> is an updated
+version of this article.</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+While free software by any other name would give you the same
+freedom, it makes a big difference which name we use: different words
+<em>convey different ideas</em>.</p>
+
+<p>
+In 1998, some of the people in the free software community began using
+the term <a href="http://www.opensource.org/";>&ldquo;open source
+software&rdquo;</a> instead of <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">&ldquo;free
+software&rdquo;</a> to describe what they do.  The term &ldquo;open 
source&rdquo;
+quickly became associated with a different approach, a different
+philosophy, different values, and even a different criterion for which
+licenses are acceptable.  The Free Software movement and the Open
+Source movement are today <a href="#relationship"> separate
+movements</a> with different views and goals, although we can and do
+work together on some practical projects.</p>
+
+<p>
+The fundamental difference between the two movements is in their
+values, their ways of looking at the world.  For the Open Source
+movement, the issue of whether software should be open source is a
+practical question, not an ethical one.  As one person put it, &ldquo;Open
+source is a development methodology; free software is a social
+movement.&rdquo;  For the Open Source movement, non-free software is a
+suboptimal solution.  For the Free Software movement, non-free
+software is a social problem and free software is the solution.</p>
+
+<h3 id="relationship">Relationship between the Free Software
+movement and Open Source movement</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Free Software movement and the Open Source movement are like two
+political camps within the free software community.</p>
+
+<p>
+Radical groups in the 1960s developed a reputation for factionalism:
+organizations split because of disagreements on details of strategy,
+and then treated each other as enemies.  Or at least, such is the
+image people have of them, whether or not it was true.</p>
+
+<p>
+The relationship between the Free Software movement and the Open
+Source movement is just the opposite of that picture.  We disagree on
+the basic principles, but agree more or less on the practical
+recommendations.  So we can and do work together on many specific
+projects.  We don't think of the Open Source movement as an enemy.
+The enemy is
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"> proprietary
+software</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+We are not against the Open Source movement, but we don't want to be
+lumped in with them.  We acknowledge that they have contributed to our
+community, but we created this community, and we want people to know
+this.  We want people to associate our achievements with our values
+and our philosophy, not with theirs.  We want to be heard, not
+obscured behind a group with different views.  To prevent people from
+thinking we are part of them, we take pains to avoid using the word
+&ldquo;open&rdquo; to describe free software, or its contrary,
+&ldquo;closed&rdquo;, in talking about non-free software.</p>
+
+<p>
+So please mention the Free Software movement when you talk about the
+work we have done, and the software we have developed&mdash;such as the
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> operating system.</p>
+
+<h3 id="comparison">Comparing the two terms</h3>
+
+<p>
+This rest of this article compares the two terms &ldquo;free software&rdquo; 
and
+&ldquo;open source&rdquo;.  It shows why the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; 
does not solve
+any problems, and in fact creates some.</p>
+
+<h3 id="ambiguity">Ambiguity</h3>
+
+<p>
+The term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; has an ambiguity problem: an unintended
+meaning, &ldquo;Software you can get for zero price,&rdquo; fits the term just
+as well as the intended meaning, &ldquo;software which gives the user
+certain freedoms.&rdquo;  We address this problem by publishing a
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"> more precise definition of free
+software</a>, but this is not a perfect solution; it cannot completely
+eliminate the problem.  An unambiguously correct term would be better,
+if it didn't have other problems.</p>
+
+<p>
+Unfortunately, all the alternatives in English have problems of their
+own.  We've looked at many alternatives that people have suggested,
+but none is so clearly &ldquo;right&rdquo; that switching to it would be a good
+idea.  Every proposed replacement for &ldquo;free software&rdquo; has a similar
+kind of semantic problem, or worse&mdash;and this includes &ldquo;open source
+software.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>
+The official definition of &ldquo;open source software,&rdquo; as published
+by the Open Source Initiative, is very close to our definition
+of free software; however, it is a little looser in some respects,
+and they have accepted a few licenses that we consider unacceptably
+restrictive of the users.
+
+However, 
+the obvious meaning for the expression &ldquo;open source software&rdquo;
+is &ldquo;You can look at
+the source code.&rdquo;  This is a much weaker criterion than free
+software; it includes free software, but also
+some <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">
+proprietary</a> programs, including Xv, and Qt under its original license
+(before the QPL).</p>
+
+<p>
+That obvious meaning for &ldquo;open source&rdquo; is not the meaning that its
+advocates intend.  The result is that most people misunderstand
+what those advocates are advocating.  Here is how writer Neal
+Stephenson defined &ldquo;open source&rdquo;:</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+Linux is &ldquo;open source&rdquo; software
+meaning, simply, that anyone can get copies of its source code files.
+</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+I don't think he deliberately sought to reject or dispute the
+&ldquo;official&rdquo; definition.  I think he simply applied the conventions 
of
+the English language to come up with a meaning for the term. The state
+of Kansas published a similar definition:
+<!-- The <a href="http://da.state.ks.us/itec/TechArchPt6ver80.pdf";> state of
+Kansas</a> published a similar definition: --></p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+Make use of open-source software (OSS). OSS is software for which the
+source code is freely and publicly available, though the specific licensing
+agreements vary as to what one is allowed to do with that code.
+</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Of course, the open source people have tried to deal with this by
+publishing a precise definition for the term, just as we have done for
+&ldquo;free software.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>
+But the explanation for &ldquo;free software&rdquo; is simple&mdash;a
+person who has grasped the idea of &ldquo;free speech, not free
+beer&rdquo; will not get it wrong again.  There is no such succinct
+way to explain the official meaning of &ldquo;open source&rdquo; and
+show clearly why the natural definition is the wrong one.</p>
+
+<h3 id="fear">Fear of Freedom</h3>
+
+<p>
+The main argument for the term &ldquo;open source software&rdquo; is
+that &ldquo;free software&rdquo; makes some people uneasy.  That's
+true: talking about freedom, about ethical issues, about
+responsibilities as well as convenience, is asking people to think
+about things they might rather ignore.  This can trigger discomfort,
+and some people may reject the idea for that.  It does not follow that
+society would be better off if we stop talking about these things.</p>
+
+<p>
+Years ago, free software developers noticed this discomfort reaction,
+and some started exploring an approach for avoiding it.  They figured
+that by keeping quiet about ethics and freedom, and talking only about
+the immediate practical benefits of certain free software, they might
+be able to &ldquo;sell&rdquo; the software more effectively to certain
+users, especially business.  The term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; is
+offered as a way of doing more of this&mdash;a way to be &ldquo;more
+acceptable to business.&rdquo; The views and values of the Open Source
+movement stem from this decision.</p>
+
+<p>
+This approach has proved effective, in its own terms.  Today many
+people are switching to free software for purely practical reasons.
+That is good, as far as it goes, but that isn't all we need to do!
+Attracting users to free software is not the whole job, just the first
+step.</p>
+
+<p>
+Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to
+proprietary software for some practical advantage.  Countless
+companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline?
+Only if they have learned to <em>value the freedom</em> free software
+gives them, for its own sake.  It is up to us to spread this
+idea&mdash;and in order to do that, we have to talk about freedom.  A
+certain amount of the &ldquo;keep quiet&rdquo; approach to business
+can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom
+talk too.</p>
+
+<p>
+At present, we have plenty of &ldquo;keep quiet&rdquo;, but not enough
+freedom talk.  Most people involved with free software say little
+about freedom&mdash;usually because they seek to be &ldquo;more
+acceptable to business.&rdquo; Software distributors especially show
+this pattern.  Some
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> operating system
+distributions add proprietary packages to the basic free system, and
+they invite users to consider this an advantage, rather than a step
+backwards from freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+We are failing to keep up with the influx of free software users,
+failing to teach people about freedom and our community as fast as
+they enter it.  This is why non-free software (which Qt was when it
+first became popular), and partially non-free operating system
+distributions, find such fertile ground.  To stop using the word
+&ldquo;free&rdquo; now would be a mistake; we need more, not less, talk about
+freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+If those using the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; draw more users into our
+community, that is a contribution, but the rest of us will have to
+work even harder to bring the issue of freedom to those users'
+attention.  We have to say, &ldquo;It's free software and it gives you
+freedom!&rdquo;&mdash;more and louder than ever before.</p>
+
+<h3 id="newinfeb">Would a Trademark Help?</h3>
+
+<p>
+The advocates of &ldquo;open source software&rdquo; tried to make it a
+trademark, saying this would enable them to prevent misuse.  This
+initiative was later dropped, the term being too descriptive to
+qualify as a trademark; thus, the legal status of &ldquo;open source&rdquo; is
+the same as that of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;: there is no <em>legal</em>
+constraint on using it.  I have heard reports of a number of
+companies' calling software packages &ldquo;open source&rdquo; even though they
+did not fit the official definition; I have observed some instances
+myself.</p>
+
+<p>
+But would it have made a big difference to use a term that is a
+trademark?  Not necessarily.</p>
+
+<p>
+Companies also made announcements that give the impression that a
+program is &ldquo;open source software&rdquo; without explicitly saying so.  
For
+example, one IBM announcement, about a program that did not fit the
+official definition, said this:</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+As is common in the open source community, users of the ...
+technology will also be able to collaborate with IBM ...
+</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+This did not actually say that the program <em>was</em> &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo;, but many readers did not notice that detail.  (I should note
+that IBM was sincerely trying to make this program free software, and
+later adopted a new license which does make it free software and
+&ldquo;open source&rdquo;; but when that announcement was made, the program did
+not qualify as either one.)</p>
+
+<p>
+And here is how Cygnus Solutions, which was formed to be a free
+software company and subsequently branched out (so to speak) into
+proprietary software, advertised some proprietary software products:</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+Cygnus Solutions is a leader in the open source market and has just
+launched two products into the [GNU/]Linux marketplace. 
+</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Unlike IBM, Cygnus was not trying to make these packages free
+software, and the packages did not come close to qualifying.  But
+Cygnus didn't actually say that these are &ldquo;open source software&rdquo;,
+they just made use of the term to give careless readers that
+impression.</p>
+
+<p>
+These observations suggest that a trademark would not have truly
+prevented the confusion that comes with the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<h3 id="newinnovember">Misunderstandings(?) of &ldquo;Open Source&rdquo;</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Open Source Definition is clear enough, and it is quite clear that
+the typical non-free program does not qualify.  So you would think
+that &ldquo;Open Source company&rdquo; would mean one whose products are free
+software (or close to it), right?  Alas, many companies are trying to
+give it a different meaning.</p>
+
+<p>
+At the &ldquo;Open Source Developers Day&rdquo; meeting in August 1998, several
+of the commercial developers invited said they intend to make only a
+part of their work free software (or &ldquo;open source&rdquo;).  The focus of
+their business is on developing proprietary add-ons (software or
+<a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">manuals</a>) to sell to the users of
+this free software.  They ask us to regard this as legitimate, as part
+of our community, because some of the money is donated to free
+software development.</p>
+
+<p>
+In effect, these companies seek to gain the favorable cachet of
+&ldquo;open source&rdquo; for their proprietary software
+products&mdash;even though those are not &ldquo;open source
+software&rdquo;&mdash;because they have some relationship to free
+software or because the same company also maintains some free
+software.  (One company founder said quite explicitly that they would
+put, into the free package they support, as little of their work as
+the community would stand for.)</p>
+
+<p>
+Over the years, many companies have contributed to free software
+development.  Some of these companies primarily developed non-free
+software, but the two activities were separate; thus, we could ignore
+their non-free products, and work with them on free software projects.
+Then we could honestly thank them afterward for their free software
+contributions, without talking about the rest of what they did.</p>
+
+<p>
+We cannot do the same with these new companies, because they won't let
+us.  These companies actively invite the public to lump all their
+activities together; they want us to regard their non-free software as
+favorably as we would regard a real contribution, although it is not
+one.  They present themselves as &ldquo;open source companies,&rdquo; hoping
+that we will get a warm fuzzy feeling about them, and that we will be
+fuzzy-minded in applying it.</p>
+
+<p>
+This manipulative practice would be no less harmful if it were done
+using the term &ldquo;free software.&rdquo;  But companies do not seem to use
+the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; that way; perhaps its association with
+idealism makes it seem unsuitable.  The term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; opened
+the door for this.</p>
+
+<p>
+At a trade show in late 1998, dedicated to the operating system often
+referred to
+as <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">&ldquo;Linux&rdquo;</a>, the
+featured speaker was an executive from a prominent software company.
+He was probably invited on account of his company's decision to
+&ldquo;support&rdquo; that system.  Unfortunately, their form of
+&ldquo;support&rdquo; consists of releasing non-free software that
+works with the system&mdash;in other words, using our community as a
+market but not contributing to it.</p>
+
+<p>
+He said, &ldquo;There is no way we will make our product open source,
+but perhaps we will make it &lsquo;internal&rsquo; open source.  If we
+allow our customer support staff to have access to the source code,
+they could fix bugs for the customers, and we could provide a better
+product and better service.&rdquo; (This is not an exact quote, as I
+did not write his words down, but it gets the gist.)</p>
+
+<p>
+People in the audience afterward told me, &ldquo;He just doesn't get the
+point.&rdquo;  But is that so?  Which point did he not get?</p>
+
+<p>
+He did not miss the point of the Open Source movement.  That movement
+does not say users should have freedom, only that allowing more people
+to look at the source code and help improve it makes for faster and
+better development.  The executive grasped that point completely;
+unwilling to carry out that approach in full, users included, he was
+considering implementing it partially, within the company.</p>
+
+<p>
+The point that he missed is the point that &ldquo;open source&rdquo; was
+designed not to raise: the point that users <em>deserve</em>
+freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Spreading the idea of freedom is a big job&mdash;it needs your help.
+That's why we stick to the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; in the GNU
+Project, so we can help do that job.  If you feel that freedom and
+community are important for their own sake&mdash;not just for the
+convenience they bring&mdash;please join us in using the term
+&ldquo;free software&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<hr />
+
+<p>
+Joe Barr wrote an article called
+<a href="http://www.itworld.com/LWD010523vcontrol4";>Live and
+let license</a> that gives his perspective on this issue.</p>
+
+<p>
+Lakhani and Wolf's
+<a 
href="http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-352-managing-innovation-emerging-trends-spring-2005/readings/lakhaniwolf.pdf";>paper
 on the
+motivation of free software developers</a> says that a considerable
+fraction are motivated by the view that software should be free.  This
+was despite the fact that they surveyed the developers on SourceForge,
+a site that does not support the view that this is an ethical issue.</p>
+
+<hr />
+<h4>This essay is published
+in <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/";><cite>Free
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
+M. Stallman</cite></a>.</h4>
+
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
+<!-- all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections (or suggestions) to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:27 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is Deutsch. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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 -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li>
 -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> 
-->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Spanish -->
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+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/free-software-intro.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/free-software-intro.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/free-software-intro.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/free-software-intro.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:27 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,142 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Free Software movement - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/free-software-intro.translist" -->
+<h2>Free Software Movement</h2>
+
+<p>
+People use free software operating systems such
+as <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a> for various
+reasons.  Many users switch for practical reasons: because the system
+is powerful, because it is reliable, or for the convenience of being
+able to change the software to do what you need.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Those are good reasons&mdash;but there is more at stake than just
+convenience.  What's at stake is your freedom, and your community.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The idea of the Free Software Movement is that computer users <a
+href="/philosophy/why-free.html">deserve the freedom to form a
+community</a>.  You should have the freedom to help yourself, by
+changing the source code to do whatever you need to do.  And the
+freedom to help your neighbor, by redistributing copies of programs to
+other people.  Also the freedom to help build your community, by
+publishing improved versions so that other people can use them.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Whether a program is free software depends mainly on its license.
+However, a program can also be non-free because you don't have access
+to its source code, or because hardware won't let you put a modified
+version into use (this is called &ldquo;tivoization&rdquo;).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Our <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">detailed definition</a> of free
+software shows how we evaluate a license to see if it makes programs
+free software.  We also have articles about <a
+href="/philosophy/essays-and-articles.html#LicensingFreeSoftware">certain
+specific licenses</a> explaining the advantages and disadvantages of
+some licenses that do qualify, and why some other licenses are too
+restrictive to qualify.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In 1998 the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; was coined and associated
+with <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">views
+considerably different from ours</a>.  These views cite only the
+practical advantages of free software, and carefully avoid the deeper
+issues of freedom and social solidarity that the Free Software
+Movement raises.  The idea of open source is good as far as it goes,
+but it only scratches the surface of the issue.  We don't mind working
+with supporters of open source on practical activities such as
+software development, but we do not agree with their views, and we
+decline to operate under their name.</p>
+
+<p>
+If you think that freedom and community are important for their own
+sake, please join us in proudly using the term &ldquo;free
+software&rdquo;, and help spread the word.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1999, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:27 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/free-software-intro.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Malayalam -->
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+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Russian -->
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+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru-en.html   26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Freedom&mdash;or Copyright? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/freedom-or-copyright-old.translist" -->
+
+<h2>Freedom&mdash;or Copyright?</h2>
+
+<p>
+  by <strong>Richard M. Stallman</strong>
+</p>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p>
+The brave new world of e-books: no more used book stores, no more
+lending a book to your friend, no more borrowing one from the public
+library, no purchasing a book except with a credit card that
+identifies what you read.  Even reading an e-book without
+authorization is a crime.
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Once upon a time, in the age of the printing press, an industrial
+regulation was established for the business of writing and
+publishing. It was called copyright. Copyright's purpose was to
+encourage the publication of a diversity of written
+works. Copyright's method was to make publishers get permission
+from authors to reprint recent writings.</p>
+
+<p>
+Ordinary readers had little reason to disapprove, since copyright
+restricted only publication, not the things a reader could do. If it
+raised the price of a book a small amount, that was only
+money. Copyright provided a public benefit, as intended, with little
+burden on the public. It did its job well&mdash;back then.</p>
+
+<p>
+Then a new way of distributing information came about: computers and
+networks. The advantage of digital information technology is that it
+facilitates copying and manipulating information, including software,
+musical recordings and books. Networks offered the possibility of
+unlimited access to all sorts of data&mdash;an information utopia.</p>
+
+<p>
+But one obstacle stood in the way: copyright. Readers who made use of
+their computers to share published information were technically
+copyright infringers. The world had changed, and what was once an
+industrial regulation on publishers had become a restriction on the
+public it was meant to serve.</p>
+
+<p>
+In a democracy, a law that prohibits a popular, natural and useful
+activity is usually soon relaxed. But the powerful publishers'
+lobby was determined to prevent the public from taking advantage of
+the power of their computers, and found copyright a suitable
+weapon. Under their influence, rather than relaxing copyright to suit
+the new circumstances, governments made it stricter than ever,
+imposing harsh penalties on readers caught sharing.</p>
+
+<p>
+But that wasn't the last of it. Computers can be powerful tools of
+domination when a few people control what other people's computers
+do. The publishers realized that by forcing people to use specially
+designated software to watch videos and read e-books, they can gain
+unprecedented power: they can compel readers to pay, and identify
+themselves, every time they read a book!</p>
+
+<p>
+That is the publishers' dream, and they prevailed upon the
+U.S. government to enact the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of
+1998. This law gives them total legal power over almost anything a
+reader might do with an e-book, as long as they publish the book in
+encrypted form. Even reading the book without authorization is a
+crime.</p>
+
+<p>
+We still have the same old freedoms in using paper books. But if
+e-books replace printed books, that exception will do little
+good. With &ldquo;electronic ink&rdquo;, which makes it possible to
+download new text onto an apparently printed piece of paper, even
+newspapers could become ephemeral. Imagine: no more used book stores;
+no more lending a book to your friend; no more borrowing one from the
+public library&mdash;no more &ldquo;leaks&rdquo; that might give someone a
+chance to read without paying. (And judging from the ads for Microsoft
+Reader, no more anonymous purchasing of books either.) This is the
+world publishers have in mind for us.</p>
+
+<p>
+Why is there so little public debate about these momentous changes?
+Most citizens have not yet had occasion to come to grips with the
+political issues raised by this futuristic technology. Besides, the
+public has been taught that copyright exists to &ldquo;protect&rdquo;
+the copyright holders, with the implication that the public's
+interests do not count. (The biased term
+&ldquo;<a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html"> intellectual
+property</a>&rdquo; also promotes that view; in addition, it
+encourages the mistake of trying to treat several laws that are almost
+totally different&mdash;such as copyright law and patent law&mdash;as
+if they were a single issue.)</p>
+
+<p>
+But when the public at large begins to use e-books, and discovers the
+regime that the publishers have prepared for them, they will begin to
+resist. Humanity will not accept this yoke forever.</p>
+
+<p>
+The publishers would have us believe that suppressive copyright is the
+only way to keep art alive, but we do not need a War on Copying to
+encourage a diversity of published works; as the Grateful Dead showed,
+private copying among fans is not necessarily a problem for
+artists. (In 2007, Radiohead made millions by inviting fans to copy an
+album and pay whatever amount they wish; a few years before, Stephen King
+got hundreds of thousands for an e-book which people could copy.) By
+legalizing the copying of e-books among friends, we can turn copyright
+back into the industrial regulation it once was.</p>
+
+<p>
+For some kinds of writing, we should go even further. For scholarly
+papers and monographs, everyone should be encouraged to republish them
+verbatim online; this helps protect the scholarly record while making
+it more accessible. For textbooks and most reference works,
+publication of modified versions should be allowed as well, since that
+encourages improvement.</p>
+
+<p>
+Eventually, when computer networks provide an easy way to send someone
+a small amount of money, the whole rationale for restricting verbatim
+copying will go away. If you like a book, and a box pops up on your
+computer saying &ldquo;Click here to give the author one
+dollar&rdquo;, wouldn't you click? Copyright for books and music, as
+it applies to distributing verbatim unmodified copies, will be
+entirely obsolete. And not a moment too soon!</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.  There are
+also <a href="/contact/">other ways to
+contact</a> the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1999, 2008 Richard M. Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!--   <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!--   Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
+<!--   language if possible, otherwise default to English -->
+<!--   If you do not have it English, please comment what the -->
+<!--   English is.  If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--   advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--      - in /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--      - in /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--        one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--      - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--        to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--   Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!--       http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> 
-->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Croatian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.hr.html">Hrvatski</a>&nbsp;[hr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-copyright-old.ru.html">&#x0420;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.ru-en.html   26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,206 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Freedom Or Power? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, general, public, license, gpl, general public license, freedom, 
software, power, rights" />
+<meta http-equiv="Description" content="In this essay, Freedom or Power?, 
Bradley M. Kuhn and Richard M. Stallman discuss the reasons that the free 
software movement doesn't advocate the so-called freedom to choose any license 
you want for software you write." />
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/freedom-or-power.translist" -->
+<h2>Freedom or Power?</h2>
+
+<p>
+by <strong>Bradley M. Kuhn</strong> and <strong>Richard
+M. Stallman</strong></p>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p>The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the
+love of ourselves.<br />
+-- William Hazlitt</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+In the free software movement, we stand for freedom for the users of
+software.  We formulated our views by looking at what freedoms are
+necessary for a good way of life, and permit useful programs to foster a
+community of goodwill, cooperation, and collaboration.  <a
+href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">Our criteria for free software</a> specify
+the freedoms that a program's users need so that they can cooperate in a
+community.</p>
+
+<p>
+We stand for freedom for programmers as well as for other users.
+Most of us are programmers, and we want freedom for ourselves as well
+as for you.  But each of us uses software written by others, and we
+want freedom when using that software, not just when using our own
+code.  We stand for freedom for all users, whether they program often,
+occasionally, or not at all.</p>
+
+<p>
+However, one so-called freedom that we do not advocate is the
+&ldquo;freedom to choose any license you want for software you
+write.&rdquo;  We reject this because it is really a form of power,
+not a freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+This oft overlooked distinction is crucial.  Freedom is being able to make
+decisions that affect mainly you; power is being able to make decisions
+that affect others more than you.  If we confuse power with freedom, we
+will fail to uphold real freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Making a program proprietary is an exercise of power.  Copyright law
+today grants software developers that power, so they and only they
+choose the rules to impose on everyone else&mdash;a relatively small
+number of people make the basic software decisions for all users,
+typically by denying their freedom.  When users lack the
+freedoms that define free software, they can't tell what the
+software is doing, can't check for back doors, can't monitor possible
+viruses and worms, can't find out what personal information is being
+reported (or stop the reports, even if they do find out).  If it breaks,
+they can't fix it; they have to wait for the developer to exercise its
+power to do so.  If it simply isn't quite what they need, they are stuck
+with it.  They can't help each other improve it.</p>
+
+<p>
+Proprietary software developers are often businesses.  We in the free
+software movement are not opposed to business, but we have seen what
+happens when a software business has the &ldquo;freedom&rdquo; to
+impose arbitrary rules on the users of software.  Microsoft is an
+egregious example of how denying users' freedoms can lead to direct
+harm, but it is not the only example.  Even when there is no monopoly,
+proprietary software harms society.  A choice of masters is not
+freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Discussions of rights and rules for software have often concentrated
+on the interests of programmers alone.  Few people in the world
+program regularly, and fewer still are owners of proprietary software
+businesses.  But the entire developed world now needs and uses
+software, so software developers now control the way it lives,
+does business, communicates, and is entertained.  The ethical and
+political issues are not addressed by the slogan of &ldquo;freedom of
+choice (for developers only).&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>
+If &ldquo;code is law,&rdquo; <a href="#f1">(1)</a> then the real question we 
face is: who should control the
+code you use&mdash;you, or an elite few?  We believe you are entitled
+to control the software you use, and giving you that control is the
+goal of free software.</p>
+
+<p>
+We believe you should decide what to do with the software you use;
+however, that is not what today's law says.  Current copyright law places
+us in the position of power over users of our code, whether we like it or
+not.  The ethical response to this situation is to proclaim freedom for
+each user, just as the Bill of Rights was supposed to exercise government
+power by guaranteeing each citizen's freedoms.  That is what the <a
+href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">GNU General Public License</a> is for:
+it puts you in control of your usage of the software while <a
+href="/philosophy/why-copyleft.html">protecting you from others</a> who would
+like to take control of your decisions.</p>
+
+<p>
+As more and more users realize that code is law, and come to feel that
+they too deserve freedom, they will see the importance of the freedoms
+we stand for, just as more and more users have come to appreciate the
+practical value of the free software we have developed.</p>
+
+<h4>Footnotes</h4>
+
+<a name="f1"></a> William J. Mitchell,
+<em>City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn </em> (Cambridge,
+Mass.: MIT Press, 1995), p. 111, as quoted by Lawrence Lessig in
+<em>Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Version 2.0</em> (New York, NY:
+Basic Books, 2006), p. 5.
+
+<hr />
+<h4>This essay is published
+in <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/";><cite>Free
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
+M. Stallman</cite></a></h4>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are
+also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2001, 2009 Bradley M. Kuhn and Richard M. Stallman
+<br />
+Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted
+without royalty in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Farsi (Persian) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fa.html">&#x0641;&#x0627;&#x0631;&#x0633;&#x06cc;</a>&nbsp;[fa]</li>
 -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.fr.html">fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.it.html">italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.pt-br.html">portugu&#x0ea;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/freedom-or-power.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/gif.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/gif.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/gif.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/gif.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:28 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,321 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Why There Are No GIF Files on GNU Web Pages 
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/gif.translist" -->
+<h2>Why There Are No GIF Files on GNU Web Pages</h2>
+
+<p>
+<strong>While this story is a historical
+illustration of the danger of software patents, these
+particular patents are now no longer a concern (see 
+<a href="#venuenote">footnote</a> below).  For details of our web site
+<a href="/server/fsf-html-style-sheet.html#UseofGraphics">policies
+regarding GIFs</a>, see our <a href="/server/standards/">web
+guidelines</a>.</strong>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+There are no GIFs on the GNU web site because of the
+patents (Unisys and IBM) covering
+the LZW compression algorithm
+which is used in making GIF files.  These patents make it
+impossible to have free software to generate proper GIFs.
+They also apply to the <strong>compress</strong> program, which is why
+GNU does not use it or its format.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Unisys and IBM both applied for patents in 1983.  Unisys (and perhaps
+IBM) applied for these patents in a number of countries.  Of the
+places whose patent databases we were able to search, the latest
+expiration date seems to be 1 October 2006.
+<sup><a id="returnnote" href="#venuenote">1</a></sup> Until then,
+anyone who releases a free program for making GIF files
+is likely to be sued.  We don't know any reason to think that the
+patent owners would lose these lawsuits.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+If we released such a program, Unisys and IBM might think it wiser
+(for public relations reasons) not to sue a charity like the FSF.
+They could instead sue the users of the program, including the
+companies who redistribute GNU software.  We feel it would not be
+responsible behavior for us to set up this situation.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Many people think that Unisys has given permission for distributing
+free software to make GIF format.  Unfortunately that is
+not what Unisys has actually done.  Here is what Unisys actually said
+about the matter in 1995:
+</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>Unisys does not require licensing, or fees to be paid, for
+non-commercial, non-profit GIF-based applications,
+including those for use on the on-line services.  Concerning
+developers of software for the Internet network, the same principle
+applies.  Unisys will not pursue previous inadvertent infringement by
+developers producing versions of software products for the Internet
+prior to 1995. The company does not require licensing, or fees to be
+paid for non-commercial, non-profit offerings on the Internet,
+including &ldquo;Freeware&rdquo;.</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Unfortunately, this doesn't permit
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> which can be used
+in a free operating system such as GNU.  It also does not
+permit <em>at all</em> the use of LZW for other purposes
+such as compression of files.  This is why we think it is still best
+to reject LZW, and switch to alternatives such
+as <a href="/software/gzip/gzip.html">GNU Gzip</a>
+and PNG.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<a href="/philosophy/selling.html">Commercial redistribution of free
+software</a> is very important, and we want the GNU system as a whole
+to be redistributed commercially.  This means we can't add
+a GIF-generating program to GNU, not under the Unisys
+terms.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The <a href="http://www.fsf.org";>Free Software Foundation</a> is a
+non-commercial, non-profit organization, so strictly speaking the
+income from our sales of <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/";>CD-ROMs</a>
+is not &ldquo;profit&rdquo;.  Perhaps this means we could include
+a GIF program on our CD-ROM and claim to be acting within
+the scope of the Unisys permission&mdash;or perhaps not.  But since we
+know that other redistributors of GNU would be unable to include it,
+doing this would not be very useful.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Shortly after Unisys made its announcement, when the net in general
+was reassured thinking that Unisys had given permission for
+free GIF-generating software, we wrote to the Unisys
+legal department asking for clarification of these issues.  We did not
+receive a response.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Even if Unisys really did give permission for free software to
+generate GIFs, we would still have to deal with the IBM
+patent.  Both the IBM and the Unisys patents cover the same
+&ldquo;invention&rdquo;&mdash;the LZW compression
+algorithm.  (This could reflect an error on the part of the US Patent
+and Trademark Office, which is famous for incompetence and poor
+judgment.)
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Decoding GIFs is a different issue.  The Unisys and IBM
+patents are both written in such a way that they do not apply to a
+program which can only uncompress LZW format and cannot
+compress.  Therefore we can and will include support for
+displaying GIF files in GNU software.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Given this situation, we could still include GIF files in
+our web pages if we wanted to.  Many other people would be happy to
+generate them for us, and we would not be sued for
+having GIF files on our server.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+But we feel that if we can't distribute the software to enable people
+to generate GIF files properly, then we should not have
+other people run such software for us.  Besides, if we can't provide
+software in GNU to generate GIF files, we have to
+recommend an alternative.  We ourselves should use the alternative
+that we recommend.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In 1999, Unisys had the following to say about the issue of their
+patent:
+</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>Unisys has frequently been asked whether a Unisys
+license is required in order to use LZW software obtained
+by downloading from the Internet or from other sources. The answer is
+simple. In all cases, a written license agreement or statement signed
+by an authorized Unisys representative is required from Unisys for all
+use, sale or distribution of any software (including so-called
+&ldquo;freeware&rdquo;) and/or hardware providing LZW
+conversion capability (for example, downloaded
+software).</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+With this statement, Unisys is trying to take back what they said in
+1995 when they gave parts of the patent to the public. The legality of
+such a move is questionable.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+A further issue is that the LZW patents&mdash;and
+software patents in general&mdash;are an offense against the freedom
+of programmers generally, and all programmers need to work together
+against software patents.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+So even if we could find a solution to enable the free software
+community to generate GIFs, that isn't really a solution,
+not for the problem as a whole.  The solution is switching to another
+format and not using GIF any more.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Therefore, we don't use GIF, and we hope you won't use it
+either.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+It is possible to make non-compressed images that act
+like GIFs, in that they work with programs that
+decode GIF format.  This can be done without infringing
+patents.  These pseudo-GIFs are useful for some purposes.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+It is also possible to create GIFs using a patent-free
+run length encoding but this doesn't achieve the compression that one
+normally expects in a GIF.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+We decided not to use these pseudo-GIFs on our web site
+because they are not a satisfactory solution to the community's
+problem.  They work, but they are very large.  What the web needs is a
+patent-free compressed format, not large pseudo-GIFs.
+</p>
+
+<p> 
+The <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_Network_Graphics";>PNG
+format</a> is a patent-free compressed format.  We hope it will become
+widely supported; then we will use it.  We do provide PNG versions of
+most of the <a href="/graphics/graphics.html">images on this server</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+For more information about the GIF patent problems,
+see <a href="http://www.progfree.org/Patents/Gif/Gif.html";>the League for
+Programming Freedom GIF page</a>.  Through that page you
+can find more information about the <a
+href="http://endsoftpatents.org/";>problem of software patents in
+general.</a>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+There is a library called libungif that reads gif files and writes
+uncompressed gifs to circumvent the Unisys patent.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<a href="http://burnallgifs.org";>http://burnallgifs.org</a> is a
+web site devoted to discouraging the use of GIF files on
+the web.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Footnote:</h3>
+
+<p><a href="#returnnote" id="venuenote">1.</a> We were able to search
+the patent databases of the USA, Canada, Japan, and the European
+Union. The Unisys patent expired on 20 June 2003 in the USA, in Europe
+it expired on 18 June 2004, in Japan the patent expired on 20 June
+2004 and in Canada it expired on 7 July 2004. The U.S. IBM patent
+expired 11 August 2006. The Software Freedom Law Center says that
+after 1 October 2006, there will be no significant patent claims
+interfering with employment of the GIF format.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.,</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:28 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.he.html">&#x05e2;&#x05d1;&#x05e8;&#x05d9;&#x05ea;</a>&nbsp;[he]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gif.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Romanian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ro.html">Rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gif.sr.html">&#x0421;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/gnutella.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/gnutella.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/gnutella.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/gnutella.ru-en.html   26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Regarding Gnutella - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/gnutella.translist" -->
+<h2>Regarding Gnutella</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<p>
+&ldquo;Gnutella&rdquo; is, at present, the name for a protocol for distributed
+file sharing, mostly used for music files.  The name also sometimes
+refers to the network itself, as well as the original Gnutella software.
+The situation is quite confusing.  For more on Gnutella's
+origin and history, please refer to the <a
+href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnutella";>Wikipedia article</a> on
+the subject.</p>
+
+<p>
+In any case, the name was originally a word play on &ldquo;GNU&rdquo;
+(the original developers planned to release their code under the GNU
+GPL, and may have had in mind contributing it to the GNU project) and
+&ldquo;Nutella&rdquo; (a candy bar that the original developers
+enjoyed).  However, neither the original software nor any of the
+related current projects
+are <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#GNUsoftware">official GNU
+packages</a>.  We have asked that the Gnutella developers change the
+name to avoid confusion; perhaps that will happen in the future.</p>
+
+<p>
+There are a number of free software programs that implement the
+Gnutella protocol, such as <a
+href="http://gtk-gnutella.sourceforge.net/";>gtk-gnutella</a>, <a
+href="http://mutella.sourceforge.net/";>mutella</a>, and <a
+href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnucleus/";>gnucleus</a>.  Please
+note, however, that none of these programs are officially <a
+href="/philosophy/categories.html#GNUsoftware">GNU software</a>
+either.  GNU has its own peer-to-peer networking program, <a
+href="/software/GNUnet/">GNUnet</a>, whose
+documentation includes a <a
+href="http://gnunet.org/faq.php3#compare";>comparison of the
+protocols</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The Free Software Foundation is concerned with the freedom to copy and
+change software; music is outside our scope.  But there is a partial
+similarity in the ethical issues of copying software and copying
+recordings of music.  Some articles in the
+<a href="/philosophy/philosophy.html#Laws">philosophy</a> directory
+relate to the issue of copying for things other than software.  Some
+of the <a href="/philosophy/philosophy.html#ThirdPartyIdeas">other people's
+articles</a> we have links to are also relevant.</p>
+
+<p>
+No matter what sort of published information is being shared, we urge
+people to reject the assumption that some person or company has a
+natural right to prohibit sharing and dictate exactly how the public
+can use it.  Even the US legal system nominally
+<a href="/philosophy/reevaluating-copyright.html">rejects</a> that
+anti-social idea.</p>
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
+<!-- all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2004, 2005, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is Deutsch. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Bosnian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.bs.html">Bosanski</a>&nbsp;[bs]</li> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/gnutella.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/gnutella.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Croatian -->
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Index: philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.ru-en.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,322 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Linux, GNU, and freedom - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords"
+      content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, Linux, freedom, software, 
power, rights, Richard Stallman, rms, SIGLINUX, Joe Barr" />
+<meta http-equiv="Description" content="In this essay, Linux, GNU, and 
freedom, Richard M. Stallman responds to Joe Barr's account of the FSF's 
dealings with the Austin Linux users group." />
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/linux-gnu-freedom.translist" -->
+
+<h2>Linux, GNU, and freedom</h2>
+
+<p>
+  by <strong>Richard M. Stallman</strong></p>
+
+<!--
+    <p>
+      <cite>Richard Stallman's response to Joe Barr's account of the FSF's
+        dealings with the Austin &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; users group.</cite></p>
+    -->
+
+<p>
+  Since <a href="http://linux.sys-con.com/node/32755";>Joe Barr's
+  article</a> criticized my dealings with SIGLINUX, I would like to
+  set the record straight about what actually occurred, and state my
+  reasons.</p>
+<p>
+  When SIGLINUX invited me to speak, it was a &ldquo;Linux User
+  Group&rdquo;; that is, a group for users of the GNU/Linux system
+  which calls the whole system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  So I replied
+  politely that if they'd like someone from the GNU Project to give a
+  speech for them, they ought to treat the GNU Project right, and call
+  the system &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;.  The system is a variant of GNU,
+  and the GNU Project is its principal developer, so social convention
+  says to call it by the name we chose.  Unless there are powerful
+  reasons for an exception, I usually decline to give speeches for
+  organizations that won't give GNU proper credit in this way.  I
+  respect their freedom of speech, but I also have the freedom not to
+  give a speech.</p>
+<p>
+  Subsequently, Jeff Strunk of SIGLINUX tried to change the group's
+  policy, and asked the FSF to list his group in our page of GNU/Linux
+  user groups.  Our webmaster told him that we would not list it under
+  the name &ldquo;SIGLINUX&rdquo; because that name implies that the
+  group is about Linux.  Strunk proposed to change the name to
+  &ldquo;SIGFREE&rdquo;, and our webmaster agreed that would be fine.
+  (Barr's article said we rejected this proposal.)  However, the group
+  ultimately decided to stay with &ldquo;SIGLINUX&rdquo;.</p>
+<p>
+  At that point, the matter came to my attention again, and I
+  suggested they consider other possible names.  There are many names
+  they could choose that would not call the system
+  &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, and I hope they will come up with one they
+  like.  There the matter rests as far as I know.</p>
+<p>
+  Is it true, as Barr writes, that some people see these actions as an
+  &ldquo;application of force&rdquo; comparable with Microsoft's
+  monopoly power?  Probably so.  Declining an invitation is not
+  coercion, but people who are determined to believe that the entire
+  system is &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; sometimes develop amazingly distorted
+  vision.  To make that name appear justified, they must see molehills
+  as mountains and mountains as molehills.  If you can ignore the
+  facts and believe that Linus Torvalds developed the whole system
+  starting in 1991, or if you can ignore your ordinary principles of
+  fairness and believe that Torvalds should get the sole credit even
+  though he didn't do that, it's a small step to believe that I owe
+  you a speech when you ask.</p>
+<p>
+  Just consider: the GNU Project starts developing an operating
+  system, and years later Linus Torvalds adds one important piece.
+  The GNU Project says, &ldquo;Please give our project equal
+  mention,&rdquo; but Linus says, &ldquo;Don't give them a share of
+  the credit; call the whole thing after my name alone!&rdquo; Now
+  envision the mindset of a person who can look at these events and
+  accuse the GNU Project of egotism.  It takes strong prejudice to
+  misjudge so drastically.</p>
+<p>
+  A person who is that prejudiced can say all sorts of unfair things
+  about the GNU Project and think them justified; his fellows will
+  support him, because they want each other's support in maintaining
+  their prejudice.  Dissenters can be reviled; thus, if I decline to
+  participate in an activity under the rubric of &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;,
+  they may find that inexcusable, and hold me responsible for the ill
+  will they feel afterwards.  When so many people want me to call the
+  system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, how can I, who merely launched its
+  development, not comply?  And forcibly denying them a speech is
+  forcibly making them unhappy.  That's coercion, as bad as
+  Microsoft!</p>
+<p>
+  Now, you might wonder why I don't just duck the issue and avoid all
+  this grief.  When SIGLINUX invited me to speak, I could simply have
+  said &ldquo;No, sorry&rdquo; and the matter would have ended there.
+  Why didn't I do that?  I'm willing to take the risk of being abused
+  personally in order to have a chance of correcting the error that
+  undercuts the GNU Project's efforts.</p>
+<p>
+  Calling this variant of the GNU system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; plays
+  into the hands of people who choose their software based only on
+  technical advantage, not caring whether it respects their freedom.
+  There are people like Barr, that want their software &ldquo;free
+  from ideology&rdquo; and criticize anyone that says freedom matters.
+  There are people like Torvalds that will pressure our community into
+  use of a non-free program, and challenge anyone who complains to
+  provide a (technically) better program immediately or shut up.
+  There are people who say that technical decisions should not be
+  &ldquo;politicized&rdquo; by consideration of their social
+  consequences.</p>
+<p>
+  In the 70s, computer users lost the freedoms to redistribute and
+  change software because they didn't value their freedom.  Computer
+  users regained these freedoms in the 80s and 90s because a group of
+  idealists, the GNU Project, believed that freedom is what makes a
+  program better, and were willing to work for what we believed in.</p>
+<p>
+  We have partial freedom today, but our freedom is not secure.  It is
+  threatened by the <abbr title="Consumer Broadband and Digital
+  Television Promotion Act">CBDTPA</abbr>
+  (formerly <abbr title="Security Systems Standards and Certification 
Act">SSSCA</abbr>),
+  by the Broadcast &ldquo;Protection&rdquo; Discussion Group
+  (see <a href="http://www.eff.org/";>http://www.eff.org/</a>) which
+  proposes to prohibit free software to access digital TV broadcasts,
+  by software patents (Europe is now considering whether to have
+  software patents), by Microsoft nondisclosure agreements for vital
+  protocols, and by everyone who tempts us with a non-free program
+  that is &ldquo;better&rdquo; (technically) than available free
+  programs.  We can lose our freedom again just as we lost it the
+  first time, if we don't care enough to protect it.</p>
+<p>
+  Will enough of us care?  That depends on many things; among them,
+  how much influence the GNU Project has, and how much influence Linus
+  Torvalds has.  The GNU Project says, &ldquo;Value your
+  freedom!&rdquo;.  Joe Barr says, &ldquo;Choose between non-free and
+  free programs on technical grounds alone!&rdquo;.  If people credit
+  Torvalds as the main developer of the GNU/Linux system, that's not
+  just inaccurate, it also makes his message more
+  influential&mdash;and that message says, &ldquo;Non-free software is
+  ok; I use it and develop it myself.&rdquo; If they recognize our
+  role, they will listen to us more, and the message we will give them
+  is, &ldquo;This system exists because of people who care about
+  freedom. Join us, value your freedom, and together we can preserve
+  it.&rdquo;
+  See <a 
href="http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html";>http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html</a>
+  for the history.</p>
+<p>
+  When I ask people to call the system GNU/Linux, some of them respond
+  with <a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html"> silly excuses and straw men</a>.
+  But we probably haven't lost
+  anything, because they were probably unfriendly to begin with.
+  Meanwhile, other people recognize the reasons I give, and use that
+  name.  By doing so, they help make other people aware of why the
+  GNU/Linux system really exists, and that increases our ability to
+  spread the idea that freedom is an important value.</p>
+<p>
+  This is why I keep butting my head against bias, calumny, and grief.
+  They hurt my feelings, but when successful, this effort helps the GNU
+  Project campaign for freedom.</p>
+<p>
+  Since this came up in the context of Linux (the kernel) and Bitkeeper,
+  the non-free version control system that Linus Torvalds now uses, I'd
+  like to address that issue as well.</p>
+
+<h3 id="bitkeeper">Bitkeeper issue</h3>
+<p>
+  (See the <a href="#update">update</a> below.)</p>
+<p>
+  The use of Bitkeeper for the Linux sources has a grave effect on the
+  free software community, because anyone who wants to closely track
+  patches to Linux can only do it by installing that non-free program.
+  There must be dozens or even hundreds of kernel hackers who have done
+  this.  Most of them are gradually convincing themselves that it is ok
+  to use non-free software, in order to avoid a sense of cognitive
+  dissonance about the presence of Bitkeeper on their machines.  What
+  can be done about this?</p>
+<p>
+  One solution is to set up another repository for the Linux sources,
+  using CVS or another free version control system, and arranging to
+  load new versions into it automatically.  This could use Bitkeeper to
+  access the latest revisions, then install the new revisions into CVS.
+  That update process could run automatically and frequently.</p>
+<p>
+  The FSF cannot do this, because we cannot install Bitkeeper on our
+  machines.  We have no non-free systems or applications on them now,
+  and our principles say we must keep it that way.  Operating this
+  repository would have to be done by someone else who is willing to
+  have Bitkeeper on his machine, unless someone can find or make a way
+  to do it using free software.</p>
+<p>
+  The Linux sources themselves have an even more serious problem with
+  non-free software: they actually contain some.  Quite a few device
+  drivers contain series of numbers that represent firmware programs to
+  be installed in the device.  These programs are not free software.  A
+  few numbers to be deposited into device registers are one thing; a
+  substantial program in binary is another.</p>
+<p>
+  The presence of these binary-only programs in &ldquo;source&rdquo;
+  files of Linux creates a secondary problem: it calls into question
+  whether Linux binaries can legally be redistributed at all.  The GPL
+  requires &ldquo;complete corresponding source code,&rdquo; and a
+  sequence of integers is not the source code. By the same token,
+  adding such a binary to the Linux sources violates the GPL.</p>
+<p>
+  The Linux developers have a plan to move these firmware programs
+  into separate files; it will take a few years to mature, but when
+  completed it will solve the secondary problem; we could make a
+  &ldquo;free Linux&rdquo; version that doesn't have the non-free
+  firmware files.  That by itself won't do much good if most people
+  use the non-free &ldquo;official&rdquo; version of Linux.  That may
+  well occur, because on many platforms the free version won't run
+  without the non-free firmware.  The &ldquo;free Linux&rdquo; project
+  will have to figure out what the firmware does and write source code
+  for it, perhaps in assembler language for whatever embedded
+  processor it runs on.  It's a daunting job.  It would be less
+  daunting if we had done it little by little over the years, rather
+  than letting it mount up.  In recruiting people to do this job, we
+  will have to overcome the idea, spread by some Linux developers,
+  that the job is not necessary.</p>
+<p>
+  Linux, the kernel, is often thought of as the flagship of free
+  software, yet its current version is partially non-free.  How did
+  this happen?  This problem, like the decision to use Bitkeeper,
+  reflects the attitude of the original developer of Linux, a person
+  who thinks that &ldquo;technically better&rdquo; is more important
+  than freedom.</p>
+<p>
+  Value your freedom, or you will lose it, teaches history.
+  &ldquo;Don't bother us with politics,&rdquo; respond those who don't
+  want to learn.</p>
+
+<p>
+  <strong><a name="update">Update:</a></strong> Since 2005, BitKeeper
+  is no longer used to manage the Linux kernel source tree.  See the
+  article, <a href="/philosophy/mcvoy.html">Thank You, Larry
+  McVoy</a>.  The Linux sources still contain non-free firmware blobs,
+  but as of January 2008,
+  a <a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/linux";> free version of
+  Linux</a> is now maintained for use in free GNU/Linux
+  distributions.</p>
+
+</div>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2002 Richard M. Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!--   Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
+<!--   language if possible, otherwise default to English -->
+<!--   If you do not have it English, please comment what the -->
+<!--   English is.  If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--   advise address@hidden and add it to -->
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+<!--   Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
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+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
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+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- <li><a 
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+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,202 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>The Microsoft Antitrust Trial and Free Software - GNU Project - Free 
Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/microsoft-antitrust.translist" -->
+   
+<h2>The Microsoft Antitrust Trial and Free Software</h2>
+
+<p>
+With the Microsoft antitrust trial moving toward a conclusion, the
+question of what to demand of Microsoft if it loses is coming to the
+fore.  Ralph Nader is even [when this was written, in March 1999]
+organizing a conference about the question (see
+<a 
href="http://www.appraising-microsoft.org/";>http://www.appraising-microsoft.org/</a>).</p>
+<p>
+The obvious answers&mdash;to restrict contracts between Microsoft and
+computer manufacturers, or to break up the company&mdash;will not make
+a crucial difference.  The former might encourage the availability of
+computers with the GNU/Linux system preinstalled, but that is
+happening anyway.  The latter would mainly help other proprietary
+application developers compete, which would only offer users
+alternative ways to let go of their freedom.</p>
+<p>
+So I propose three remedies that would help enable
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> operating systems
+such as GNU/Linux compete technically while respecting users' freedom.
+These three remedies directly address the three biggest obstacles to
+development of free operating systems, and to giving them the
+capability of running programs written for Windows.  They also
+directly address the methods Microsoft has said (in the
+&ldquo;Halloween documents&rdquo;) it will use to obstruct free
+software.  It would be most effective to use all three of these
+remedies together.</p>
+
+<ol>
+  <li>Require Microsoft to publish complete documentation of all
+   interfaces between software components, all communications
+   protocols, and all file formats.  This would block one of
+   Microsoft's favorite tactics: secret and incompatible interfaces.
+<p>
+   To make this requirement really stick, Microsoft should not be
+   allowed to use a nondisclosure agreement with some other
+   organization to excuse implementing a secret interface.  The rule
+   must be: if they cannot publish the interface, they cannot release
+   an implementation of it.</p>
+<p>
+   It would, however, be acceptable to permit Microsoft to begin
+   implementation of an interface before the publication of the
+   interface specifications, provided that they release the
+   specifications simultaneously with the implementation.</p>
+<p>
+   Enforcement of this requirement would not be difficult.  If other
+   software developers complain that the published documentation fails
+   to describe some aspect of the interface, or how to do a certain
+   job, the court would direct Microsoft to answer questions about it.
+   Any questions about interfaces (as distinguished from
+   implementation techniques) would have to be answered.</p>
+<p>
+   Similar terms were included in an agreement between IBM and the
+   European Community in 1984, settling another antitrust dispute.
+   See <a href="http://www.cptech.org/at/ibm/ibm1984ec.html";>
+       http://www.cptech.org/at/ibm/ibm1984ec.html</a>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Require Microsoft to use its patents for defense only, in the field
+   of software.  (If they happen to own patents that apply to other
+   fields, those other fields could be included in this requirement,
+   or they could be exempt.)  This would block the other tactic
+   Microsoft mentioned in the Halloween documents: using patents to
+   block development of free software.
+<p>
+   We should give Microsoft the option of using either self-defense or
+   mutual defense.  Self defense means offering to cross-license all
+   patents at no charge with anyone who wishes to do so.  Mutual
+   defense means licensing all patents to a pool which anyone can
+   join&mdash;even people who have no patents of their own.  The pool
+   would license all members' patents to all members.</p>
+<p>
+   It is crucial to address the issue of patents, because it does no
+   good to have Microsoft publish an interface, if they have managed
+   to work some patented wrinkle into it (or into the functionality it
+   gives access to), such that the rest of us are not allowed to
+   implement it.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Require Microsoft not to certify any hardware as working with
+   Microsoft software, unless the hardware's complete specifications
+   have been published, so that any programmer can implement software
+   to support the same hardware.
+<p>
+   Secret hardware specifications are not in general Microsoft's
+   doing, but they are a significant obstacle for the development of
+   the free operating systems that can provide competition for
+   Windows.  To remove this obstacle would be a great help.  If a
+   settlement is negotiated with Microsoft, including this sort of
+   provision in it is not impossible&mdash;it would be a matter of
+   negotiation.</p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>
+This April, Microsoft's Ballmer announced a possible plan to release
+source code for some part of Windows.  It is not clear whether that
+would imply making it free software, or which part of Windows it might
+be.  But if Microsoft does make some important part of Windows free
+software, it could solve these problems as regards that part.  (It
+could also be a contribution to the free software community, if the
+software in question could be useful for purposes other than running
+other proprietary Microsoft software.)</p>
+<p>
+However, having the use as free software of a part of Windows is less
+crucial than being <em>permitted</em> to implement all parts.  The remedies
+proposed above are what we really need.  They will clear the way for
+us to develop a truly superior alternative to Microsoft Windows,
+in whatever area Microsoft does not make Windows free software.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1999, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
+<!-- language if possible, otherwise default to English -->
+<!-- If you do not have it English, please comment what the -->
+<!-- English is.  If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--      one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--    - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--      to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.el.html">&#x0395;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Russian -->
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+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-old.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/microsoft-old.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/microsoft-old.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-old.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:29 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,152 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Is Microsoft the Great Satan? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/microsoft-old.translist" -->
+<h2>Is Microsoft the Great Satan?</h2>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+<blockquote><p>There is an <a href="/philosophy/microsoft.html">
+updated version</a> of this article.</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>Many people think of Microsoft as the monster menace of the software
+industry. There is even a campaign to boycott Microsoft. This feeling
+has intensified since Microsoft expressed active hostility towards
+free software.</p>
+
+<p>In the free software movement, our perspective is different. We see
+that Microsoft is doing something that is bad for software users:
+making software <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">
+proprietary</a> and thus denying users their rightful freedom.</p>
+
+<p>But Microsoft is not alone in this; almost all software companies
+do the same thing to the users. If other companies manage to dominate
+fewer users than Microsoft, that is not for lack of trying.</p>
+
+<p>This is not meant to excuse Microsoft. Rather, it is meant as a
+reminder that Microsoft is the natural development of a software
+industry based on <a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">dividing
+users and taking away their freedom</a>. When criticizing Microsoft,
+we must not exonerate the other companies that also make proprietary
+software. At the FSF, we don't run any proprietary software&mdash;not
+from Microsoft or anyone else.</p>
+
+<p>In the &ldquo;Halloween documents&rdquo;, released at the end of
+October 1998, Microsoft executives stated an intention to use various
+methods to obstruct the development of free software: specifically,
+designing secret protocols and file formats, and patenting algorithms
+and software features.</p>
+
+<p>These obstructionist policies are nothing new: Microsoft, and many
+other software companies, have been doing them for years now. In the
+past, probably, their motivation was to attack each other; now, it
+seems, we are among the intended targets. But that change in
+motivation has no practical consequence, because secret conventions
+and software patents obstruct everyone, regardless of the
+&ldquo;intended target&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<p>Secrecy and patents do threaten free software. They have obstructed
+us greatly in the past, and we must expect they will do so even more
+in the future. But this is no different from what was going to happen
+even if Microsoft had never noticed us. The only real significance of
+the &ldquo;Halloween documents&rdquo; is that Microsoft seems to think
+that the <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux system</a> has
+the potential for great success.</p>
+
+<p>Thank you, Microsoft, and please get out of the way.</p>
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:29 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.ca.html">catal&agrave;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.es.html">espa&ntilde;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Hebrew -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Hungarian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.hu.html">magyar</a>&nbsp;[hu]</li> 
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+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.id.html">Bahasa 
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+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Dutch -->
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+<!-- Polish -->
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-->
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+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.sr.html">&#1089;&#1088;&#1087;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
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+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.ru-en.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,151 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>On the Microsoft Verdict - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/microsoft-verdict.translist" -->
+<h2>On the Microsoft Verdict</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<p>
+Many 
+<a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux</a>
+users think of the system as competition for Microsoft.
+But the Free Software Movement aims to solve a problem that is much
+bigger than Microsoft: proprietary, non-free software, designed to
+keep users helpless and prohibit cooperation.  Microsoft is the
+largest developer of such software, but many other companies treat the
+users' freedom just as badly; if they have not shackled as many users
+as Microsoft, it is not for lack of trying.</p>
+<p>
+Since Microsoft is just a part of the problem, its defeat in the
+anti-trust lawsuit is not necessarily a victory for free software.
+Whether the outcome of this suit helps free software and promotes
+users' freedom depends of the specific remedies imposed on Microsoft
+by the judge.</p>
+<p>
+If the remedies are designed to enable other companies compete in
+offering proprietary, non-free software, that will do the Free World
+no particular good.  Alternative possible masters is not freedom.  And
+competition could lead them to do a &ldquo;better&rdquo; job, better
+in a narrow technical sense; then it could be harder for us to
+&ldquo;compete&rdquo; with them technically.  We will continue to
+offer the user one thing those companies do
+not&mdash;freedom&mdash;and users who value freedom will continue to
+choose free software for that reason.  But users who do not value
+freedom, and choose a system based on mere convenience, might be
+enticed away to &ldquo;improved&rdquo; proprietary systems.</p>
+<p>
+Splitting Microsoft into separate companies could also endanger free
+software, because these smaller companies, no longer held in check by
+the public readiness to condemn Microsoft, might see fit to attack
+free software more harshly than the present unified Microsoft does.</p>
+<p>
+I've 
+<a href="/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.html">proposed remedies</a>
+for this case that would help free software compete with Microsoft:
+for example, requiring Microsoft to publish documentation for all
+interfaces, and to use patents only for defense, not for aggression.
+These remedies would block the use of the weapons that Microsoft plans
+to use against us (according to the &ldquo;Halloween documents&rdquo;
+leaked from within Microsoft which spelled out how they plan to impede
+development of the GNU/Linux system).</p>
+<p>
+When we see what remedies the judge chooses, we will get an idea of
+whether the case has been helpful or harmful to the Free Software
+Movement.</p>
+
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
+<!-- all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2000, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:30 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is Deutsch. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> 
-->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.it.html">Italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Korean -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.ko.html">&#xd55c;&#xad6d;&#xc5b4;</a>&nbsp;[ko]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft-verdict.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/microsoft.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/microsoft.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/microsoft.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/microsoft.ru-en.html  26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,173 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Is Microsoft the Great Satan? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/microsoft.translist" -->
+<h2>Is Microsoft the Great Satan?</h2>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+<blockquote><p>This article was given a major rewrite in 2009.
+The <a href="/philosophy/microsoft-old.html">old version</a> is also
+available.</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>Many people think of Microsoft as the monster menace of the
+software industry.  There is even a specific campaign to boycott
+Microsoft.  This feeling has intensified since Microsoft expressed
+active hostility towards free software.</p>
+
+<p>In the free software movement, our perspective is different.  We
+see that Microsoft is doing something that mistreats software users:
+making software <a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">
+proprietary</a> and thus denying users their rightful freedom.  But
+Microsoft is not alone in this; many other companies do the same thing
+to the users.  If other companies manage to dominate fewer users than
+Microsoft, that is not for lack of trying.</p>
+
+<p>This is not meant to excuse Microsoft.  Rather, it is meant as a
+reminder that Microsoft is the natural development of a software
+industry based on <a href="/philosophy/shouldbefree.html">keeping
+users divided and subjugating them</a>.  When criticizing Microsoft,
+we should not focus so narrowly on Microsoft that we let other
+proprietary software developers off the hook.</p>
+
+<p>When we reject Microsoft's proprietary software, that is not a
+boycott.  The word &ldquo;boycott&rdquo; means rejection, as a
+protest, of products that are otherwise acceptable.  Rejecting a
+product because it hurts you is not a boycott, just ordinary
+rationality.  To maintain your freedom, you need to
+reject <em>all</em> proprietary software, regardless of who developed
+it or who distributes it.</p>
+
+<p>There is no need to reject Microsoft non-software products, or
+services that you can use without proprietary software.  (When you use
+a web service, whether Microsoft's or not, watch out for
+<a href="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html">non-free JavaScript
+programs</a> that it may try to slip into your browser.)  When
+Microsoft releases free programs, which it occasionally does, they are
+acceptable in theory; but most of them depend fundamentally on
+Microsoft proprietary software, which we do need to reject, and that
+makes them useless for anyone that chooses to live in freedom.</p>
+
+<p>In the &ldquo;Halloween documents&rdquo;, leaked in October 1998,
+Microsoft executives stated an intention to use various methods to
+obstruct the development of free software: specifically, designing
+secret protocols and file formats, and patenting algorithms and
+software features.</p>
+
+<p>These obstructionist policies were not new: Microsoft, and many
+other software companies, had been doing them for years.  Secrecy
+and patents have obstructed us greatly, and they may be more damaging
+in the future.  For the most part, the companies' main motivation in
+doing these things is to attack each other; now, it seems, we are
+specifically targeted.  Microsoft is using its patents directly to
+<a href="http://press.redhat.com/2009/09/09/microsoft-and-patent-trolls/";>
+attack the free software community</a>, and our community is fighting
+back.</p>
+
+<p>But Microsoft's patents are not the only patents that threaten us
+(and software developers and users generally)&mdash;consider the harm
+that the MP3 patent has done.  Thus, defending against specific
+attacks is necessary but not sufficient.  The only full solution is
+to <a href="http://endsoftpatents.org/";>eliminate software
+patents</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Other Microsoft practices specifically harmful to the adoption of
+free software are the ones designed to build up social inertia that
+obstructs migration to GNU/Linux.  For instance, when Microsoft
+&ldquo;donates&rdquo; copies of Windows to schools, it converts these
+schools into tools for implanting a dependence on Windows.  There are
+indications that Microsoft systematically plans these
+activities <a href="http://boycottnovell.com/wiki/index.php/EDGI";> as
+a campaign against the adoption of GNU/Linux</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Each Windows &ldquo;upgrade&rdquo; augments Microsoft's power over
+the users; Microsoft plans it that way.  And each one is a step
+forward in malicious features, which
+include <a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org";>Digital Restrictions
+Management</a> and back doors.  So the FSF runs campaigns to warn
+users against &ldquo;upgrading&rdquo;
+to <a href="http://BadVista.org/";>Windows Vista</a>
+and <a href="http://Windows7Sins.org";>Windows 7</a>.  We aim to reduce
+the amount of inertia they will create.</p>
+
+<p>We don't hate Microsoft, and we don't consider it the Great Satan.
+But we do recognize it as the company that has separated more users
+from their freedom than any other, and a powerful avowed enemy of
+computer users' freedom.  We act accordingly.</p>
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:30 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!-- http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!-- If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!-- use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ca.html">catal&agrave;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/microsoft.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/microsoft.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/netscape-npl.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/netscape-npl.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/netscape-npl.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/netscape-npl.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,283 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Netscape Public License - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/netscape-npl.translist" -->
+   
+<h2>On the Netscape Public License</h2>
+
+<p>
+by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a></p>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+<blockquote><p>
+(The <a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl-old.html"> original version</a>
+of this article was written in March 1998 about a draft of the NPL.
+Our first article on the subject was
+<a href="/philosophy/netscape.html">Netscape is considering making
+the Netscape browser free software</a>.)</p></blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>
+The Netscape Public License, or NPL, as it was ultimately designed in
+1998, is a free software license&mdash;but it has three major flaws.
+One flaw sends a bad philosophical message, another puts the free
+software community in a weak position, while the third creates a major
+practical problem within the free software community.  Two of the
+flaws apply to the Mozilla Public License as well.  Because of these
+flaws, we urge that you not use the NPL or the MPL for your free
+software.</p>
+
+<h4>1. Not all users are equal</h4>
+
+<p>
+The first problem I noticed in the NPL was that it does not give
+Netscape and the rest of us equal rights, as the GNU GPL does.  Under
+the NPL, we can use Netscape's code only as specified in the NPL, but
+Netscape can use our changes in any way at all&mdash;even in
+proprietary licensed versions of the software.</p>
+
+<p>
+The problem here is subtle, because this does not make the program
+non-free.  It does not stop us from redistributing the program, or
+from changing it; it does not deny us any particular freedom.
+Considered from a purely pragmatic viewpoint, it may not look like a
+problem at all.</p>
+
+<p>
+The problem lies in the deeper message embodied in this condition.  It
+denies the idea of cooperation among equals that our community rests
+on, and says that working on a free program means contributing to a
+proprietary software product.  Those who accept this condition are
+likely to be changed by it, and the change will not strengthen our
+community.</p>
+
+<p>
+One proposed solution for this asymmetry is to put a time limit on
+it&mdash;perhaps three or five years.  That would be a big improvement,
+because the time limit would deny the problematical deeper message.</p>
+
+<p>
+The practical effects of this condition are minimized by another
+drawback of the NPL: it is not designed as a thorough copyleft.  In
+other words, it does not try very hard to ensure that modifications
+made by users are available as free software.</p>
+
+<p>
+The MPL (Mozilla Public License) does <em>not</em> have this problem.
+That is the principal difference between the MPL and the NPL.</p>
+
+<h4>2. Not a copyleft</h4>
+
+<p>
+The NPL has the form of a copyleft; it explicitly says that all
+modifications made by users must be released under the NPL.  But this
+applies only to modifications to the existing code&mdash;not to added
+subroutines, if they are put in separate files.  As a practical
+matter, this means it is easy to make proprietary changes if you want
+to: just put the bulk of your code into a separate file, and call the
+collection a Larger Work.  Only the subroutine calls added to the old
+files will have to be released under the NPL, and they will not be
+very useful on their own.</p>
+
+<p>
+The lack of real copyleft is not a catastrophe; it does not make the
+software non-free.  For example, the X.org distribution terms do not
+try to use copyleft at all, yet X.org is free software nonetheless.
+BSD is also non-copylefted free software (although the older BSD terms
+have a <a href="/philosophy/bsd.html">serious drawback</a> and should
+not be imitated&mdash;if you want to release non-copylefted free
+software, please use the X.org terms instead).  NPL-covered software
+is also <a href="/philosophy/categories.html">free software</a>
+without being copylefted, and this by itself does not make the NPL
+worse than other non-copyleft free software license.</p>
+
+<p>
+However, while this is not catastrophic, it is nonetheless a drawback.
+And because the NPL looks like a copyleft, some users may be confused
+about it, and might adopt the NPL, thinking that they are obtaining
+the benefits of copyleft for their software, when that is not the
+case.  To avoid this outcome, we will need to work hard to educate
+people about an issue that is not easy to explain in a few words.</p>
+
+<h4>3. Not compatible with the GPL</h4>
+
+<p>
+The most serious practical problem in the NPL is that it is
+incompatible with the GNU GPL.  It is impossible to combine
+NPL-covered code and GNU GPL-covered code together in one program, not
+even by linking separate object files or libraries; no matter how this
+is done, it has to violate one license or the other.</p>
+
+<p>
+This conflict occurs because the GPL is serious about copyleft: it was
+designed to ensure that all changes and extensions to a free program
+must be free.  So it does not leave a loophole for making changes
+proprietary by putting them into a separate file.  To close this
+loophole, the GPL does not allow linking the copylefted program with
+code that has other restrictions or conditions&mdash;such as the
+NPL.</p>
+
+<p>
+Being incompatible with the GPL does not make a program non-free; it
+does not raise a fundamental ethical issue.  But it is likely to
+create a serious problem for the free software community, dividing the
+code base into two collections that cannot be mixed.  As a practical
+matter, this problem is very important.</p>
+
+<p>
+Solving this by changing the GPL is possible, but that would entail
+abandoning copyleft&mdash;which would do more harm than good.  But it
+is possible to solve this problem with a small change in the NPL.
+(See below for a specific way of doing this.)</p>
+
+<h4>4. A note about names</h4>
+<p>
+NPL stands for Netscape Public License, but GPL does not stand for GNU
+Public License.  The full name of our license is the GNU General
+Public License, abbreviated GNU GPL.  Sometimes people leave out the
+word &ldquo;GNU&rdquo; and write just GPL.</p>
+
+<p>
+(This is not a problem, just a fact that you should know.)</p>
+
+<h4>Conclusion</h4>
+
+<p>
+Since problem 3 is the most serious, I hope that people will politely
+and rationally explain to Netscape the importance of solving it.
+Solutions are available; they just have to decide to use them.</p>
+
+<p>
+Here is a possible way to permit linking NPL-covered code and
+GPL-covered code together.  It can be done by adding these two
+paragraphs to the NPL:</p>
+
+<pre>
+A.1. You may distribute a Covered Work under the terms of the GNU
+     General Public License, version 2 or newer, as published by the
+     Free Software Foundation, when it is included in a Larger Work
+     which is as a whole distributed under the terms of the same
+     version of the GNU General Public License.
+
+A.2. If you have received a copy of a Larger Work under the terms of a
+     version or a choice of versions of the GNU General Public
+     License, and you make modifications to some NPL-covered portions
+     of this Larger Work, you have the option of altering these
+     portions to say that their distribution terms are that version or
+     that choice of versions of GNU General Public License.
+</pre>
+<p>
+This allows people to combine NPL-covered code with GPL-covered code,
+and to distribute the combined work under the terms of the GNU GPL.</p>
+
+<p>
+It permits people to release modifications to such combined works
+under the terms of the GNU GPL&mdash;but the easiest way to release
+them is under the NPL.</p>
+
+<p>
+When people take advantage of A.2, their changes will be released only
+under the terms of the GNU GPL; so these changes would not be
+available for Netscape to use in proprietary versions.  It makes sense
+that Netscape would see this as unfortunate.</p>
+
+<p>
+However, the NPL gives proprietary software developers an easy way to
+make their changes entirely unavailable to Netscape&mdash;by putting
+their code into separate files and calling the combination a Larger
+Work.  In fact, this is easier, for them, than A.2 is for GPL
+users.</p>
+
+<p>
+If Netscape feels it can live with the trouble of (effectively)
+proprietary modifications, surely the trouble of GPL-covered
+modifications is a small by comparison.  If Netscape believes that
+practical considerations will encourage most of the proprietary
+software world to release its changes back to Netscape, without being
+compelled to, the same reasons ought to apply in the free software
+world as well.  Netscape should recognize that this change is
+acceptable, and adopt it, to avoid confronting free software
+developers with a serious dilemma.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1998, 2003, 2007, Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:30 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
+<!-- language if possible, otherwise default to English -->
+<!-- If you do not have it English, please comment what the -->
+<!-- English is.  If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--    - in /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--      one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--    - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--      to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!--     http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.id.html">Bahasa 
Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/netscape.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/netscape.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/netscape.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/netscape.ru-en.html   26 Dec 2011 09:29:30 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,106 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Netscape 
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/netscape.translist" -->
+<h2>Netscape and Free Software</h2>
+
+<div class="announcement">
+<blockquote>
+<p><a href="/philosophy/netscape-npl.html"> More recent news about 
Netscape</a>.</p>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+
+<p>People have been writing with joy to tell us that Netscape has
+announced a plan to make its browser free software, under the GNU GPL.</p>
+
+<p>That is getting a bit ahead of events.  The announcement Netscape made
+does not actually say that they will use the GNU GPL, and does not
+assert that the program will
+be <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> as we define
+it in our community.  It's clear that Netscape will take a big step in
+the direction of free software, but we don't know whether they will
+get all the way there or fall substantially short.  In fact, Netscape
+is still deciding what to do.</p>
+
+<p>When they decide, two crucial questions will be whether people will be
+free to distribute copies for a fee (on free software CD-ROM
+collections, for example) and whether people will be free to
+redistribute modified versions just like the original version.  If
+either of those freedoms is lacking, the program won't be free
+software.</p>
+
+<p>If Netscape does release the Netscape browser as free software, that
+will be a great day for the free software movement.  But rather than
+rejoicing or criticizing now, let's see what actually happens, and
+then we'll know whether to celebrate.  What we can usefully do now is
+urge Netscape, calmly and politely, to make the software free, and to
+copyleft it with the <a href="/copyleft/gpl.html">GNU General Public
+License</a>.</p>
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.</p>
+
+<p>Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1998, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,</p>
+
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address> 
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:30 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!-- Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right, cf. -->
+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape.el.html">&#x0395;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/netscape.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/netscape.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/not-ipr.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/not-ipr.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/not-ipr.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/not-ipr.ru-en.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:31 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,291 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Did You Say &ldquo;Intellectual Property&rdquo;?  It's a Seductive 
Mirage - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/not-ipr.translist" -->
+<h2>Did You Say &ldquo;Intellectual Property&rdquo;?  It's a Seductive 
Mirage</h2>
+
+<p>by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard M. Stallman</a></p>
+
+<p>
+It has become fashionable to toss copyright, patents, and
+trademarks&mdash;three separate and different entities involving three
+separate and different sets of laws&mdash;plus a dozen other laws into
+one pot and call it &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;.  The
+distorting and confusing term did not become common by accident.
+Companies that gain from the confusion promoted it.  The clearest way
+out of the confusion is to reject the term entirely.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+According to Professor Mark Lemley, now of the Stanford Law School,
+the widespread use of the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; is
+a fashion that followed the 1967 founding of the World &ldquo;Intellectual
+Property&rdquo; Organization (WIPO), and only became really common in recent
+years. (WIPO is formally a UN organization, but in fact represents the
+interests of the holders of copyrights, patents, and trademarks.) Wide use 
dates from
+<a 
href="http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?content=intellectual+property&amp;year_start=1800&amp;year_end=2008&amp;corpus=0&amp;smoothing=1";>around
+1990</a>. (<a href="/graphics/seductivemirage.png">Local image copy</a>)
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The term carries a bias that is not hard to see: it suggests thinking
+about copyright, patents and trademarks by analogy with property
+rights for physical objects. (This analogy is at odds with the legal
+philosophies of copyright law, of patent law, and of trademark law,
+but only specialists know that.) These laws are in fact not much like
+physical property law, but use of this term leads legislators to
+change them to be more so.  Since that is the change desired by the
+companies that exercise copyright, patent and trademark powers, the
+bias introduced by the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; suits them.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The bias is reason enough to reject the term, and people have often
+asked me to propose some other name for the overall category&mdash;or
+have proposed their own alternatives (often humorous).  Suggestions
+include IMPs, for Imposed Monopoly Privileges, and GOLEMs, for
+Government-Originated Legally Enforced Monopolies.  Some speak of
+&ldquo;exclusive rights regimes&rdquo;, but referring to restrictions
+as &ldquo;rights&rdquo; is doublethink too.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Some of these alternative names would be an improvement, but it is a
+mistake to replace &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; with any other
+term.  A different name will not address the term's deeper problem:
+overgeneralization.  There is no such unified thing as
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;&mdash;it is a mirage.  The only
+reason people think it makes sense as a coherent category is that
+widespread use of the term has misled them.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; is at best a catch-all to
+lump together disparate laws.  Nonlawyers who hear one term applied to
+these various laws tend to assume they are based on a common
+principle and function similarly.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Nothing could be further from the case.
+These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different
+activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues. 
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers
+the details of expression of a work.  Patent law was intended to
+promote the publication of useful ideas, at the price of giving the
+one who publishes an idea a temporary monopoly over it&mdash;a price
+that may be worth paying in some fields and not in others.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Trademark law, by contrast, was not intended to promote any particular
+way of acting, but simply to enable buyers to know what they are
+buying.  Legislators under the influence of the term &ldquo;intellectual
+property&rdquo;, however, have turned it into a scheme that provides
+incentives for advertising.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Since these laws developed independently, they are different in every
+detail, as well as in their basic purposes and methods.  Thus, if you
+learn some fact about copyright law, you'd be wise to assume that
+patent law is different.  You'll rarely go wrong!
+</p>
+
+<p>
+People often say &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; when they really
+mean some larger or smaller category.  For instance, rich countries
+often impose unjust laws on poor countries to squeeze money out of
+them.  Some of these laws are &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; laws,
+and others are not; nonetheless, critics of the practice often grab
+for that label because it has become familiar to them.  By using it,
+they misrepresent the nature of the issue.  It would be better to use
+an accurate term, such as &ldquo;legislative colonization&rdquo;, that
+gets to the heart of the matter.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Laymen are not alone in being confused by this term.  Even law
+professors who teach these laws are lured and distracted by the
+seductiveness of the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;, and
+make general statements that conflict with facts they know.  For
+example, one professor wrote in 2006:
+</p>
+
+<blockquote><p>
+Unlike their descendants who now work the floor at WIPO, the framers
+of the US constitution had a principled, procompetitive attitude to
+intellectual property.  They knew rights might be necessary,
+but&hellip;they tied congress's hands, restricting its power in
+multiple ways.
+</p></blockquote>
+
+<p>
+That statement refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 of the US
+Constitution, which authorizes copyright law and patent law.  That
+clause, though, has nothing to do with trademark law or various
+others.  The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; led that
+professor to make false generalization.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; also leads to simplistic
+thinking.  It leads people to focus on the meager commonality in form
+that these disparate laws have&mdash;that they create artificial
+privileges for certain parties&mdash;and to disregard the details
+which form their substance: the specific restrictions each law places
+on the public, and the consequences that result.  This simplistic focus
+on the form encourages an &ldquo;economistic&rdquo; approach to all
+these issues.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Economics operates here, as it often does, as a vehicle for unexamined
+assumptions.  These include assumptions about values, such as that
+amount of production matters while freedom and way of life do not,
+and factual assumptions which are mostly false, such as that
+copyrights on music supports musicians, or that patents on drugs
+support life-saving research.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Another problem is that, at the broad scale implicit in the term 
&ldquo;intellectual
+property&rdquo;, the specific issues raised by the various laws become
+nearly invisible.  These issues arise from the specifics of each
+law&mdash;precisely what the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;
+encourages people to ignore.  For instance, one issue relating to
+copyright law is whether music sharing should be allowed; patent law
+has nothing to do with this.  Patent law raises issues such as whether
+poor countries should be allowed to produce life-saving drugs and sell
+them cheaply to save lives; copyright law has nothing to do with such
+matters.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Neither of these issues is solely economic in nature, and their
+noneconomic aspects are very different; using the shallow economic
+overgeneralization as the basis for considering them means ignoring the
+differences.  Putting the two laws in the &ldquo;intellectual
+property&rdquo; pot obstructs clear thinking about each one.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Thus, any opinions about &ldquo;the issue of intellectual
+property&rdquo; and any generalizations about this supposed category
+are almost surely foolish.  If you think all those laws are one issue,
+you will tend to choose your opinions from a selection of sweeping
+overgeneralizations, none of which is any good.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+If you want to think clearly about the issues raised by patents, or
+copyrights, or trademarks, or various other different laws, the first
+step is to
+forget the idea of lumping them together, and treat them as separate
+topics.  The second step is to reject the narrow perspectives and
+simplistic picture the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;
+suggests.  Consider each of these issues separately, in its fullness,
+and you have a chance of considering them well.
+</p>
+
+<p>And when it comes to reforming WIPO, here is <a
+href="http://fsfe.org/projects/wipo/wiwo.en.html";>one proposal for
+changing the name and substance of WIPO</a>.
+
+</p>
+</div>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 2004, 2006, 2010 Richard M. Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:31 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical, and in the original -->
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Index: philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.ru-en.html
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+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Why Open Source Misses the Point of Free Software - GNU Project - Free 
Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/open-source-misses-the-point.translist" 
-->
+   
+<h2>Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software</h2>
+
+<p>by <strong>Richard Stallman</strong></p>
+
+<p>When we call software &ldquo;free,&rdquo; we mean that it respects
+the <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">users' essential freedoms</a>:
+the freedom to run it, to study and change it, and to redistribute
+copies with or without changes.  This is a matter of freedom, not
+price, so think of &ldquo;free speech,&rdquo; not &ldquo;free
+beer.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>These freedoms are vitally important.  They are essential, not just
+for the individual users' sake, but for society as a whole because they 
promote social
+solidarity&mdash;that is, sharing and cooperation.  They become even
+more important as our culture and life activities are increasingly digitized.
+In a world of digital sounds, images, and words, free
+software becomes increasingly essential for freedom in general.</p>
+
+<p>Tens of millions of people around the world now use free software;
+the public schools of some regions of India and Spain now teach all students to
+use the free <a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html">GNU/Linux operating
+system</a>.  Most of these users, however, have never heard of the ethical
+reasons for which we developed this system and built the free software
+community, because nowadays this system and community are more often
+spoken of as &ldquo;open source&rdquo;, attributing them to a different
+philosophy in which these freedoms are hardly mentioned.</p>
+
+<p>The free software movement has campaigned for computer users'
+freedom since 1983.  In 1984 we launched the development of the free
+operating system GNU, so that we could avoid the nonfree operating systems 
that deny freedom to their users.  During the 1980s, we developed most
+of the essential components of the system and designed
+the <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GNU General Public License</a> (GNU GPL) to 
release them under&mdash;a
+license designed specifically to protect freedom for all users of a
+program.</p>
+
+<p>Not all of the users and developers of free software
+agreed with the goals of the free software movement.  In 1998, a part
+of the free software community splintered off and began campaigning in
+the name of &ldquo;open source.&rdquo;  The term was originally
+proposed to avoid a possible misunderstanding of the term &ldquo;free
+software,&rdquo; but it soon became associated with philosophical
+views quite different from those of the free software movement.</p>
+
+<p>Some of the supporters of open source considered the term a
+&ldquo;marketing campaign for free software,&rdquo; which would appeal
+to business executives by highlighting the software's practical benefits, 
while not raising issues of right and wrong that they might not like to hear.  
Other
+supporters flatly rejected the free software movement's ethical and
+social values.  Whichever their views, when campaigning for
+open source, they neither cited nor advocated those values.
+The term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; quickly became associated with
+ideas and arguments based only on practical values, such as making or having 
powerful,
+reliable software.  Most of the supporters of open
+source have come to it since then, and they make the same association.</p>
+
+<p>Nearly all open source software is free software.  The two terms
+describe almost the same category of software, but they stand for
+views based on fundamentally different values.  Open source is a
+development methodology; free software is a social movement.  For the
+free software movement, free software is an ethical imperative,
+because only free software respects the users' freedom.  By contrast,
+the philosophy of open source considers issues in terms of how to make
+software &ldquo;better&rdquo;&mdash;in a practical sense only.  It
+says that nonfree software is an inferior solution to the practical
+problem at hand.  For the free software movement, however, nonfree
+software is a social problem, and the solution is to stop using it and
+move to free software.</p>
+
+<p>&ldquo;Free software.&rdquo; &ldquo;Open source.&rdquo; If it's the same 
software, does it
+matter which name you use?  Yes, because different words convey
+different ideas.  While a free program by any other name would give
+you the same freedom today, establishing freedom in a lasting way
+depends above all on teaching people to value freedom.  If you want to
+help do this, it is essential to speak of &ldquo;free
+software.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>We in the free software movement don't think of the open source
+camp as an enemy; the enemy is proprietary (nonfree) software.  But
+we want people to know we stand for freedom, so we do not accept being
+mislabeled as open source supporters.</p>
+
+<h3>Common Misunderstandings of &ldquo;Free Software&rdquo; and
+&ldquo;Open Source&rdquo;</h3>
+
+<p>The term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; is prone to misinterpretation:
+an unintended meaning, &ldquo;software you can get
+for zero price,&rdquo; fits the term just as well as the intended
+meaning, &ldquo;software which gives the user certain freedoms.&rdquo;
+We address this problem by publishing the definition of free software,
+and by saying &ldquo;Think of &lsquo;free speech,&rsquo; not &lsquo;free 
beer.&rsquo;&rdquo; This
+is not a perfect solution; it cannot completely eliminate the problem.
+An unambiguous and correct term would be better, if it didn't present other
+problems.</p>
+
+<p>Unfortunately, all the alternatives in English have problems of
+their own.  We've looked at many that people have
+suggested, but none is so clearly &ldquo;right&rdquo; that switching
+to it would be a good idea.  (For instance, in some contexts the
+French and Spanish word &ldquo;libre&rdquo; works well, but people in India do 
not
+recognize it at all.)  Every proposed replacement for
+&ldquo;free software&rdquo; has some kind of semantic
+problem&mdash;and this includes &ldquo;open source
+software.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>The <a href="http://opensource.org/docs/osd";>official definition of
+&ldquo;open source software&rdquo;</a> (which is published by the Open
+Source Initiative and is too long to include here) was derived
+indirectly from our criteria for free software.  It is not the same;
+it is a little looser in some respects, so the open source people have
+accepted a few licenses that we consider unacceptably restrictive.
+Also, they judge solely by the license of the source code, whereas our
+criterion also considers whether a device will let you <em>run</em>
+your modified version of the program.  Nonetheless, their definition
+agrees with our definition in most cases.</p>
+
+<p>However, the obvious meaning for the expression &ldquo;open source
+software&rdquo;&mdash;and the one most people seem to think it
+means&mdash;is &ldquo;You can look at the source code.&rdquo; That
+criterion is much weaker than the free software definition, much
+weaker also than the official definition of open source.  It includes
+many programs that are neither free nor open source.</p>
+
+<p>Since that obvious meaning for &ldquo;open source&rdquo; is not the
+meaning that its advocates intend, the result is that most people
+misunderstand the term.  According to writer Neal Stephenson,
+&ldquo;Linux is &lsquo;open source&rsquo; software meaning, simply,
+that anyone can get copies of its source code files.&rdquo; I don't
+think he deliberately sought to reject or dispute the
+&ldquo;official&rdquo; definition.  I think he simply applied the
+conventions of the English language to come up with a meaning for the
+term.  The state of Kansas published a similar definition:
+<!-- It was from http://da.state.ks.us/itec/TechArchPt6ver80.pdf, but
+that page is no longer available. --> &ldquo;Make use of open-source
+software (OSS).  OSS is software for which the source code is freely
+and publicly available, though the specific licensing agreements vary
+as to what one is allowed to do with that code.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>The <i>New York Times</i>
+has <a 
href="http://www.nytimes.com/external/gigaom/2009/02/07/07gigaom-the-brave-new-world-of-open-source-game-design-37415.html";>
+run an article that stretches the meaning of the term</a> to refer to
+user beta testing&mdash;letting a few users try an early version and
+give confidential feedback&mdash;which proprietary software developers
+have practiced for decades.</p>
+
+<p>Open source supporters try to deal with this by pointing to their
+official definition, but that corrective approach is less effective
+for them than it is for us.  The term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; has
+two natural meanings, one of which is the intended meaning, so a
+person who has grasped the idea of &ldquo;free speech, not free
+beer&rdquo; will not get it wrong again.  But the term &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo; has only one natural meaning, which is different from
+the meaning its supporters intend.  So there is no succinct way to
+explain and justify its official definition.  That makes for worse 
confusion.</p>
+
+<p>Another misunderstanding of &ldquo;open source&rdquo; is the idea
+that it means &ldquo;not using the GNU GPL.&rdquo; This tends to
+accompany another misunderstanding that &ldquo;free software&rdquo;
+means &ldquo;GPL-covered software.&rdquo; These are both mistaken,
+since the GNU GPL qualifies as an open source license and most of
+the open source licenses qualify as free software licenses.</p>
+
+<p>The term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; has been further stretched by
+its application to other activities, such as government, education,
+and science, where there is no such thing as source code, and where
+criteria for software licensing are simply not pertinent.  The only
+thing these activities have in common is that they somehow invite
+people to participate.  They stretch the term so far that it only means
+&ldquo;participatory&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<h3>Different Values Can Lead to Similar Conclusions&hellip;but Not Always</h3>
+
+<p>Radical groups in the 1960s had a reputation for factionalism: some
+organizations split because of disagreements on details of strategy,
+and the two daughter groups treated each other as enemies despite
+having similar basic goals and values.  The right wing made much of
+this and used it to criticize the entire left.</p>
+
+<p>Some try to disparage the free software movement by comparing our
+disagreement with open source to the disagreements of those radical
+groups.  They have it backwards.  We disagree with the open source
+camp on the basic goals and values, but their views and ours lead in
+many cases to the same practical behavior&mdash;such as developing
+free software.</p>
+
+<p>As a result, people from the free software movement and the open
+source camp often work together on practical projects such as software
+development.  It is remarkable that such different philosophical views
+can so often motivate different people to participate in the same
+projects.  Nonetheless, there are situations where these fundamentally
+different views lead to very different actions.</p>
+
+<p>The idea of open source is that allowing users to change and
+redistribute the software will make it more powerful and reliable.
+But this is not guaranteed.  Developers of proprietary software are
+not necessarily incompetent.  Sometimes they produce a program that
+is powerful and reliable, even though it does not respect the users'
+freedom.   Free software activists and open source enthusiasts will
+react very differently to that.</p>
+
+<p>A pure open source enthusiast, one that is not at all influenced by
+the ideals of free software, will say, &ldquo;I am surprised you were able
+to make the program work so well without using our development model,
+but you did.  How can I get a copy?&rdquo;  This attitude will reward
+schemes that take away our freedom, leading to its loss.</p>
+
+<p>The free software activist will say, &ldquo;Your program is very
+attractive, but I value my freedom more.  So I reject your program.
+Instead I will support a project to develop a free
+replacement.&rdquo;  If we value our freedom, we can act to maintain and
+defend it.</p>
+
+<h3>Powerful, Reliable Software Can Be Bad</h3>
+
+<p>The idea that we want software to be powerful and reliable comes
+from the supposition that the software is designed to serve its users.
+If it is powerful and reliable, that means it serves them better.</p>
+
+<p>But software can be said to serve its users only if it respects
+their freedom.  What if the software is designed to put chains on its
+users?  Then powerfulness means the chains are more constricting,
+and reliability that they are harder to remove.  Malicious features,
+such as spying on the users, restricting the users, back doors, and
+imposed upgrades are common in proprietary software, and some open
+source supporters want to implement them in open source programs.</p>
+
+<p>Under pressure from the movie and record companies, software for
+individuals to use is increasingly designed specifically to restrict
+them.  This malicious feature is known as Digital Restrictions
+Management (DRM) (see <a
+href="http://defectivebydesign.org/";>DefectiveByDesign.org</a>) and is
+the antithesis in spirit of the freedom that free software aims
+to provide.  And not just in spirit: since the goal of DRM is to
+trample your freedom, DRM developers try to make it hard, impossible,
+or even illegal for you to change the software that implements the DRM.</p>
+
+<p>Yet some open source supporters have proposed &ldquo;open source
+DRM&rdquo; software.  Their idea is that, by publishing the source code
+of programs designed to restrict your access to encrypted media and by
+allowing others to change it, they will produce more powerful and
+reliable software for restricting users like you.  The software would then be
+delivered to you in devices that do not allow you to change it.</p>
+
+<p>This software might be open source and use the open
+source development model, but it won't be free software since it
+won't respect the freedom of the users that actually run it.  If the
+open source development model succeeds in making this software more
+powerful and reliable for restricting you, that will make it even
+worse.</p>
+
+<h3>Fear of Freedom</h3>
+
+<p>The main initial motivation of those who split off the open source
+camp from the free software movement was that the ethical ideas of
+&ldquo;free software&rdquo; made some people uneasy.  That's true: raising 
ethical issues such as freedom, talking about responsibilities as well as
+convenience, is asking people to think about things they might prefer
+to ignore, such as whether their conduct is ethical.  This can trigger
+discomfort, and some people may simply close their minds to it.  It
+does not follow that we ought to stop talking about these issues.</p>
+
+<p>That is, however, what the leaders of open source
+decided to do.  They figured that by keeping quiet about ethics and
+freedom, and talking only about the immediate practical benefits of
+certain free software, they might be able to &ldquo;sell&rdquo; the
+software more effectively to certain users, especially business.</p>
+
+<p>This approach has proved effective, in its own terms.  The rhetoric
+of open source has convinced many businesses and individuals to use,
+and even develop, free software, which has extended our
+community&mdash;but only at the superficial, practical level.  The
+philosophy of open source, with its purely practical values, impedes
+understanding of the deeper ideas of free software; it brings many
+people into our community, but does not teach them to defend it.  That
+is good, as far as it goes, but it is not enough to make freedom
+secure.  Attracting users to free software takes them just part of the
+way to becoming defenders of their own freedom.</p>
+
+<p>Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to
+proprietary software for some practical advantage.  Countless
+companies seek to offer such temptation, some even offering copies
+gratis.  Why would users decline?  Only if they have learned to value
+the freedom free software gives them, to value freedom in and of itself rather
+than the technical and practical convenience of specific free
+software.  To spread this idea, we have to talk about freedom.  A
+certain amount of the &ldquo;keep quiet&rdquo; approach to business can be
+useful for the community, but it is dangerous if it becomes so common
+that the love of freedom comes to seem like an eccentricity.</p>
+
+<p>That dangerous situation is exactly what we have.  Most people
+involved with free software, especially its distributors, say little about 
freedom&mdash;usually
+because they seek to be &ldquo;more acceptable to business.&rdquo;
+Nearly all
+GNU/Linux operating system distributions add proprietary packages to
+the basic free system, and they invite users to consider this an
+advantage rather than a flaw.</p>
+
+<p>Proprietary add-on software and partially nonfree GNU/Linux
+distributions find fertile ground because most of our community does
+not insist on freedom with its software.  This is no coincidence.
+Most GNU/Linux users were introduced to the system through &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo; discussion, which doesn't say that freedom is a goal.
+The practices that don't uphold freedom and the words that don't talk
+about freedom go hand in hand, each promoting the other.  To overcome
+this tendency, we need more, not less, talk about freedom.</p>
+
+<h3>Conclusion</h3>
+
+<p>As the advocates of open source draw new users into our community,
+we free software activists must shoulder the task of bringing the issue
+of freedom to their attention.  We have to say, &ldquo;It's
+free software and it gives you freedom!&rdquo;&mdash;more and louder
+than ever.  Every time you say &ldquo;free software&rdquo; rather than
+&ldquo;open source,&rdquo; you help our campaign.</p>
+
+<h4>Notes</h4>
+
+<p>
+Joe Barr's article, 
+<a href="http://www.itworld.com/LWD010523vcontrol4";>&ldquo;Live and
+let license,&rdquo;</a> gives his perspective on this issue.</p>
+
+<p>
+Lakhani and Wolf's
+<a 
href="http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-352-managing-innovation-emerging-trends-spring-2005/readings/lakhaniwolf.pdf";>paper
 on the
+motivation of free software developers</a> says that a considerable
+fraction are motivated by the view that software should be free.  This
+is despite the fact that they surveyed the developers on SourceForge,
+a site that does not support the view that this is an ethical issue.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2007, 2010 Richard Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:31 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+<!-- All pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
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+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
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+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
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+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a hreflang="ar" 
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+<!-- Bulgarian -->
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+<!-- French -->
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+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.ru-en.html      26 Dec 2011 09:29:32 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,138 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>A Response Letter to the Word Attachments</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords"
+ content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, Linux, general, public, license, 
gpl, general public license, freedom, software, power, rights, word, 
attachment, word attachment, microsoft" />
+ <meta http-equiv="Description" content="This essay explains why Microsoft 
Word attachments to email are bad, and describes what you can do to help stop 
this practice." />
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/papadopoulos-response.translist" -->
+<h2>A Response Letter to the Word Attachments</h2>
+
+<p>From: Alexandros Papadopoulos</p>
+<p>
+I'm sorry, but I was unable to read the Microsoft Word document you sent
+me. Microsoft has been steadily changing the .doc format over the
+releases of Microsoft Word (4.0, 95, 97, 2000, and now XP). Microsoft
+has also intentionally refused to release the specification of the .doc
+format to the community, making Microsoft Word the only application
+that can reliably open this format. There is the Microsoft
+Word Viewer application, but it only runs on Microsoft Windows
+operating systems and does not allow one to edit the document.
+</p><p>
+The development team that designed the software I choose to use
+(OpenOffice.org), has tried hard to figure out how the .doc format is
+created and interpreted, in order to make it available to more people.
+They believe that all people should be able to exchange information
+electronically, and .doc is one of the most common formats. So, they
+tried to make OpenOffice.org, the main competitor to Microsoft's own
+Office suite, as compatible as possible with Microsoft's own formats.
+But Microsoft did not like this, because it would mean that people that
+have not bought Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office would be able to
+read and write .doc documents.
+</p><p>
+Unfortunately, it seems that Microsoft is sometimes successful. My
+non-Microsoft application was unable to open the .doc document you sent
+me. As a result, we cannot exchange information, until one of the
+following happens:
+</p><p>
+[0] The information intended to be read/processed by me is converted to
+an open format that people who don't use Microsoft Windows and Microsoft
+Office are able to process.
+</p><p>
+[1] I purchase and install Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word, and by
+deduction all other Microsoft applications necessary to do my work.
+</p><p>
+Because it will be a cold day in hell before I do the latter, I would
+suggest we find a different way of exchanging information
+electronically.
+</p><p>
+--A
+</p><p>
+PS: I hope you realize that I have nothing against you as a person. I
+just can't use the document you sent me, and I tried to explain why the
+implicit assumption that I would be able to read it, was mistaken.
+</p><p>
+PPS: When I tried to open the document you sent to me, my word processor
+crashed, obviously unable to properly interpret the .doc format. My
+word processor was handling 4 other documents at the time. Two of them
+were assignments, and all changes I had not saved were lost. On
+aggregate, about two hours of my work were lost because the
+OpenOffice.org developers were unable to overcome the barriers Microsoft
+put in place, and render the document properly. I believe they are the
+last to blame for this failure.
+</p><p>
+PPPS: For further reasons why .doc should not be the format of choice
+when exchanging information electronically, I invite you to read
+<a href="/philosophy/no-word-attachments.html">
+http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/no-word-attachments.html</a>.  It may be
+long, but it certainly exposes the compromises both you, as the
+sender, and I, as the receiver, are making by exchanging Microsoft
+Word documents.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Last updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:32 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
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+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
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+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/pirate-party.cs-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:32 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>How the Swedish Pirate Party Platform Backfires on Free Software</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/pirate-party.translist" -->
+<h2>How the Swedish Pirate Party Platform Backfires on Free Software</h2>
+
+<p>by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a></p>
+
+<p>The bullying of the copyright industry in Sweden inspired the
+launch of the first political party whose platform is to reduce
+copyright restrictions: the Pirate Party.  Its platform includes the
+prohibition of Digital Restrictions Management, legalization of
+noncommercial sharing of published works, and shortening of copyright
+for commercial use to a five-year period.  Five years after
+publication, any published work would go into the public domain.</p>
+
+<p>I support these changes, in general; but the specific combination
+chosen by the Swedish Pirate Party backfires ironically in the special
+case of free software.  I'm sure that they did not intend to hurt free
+software, but that's what would happen.</p>
+
+<p>The GNU General Public License and other copyleft licenses use
+copyright law to defend freedom for every user.  The GPL permits
+everyone to publish modified works, but only under the same license.
+Redistribution of the unmodified work must also preserve the license.
+And all redistributors must give users access to the software's source
+code.</p>
+
+<p>How would the Swedish Pirate Party's platform affect copylefted
+free software?  After five years, its source code would go into the
+public domain, and proprietary software developers would be able to
+include it in their programs.  But what about the reverse case?</p>
+
+<p>Proprietary software is restricted by EULAs, not just by copyright,
+and the users don't have the source code.  Even if copyright permits
+noncommercial sharing, the EULA may forbid it.  In addition, the
+users, not having the source code, do not control what the program
+does when they run it.  To run such a program is to surrender your
+freedom and give the developer control over you.</p>
+
+<p>So what would be the effect of terminating this program's copyright
+after 5 years?  This would not require the developer to release source
+code, and presumably most will never do so.  Users, still denied the
+source code, would still be unable to use the program in freedom.  The
+program could even have a &ldquo;time bomb&rdquo; in it to make it
+stop working after 5 years, in which case the &ldquo;public
+domain&rdquo; copies would not run at all.</p>
+
+<p>Thus, the Pirate Party's proposal would give proprietary software
+developers the use of GPL-covered source code after 5 years, but it
+would not give free software developers the use of proprietary source
+code, not after 5 years or even 50 years.  The Free World would get
+the bad, but not the good.  The difference between source code and
+object code and the practice of using EULAs would give proprietary
+software an effective exception from the general rule of 5-year
+copyright &mdash; one that free software does not share.</p>
+
+<p>We also use copyright to partially deflect the danger of software
+patents.  We cannot make our programs safe from them &mdash; no
+program is ever safe from software patents in a country which allows
+them &mdash; but at least we prevent them from being used to make the
+program effectively non-free.  The Swedish Pirate Party proposes to
+abolish software patents, and if that is done, this issue would go
+away.  But until that is achieved, we must not lose our only defense
+for protection from patents.</p>
+
+<p>Once the Swedish Pirate Party had announced its platform, free
+software developers noticed this effect and began proposing a special
+rule for free software: to make copyright last longer for free
+software, so that it can continue to be copylefted.  This explicit
+exception for free software would counterbalance the effective
+exception for proprietary software.  Even ten years ought to be
+enough, I think.  However, the proposal met with resistance from the
+Pirate Party's leaders, who objected to the idea of a longer copyright
+for a special case.</p>
+
+<p>I could support a law that would make GPL-covered software's source
+code available in the public domain after 5 years, provided it has the
+same effect on proprietary software's source code.  After all,
+copyleft is a means to an end (users' freedom), not an end in itself.
+And I'd rather not be an advocate for a stronger copyright.</p>
+
+<p>So I proposed that the Pirate Party platform require proprietary
+software's source code to be put in escrow when the binaries are
+released.  The escrowed source code would then be released in the
+public domain after 5 years.  Rather than making free software an
+official exception to the 5-year copyright rule, this would eliminate
+proprietary software's unofficial exception.  Either way, the result
+is fair.</p>
+
+<p>A Pirate Party supporter proposed a more general variant of the
+first suggestion: a general scheme to make copyright last longer as
+the public is granted more freedoms in using the work.  The advantage
+of this is that free software becomes part of a general pattern of
+varying copyright term, rather than a lone exception.</p>
+
+<p>I'd prefer the escrow solution, but any of these methods would
+avoid a prejudicial effect specifically against free software.  There
+may be other solutions that would also do the job.  One way or
+another, the Pirate Party of Sweden should avoid placing a handicap on
+a movement to defend the public from marauding giants.</p>
+</div>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2009 Richard Stallman</p>
+
+<p>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No
+Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this
+license,
+visit <a 
href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/</a>
+or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300,
+San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:32 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> 
-->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.es.html">espa&#x00f1;ol</a> 
[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/pirate-party.fr.html">fran&ccedil;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/pirate-party.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
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 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.ru-en.html     26 Dec 2011 09:29:33 
-0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,457 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>Reevaluating Copyright: The Public Must Prevail - GNU Project - Free 
Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/reevaluating-copyright.translist" -->
+
+<h2>Reevaluating Copyright: The Public Must Prevail</h2>
+
+<pre>
+                Reevaluating Copyright: The Public Must Prevail
+                [Published in Oregon Law Review, Spring 1996]
+
+                            Richard Stallman
+</pre>
+
+<p>The legal world is aware that digital information technology poses
+&ldquo;problems for copyright,&rdquo; but has not traced these
+problems to their root cause: a fundamental conflict between
+publishers of copyrighted works and the users of these works. The
+publishers, understanding their own interest, have set forth a
+proposal through the Clinton Administration to fix the
+&ldquo;problems&rdquo; by deciding the conflict in their favor. This
+proposal, the Lehman White Paper <a href="#ft2">[2]</a>, was the
+principal focus of the &ldquo;Innovation and the Information
+Environment&rdquo; conference at the University of Oregon (November
+1995).</p>
+
+<p>John Perry Barlow <a href="#ft3">[3]</a>, the keynote speaker,
+began the conference by telling us how the Greatful Dead recognized
+and dealt with this conflict. They decided it would be wrong to
+interfere with copying of their performances on tapes, or with
+distribution on the Internet, but saw nothing wrong in enforcing
+copyright for CD recordings of their music.</p>
+
+<p>Barlow did not analyze the reasons for treating these media
+differently, and later Gary Glisson <a href="#ft4">[4]</a> criticized
+Barlow's idea that the Internet is inexplicably unique and unlike
+anything else in the world. He argued that we should be able to
+determine the implications of the Internet for copyright policy by the
+same kind of analysis that we apply to other technologies. This paper
+attempts to do just that.</p>
+
+<p>Barlow suggested that our intuitions based on physical objects as
+property do not transfer to information as property because
+information is &ldquo;abstract.&rdquo; As Steven
+Winter <a href="#ft5">[5]</a> remarked, abstract property has existed
+for centuries. Shares in a company, commodity futures, and even paper
+money, are forms of property that are more or less abstract.  Barlow
+and others who argue that information should be free do not reject
+these other kinds of abstract property. Clearly, the crucial
+difference between information and acceptable kinds of property is not
+abstractness per se. So what is it? I propose a simple and practical
+explanation.</p>
+
+<p>United States copyright law considers copyright a bargain between
+the public and &ldquo;authors&rdquo; (although in practice, usually
+publishers take over the authors' part of the bargain). The public
+trades certain freedoms in exchange for more published works to
+enjoy. Until the White Paper, our government had never proposed that
+the public should trade <b>all</b> of its freedom to use published
+works. Copyright involves giving up specific freedoms and retaining
+others. This means that there are many alternative bargains that the
+public could offer to publishers. So which bargain is the best one for
+the public? Which freedoms are worth while for the public to trade,
+and for what length of time? The answers depend on two things: how
+much additional publication the public will get for trading a given
+freedom, and how much the public benefits from keeping that
+freedom.</p>
+
+<p>This shows why making <a href="#later-1">intellectual property
+decisions</a> by analogy to physical object property, or even to older
+intellectual property policies, is a mistake. Winter argued
+persuasively that it is possible to make such analogies, to stretch
+our old concepts and apply them to new decisions <a href=
+"#ft6">[6]</a>. Surely this will reach some answer&mdash;but not a
+good answer. Analogy is not a useful way of deciding what to buy or at
+what price.</p>
+
+<p>For example, we do not decide whether to build a highway in New
+York City by analogy with a previous decision about a proposed highway
+in Iowa. In each highway construction decision, the same factors apply
+(cost, amount of traffic, taking of land or houses); if we made
+highway decisions by analogy to previous highway decisions, we would
+either build every proposed highway or none of them. Instead we judge
+each proposed highway based on the pros and cons, whose magnitudes
+vary from case to case. In copyright issues, too, we must weigh the
+cost and benefits for today's situation and today's media, not as they
+have applied to other media in the past.</p>
+
+<p>This also shows why Laurence Tribe's principle, that rights
+concerning speech should not depend on the choice of
+medium<a href="#ft7">[7]</a>, is not applicable to copyright
+decisions. Copyright is a bargain with the public, not a natural
+right. Copyright policy issues are about which bargains benefit the
+public, not about what rights publishers or readers are entitled
+to.</p>
+
+<p>The copyright system developed along with the printing press.  In
+the age of the printing press, it was unfeasible for an ordinary
+reader to copy a book. Copying a book required a printing press, and
+ordinary readers did not have one. What's more, copying in this way
+was absurdly expensive unless many copies were made&mdash;which means,
+in effect, that only a publisher could copy a book economically.</p>
+
+<p>So when the public traded to publishers the freedom to copy books,
+they were selling something which they <b>could not use</b>.  Trading
+something you cannot use for something useful and helpful is always
+good deal. Therefore, copyright was uncontroversial in the age of the
+printing press, precisely because it did not restrict anything the
+reading public might commonly do.</p>
+
+<p>But the age of the printing press is gradually ending. The xerox
+machine and the audio and video tape began the change; digital
+information technology brings it to fruition. These advances make it
+possible for ordinary people, not just publishers with specialized
+equipment, to copy. And they do!</p>
+
+<p>Once copying is a useful and practical activity for ordinary
+people, they are no longer so willing to give up the freedom to do
+it. They want to keep this freedom and exercise it instead of trading
+it away. The copyright bargain that we have is no longer a good deal
+for the public, and it is time to revise it&mdash;time for the law to
+recognize the public benefit that comes from making and sharing
+copies.</p>
+
+<p>With this analysis, we see why rejection of the old copyright
+bargain is not based on supposing that the Internet is ineffably
+unique. The Internet is relevant because it facilitates copying and
+sharing of writings by ordinary readers. The easier it is to copy and
+share, the more useful it becomes, and the more copyright as it stands
+now becomes a bad deal.</p>
+
+<p>This analysis also explains why it makes sense for the Grateful
+Dead to insist on copyright for CD manufacturing but not for
+individual copying. CD production works like the printing press; it is
+not feasible today for ordinary people, even computer owners, to copy
+a CD into another CD. Thus, copyright for publishing CDs of music
+remains painless for music listeners, just as all copyright was
+painless in the age of the printing press. To restrict copying the
+same music onto a digital audio tape does hurt the listeners, however,
+and they are entitled to reject this restriction. (1999 note: the
+practical situation for CDs has changed, in that many ordinary
+computer users can now copy CDs. This means that we should now
+consider CDs more like tapes.  2007 clarification: notwithstanding the
+improvement in CD technology, it still makes sense to apply copyright
+to commercial distribution while letting individuals copy freely.)</p>
+
+<p>We can also see why the abstractness
+of <a href="#later-1">intellectual property</a> is not the crucial
+factor.  Other forms of abstract property represent shares of
+something.  Copying any kind of share is intrinsically a zero-sum
+activity; the person who copies benefits only by taking wealth away
+from everyone else. Copying a dollar bill in a color copier is
+effectively equivalent to shaving a small fraction off of every other
+dollar and adding these fractions together to make one
+dollar. Naturally, we consider this wrong.</p>
+
+<p>By contrast, copying useful, enlightening or entertaining
+information for a friend makes the world happier and better off; it
+benefits the friend, and inherently hurts no one. It is a constructive
+activity that strengthens social bonds.</p>
+
+<p>Some readers may question this statement because they know
+publishers claim that illegal copying causes them &ldquo;loss.&rdquo;
+This claim is mostly inaccurate and partly misleading. More
+importantly, it is begging the question.</p>
+
+<ul>
+  <li>The claim is mostly inaccurate because it presupposes that the
+  friend would otherwise have bought a copy from the publisher. That
+  is occasionally true, but more often false; and when it is false,
+  the claimed loss does not occur.</li>
+
+  <li>The claim is partly misleading because the word
+  &ldquo;loss&rdquo; suggests events of a very different
+  nature&mdash;events in which something they have is taken away from
+  them. For example, if the bookstore's stock of books were burned, or
+  if the money in the register got torn up, that would really be a
+  &ldquo;loss.&rdquo; We generally agree it is wrong to do these
+  things to other people.
+
+    <p>But when your friend avoids the need to buy a copy of a book,
+    the bookstore and the publisher do not lose anything they had. A
+    more fitting description would be that the bookstore and publisher
+    get less income than they might have got. The same consequence can
+    result if your friend decides to play bridge instead of reading a
+    book. In a free market system, no business is entitled to cry
+    &ldquo;foul&rdquo; just because a potential customer chooses not
+    to deal with them.</p>
+    </li>
+
+  <li>The claim is begging the question because the idea of
+  &ldquo;loss&rdquo; is based on the assumption that the publisher
+  &ldquo;should have&rdquo; got paid. That is based on the assumption
+  that copyright exists and prohibits individual copying. But that is
+  just the issue at hand: what should copyright cover? If the public
+  decides it can share copies, then the publisher is not entitled to
+  expect to be paid for each copy, and so cannot claim there is a
+  &ldquo;loss&rdquo; when it is not.
+
+    <p>In other words, the &ldquo;loss&rdquo; comes from the copyright
+    system; it is not an inherent part of copying. Copying in itself
+    hurts no one.</p>
+  </li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>The most widely opposed provision of the White Paper is the system
+of collective responsibility, whereby a computer owner is required to
+monitor and control the activities of all users, on pain of being
+punished for actions in which he was not a participant but merely
+failed to actively prevent. Tim Sloan <a href="#ft8">[8]</a> pointed
+out that this gives copyright owners a privileged status not accorded
+to anyone else who might claim to be damaged by a computer user; for
+example, no one proposes to punish the computer owner if he fails
+actively to prevent a user from defaming someone. It is natural for a
+government to turn to collective responsibility for enforcing a law
+that many citizens do not believe in obeying. The more digital
+technology helps citizens share information, the more the government
+will need draconian methods to enforce copyright against ordinary
+citizens.</p>
+
+<p>When the United States Constitution was drafted, the idea that
+authors were entitled to a copyright monopoly was proposed&mdash;and
+rejected <a href="#ft9">[9]</a>. Instead, the founders of our country
+adopted a different idea of copyright, one which places the public
+first <a href="#ft10">[10]</a>. Copyright in the United States is
+supposed to exist for the sake of users; benefits for publishers and
+even for authors are not given for the sake of those parties, but only
+as an inducement to change their behavior. As the Supreme Court said
+in Fox Film Corp. v. Doyal: &ldquo;The sole interest of the United
+States and the primary object in conferring the [copyright] monopoly
+lie in the general benefits derived by the public from the labors of
+authors.&rdquo; <a href="#ft11">[11]</a></p>
+
+<p>Under the Constitution's view of copyright, if the public prefers
+to be able to make copies in certain cases even if that means somewhat
+fewer works are published, the public's choice is decisive. There is
+no possible justification for prohibiting the public from copying what
+it wants to copy.</p>
+
+<p>Ever since the constitutional decision was made, publishers have
+tried to reverse it by misinforming the public. They do this by
+repeating arguments which presuppose that copyright is a natural right
+of authors (not mentioning that authors almost always cede it to
+publishers). People who hear these arguments, unless they have a firm
+awareness that this presupposition is contrary to the basic premises
+of our legal system, take for granted that it is the basis of that
+system.</p>
+
+<p>This error is so ingrained today that people who oppose new
+copyright powers feel the need to do so by arguing that even authors
+and publishers may be hurt by them. Thus, James
+Boyle <a href="#ft12">[12]</a> explains how a
+strict <a href="#later-2">intellectual property system</a> can
+interfere with writing new works. Jessica
+Litman <a href="#ft13">[13]</a> cites the copyright shelters which
+historically allowed many new media to become popular. Pamela
+Samuelson <a href="#ft14">[14]</a> warns that the White Paper may
+block the development of &ldquo;third-wave&rdquo; information
+industries by locking the world into the &ldquo;second-wave&rdquo;
+economic model that fit the age of the printing press.</p>
+
+<p>These arguments can be very effective on those issues where they
+are available, especially with a Congress and Administration dominated
+by the idea that &ldquo;What's good for General Media is good for the
+USA.&rdquo; But they fail to expose the fundamental falsehood on which
+this domination is based; as a result, they are ineffective in the
+long term. When these arguments win one battle, they do so without
+building a general understanding that helps win the next battle. If we
+turn to these arguments too much and too often, the danger is that we
+may allow the publishers to replace the Constitution uncontested.</p>
+
+<p>For example, the recently published position statement of the
+Digital Future Coalition, an umbrella organization, lists many reasons
+to oppose the White Paper, for the sake of authors, libraries,
+education, poor Americans, technological progress, economic
+flexibility, and privacy concerns&mdash;all valid arguments, but
+concerned with side issues <a href="#ft15">[15]</a>.  Conspicuously
+absent from the list is the most important reason of all: that many
+Americans (perhaps most) want to continue making copies. The DFC fails
+to criticize the core goal of the White Paper, which is to give more
+power to publishers, and its central decision, to reject the
+Constitution and place the publishers above the users. This silence
+may be taken for consent.</p>
+
+<p>Resisting the pressure for additional power for publishers depends
+on widespread awareness that the reading and listening public are
+paramount; that copyright exists for users and not vice versa. If the
+public is unwilling to accept certain copyright powers, that is ipso
+facto justification for not offering them. Only by reminding the
+public and the legislature of the purpose of copyright and the
+opportunity for the open flow of information can we ensure that the
+public prevails.</p>
+
+<h3>ENDNOTES</h3>
+
+<p id="ft2">[2] Informational Infrastructure Task
+Force, Intellectual Property and the National Information
+Infrastructure: The Report of the Working Group on Intellectual
+Property Rights (1995).</p>
+
+<p id="ft3">[3] John Perry Barlow, Remarks at the
+Innovation and the Information Environment Conference (Nov.
+1995). Mr. Barlow is one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier
+Foundation, an organization which promotes freedom of expression in
+digital media, and is also a former lyricist for the Grateful
+Dead.</p>
+
+<p id="ft4">[4] Gary Glisson, Remarks at the
+Innovation and the Information Environment Conference (Nov.  1995);
+see also Gary Glisson, A Practitioner's Defense of the NII White
+Paper, 75 Or. L. Rev. (1996) (supporting the White Paper).
+Mr. Glisson is a partner and chair of the Intellectual Property Group
+at Lane Powell Spears Lubersky in Portland, Oregon.</p>
+
+<p id="ft5">[5] Steven Winter, Remarks at the
+Innovation and the Information Environment Conference (Nov.
+1995). Mr. Winter is a professor at the University of Miami School of
+Law.</p>
+
+<p id="ft6">[6] Winter, supra note 4.</p>
+
+<p id="ft7">[7] See Laurence H. Tribe, The
+Constitution in Cyberspace: Law and Liberty Beyond the Electronic
+Frontier, Humanist, Sept.-Oct. 1991, at 15.</p>
+
+<p id="ft8">[8] Tim Sloan, Remarks at the Innovation
+and the Information Environment Conference (Nov. 1995). Mr. Sloan is
+a member of the National Telecommunication and Information
+Administration.</p>
+
+<p id="ft9">[9] See Jane C. Ginsburg, A Tale of Two
+Copyrights: Liberary Property in Revolutionary France and America, in,
+Of Authors and Origins: Essays on Copyright Law 131, 137-38 (Brad
+Sherman &amp; Alain Strowel, eds., 1994) (stating that the
+Constitution's framers either meant to &ldquo;subordinate[] the
+author's interests to the public benefit,&rdquo; or to &ldquo;treat
+the private and public interests&hellip;even-handedly.&rdquo;).</p>
+
+<p id="ft10">[10] U.S. Const., art. I, p. 8, cl. 8
+(&ldquo;Congress shall have Power&hellip;to promote the Progress of
+Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and
+Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and
+Discoveries.&rdquo;).</p>
+
+<p id="ft11">[11] 286 U.S. 123, 127 (1932).</p>
+
+<p id="ft12">[12] James Boyle, Remarks at the
+Innovation and the Information Environment Conference (Nov.
+1995). Mr. Boyle is a Professor of Law at American University in
+Washington, D.C.</p>
+
+<p id="ft13">[13] Jessica Litman, Remarks at the
+Innovation and the Information Environment Conference (Nov.
+1995). Ms. Litman is a Professor at Wayne State University Law School
+in Detroit, Michigan.</p>
+
+<p id="ft14">[14] Pamela Samuelson, The Copyright
+Grab, Wired, Jan. 1996. Ms. Samuelson is a Professor at Cornell Law
+School.</p>
+
+<p id="ft15">[15] Digital Future Coalition,
+Broad-Based Coalition Expresses Concern Over Intellectual Property
+Proposals, Nov. 15, 1995<!-- (available at URL:
+<a 
href="http://home.worldweb.net/dfc/press.html";>http://home.worldweb.net/dfc/press.html</a>)-->.</p>
+
+<h3>LATER NOTES</h3>
+
+<p id="later-1">[1] This article was part of the
+path that led me to recognize the <a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html">
+bias and confusion in the term &ldquo;intellectual
+property&rdquo;</a>. Today I believe that term should never be used
+under any circumstances.</p>
+
+<p id="later-2">[2] Here I fell into the
+fashionable error of writing &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; when
+what I meant was just &ldquo;copyright&rdquo;. This is like writing
+&ldquo;Europe&rdquo; when you mean &ldquo;France&rdquo;&mdash;it
+causes confusion that is easy to avoid.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
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+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1996, 1999 Richard M. Stallman
+<br />
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:33 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
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+<!-- <li><a 
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Index: philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.ru-en.html
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+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Selling Exceptions</title>
+<link rel="canonical" href="http://www.fsf.org/blogs/rms/selling-exceptions"; />
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling-exceptions.translist" -->
+<h2>Selling Exceptions</h2>
+
+<p>by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a></p>
+
+<p><em>The practice of selling license exceptions became a hot topic
+when I co-signed Knowledge Ecology International's letter warning that
+Oracle's purchase of MySQL (plus the rest of Sun) might not be good
+for MySQL.</em></p>
+
+<p><em>As the following article explains, my feelings about selling
+license exceptions are mixed.  Clearly it is possible to develop
+powerful and complex software packages under the GNU GPL without
+selling exceptions, and we do this.  MySQL can be developed this way
+too.  However, selling exceptions has been used by MySQL developers.
+Who should decide whether to continue this?  I don't think it is wise
+to give major decisions about a free software project to a large
+proprietary competitor, which might naturally prefer that the project
+develop less rather than more.</em></p>
+
+<p><em>One thing that makes no sense at all is the idea of changing
+the license of MySQL to something non-copyleft.  That would eliminate
+the possibility of selling exceptions, but allow all sorts of
+proprietary modified versions.  Wherever MySQL should go, it isn't
+there.</em></p>
+
+<h3>On Selling Exceptions to the GNU GPL</h3>
+
+<p>When I co-signed
+the <a href="/philosophy/ec_letter_mysql_oct19.pdf">letter objecting
+to Oracle's planned purchase of
+MySQL</a><sup><a href="#footnote">1</a></sup> (along with the rest of
+Sun), some free software supporters were surprised that I approved of
+the practice of selling license exceptions which the MySQL developers
+have used.  They expected me to condemn the practice outright.  This
+article explains what I think of the practice, and why.</p>
+
+<p>Selling exceptions means that the copyright holder of the code
+releases it to the public under a free software license, then lets
+customers pay for permission to use the same code under different
+terms, for instance allowing its inclusion in proprietary
+applications.</p>
+
+<p>We must distinguish the practice of selling exceptions from something
+crucially different: purely proprietary extensions or versions of
+a free program.  These two activities, even if practiced
+simultaneously by one company, are different issues.  In selling
+exceptions, the same code that the exception applies to is available
+to the general public as free software.  An extension or a modified
+version that is only available under a proprietary license is
+proprietary software, pure and simple, and no better than any other
+proprietary software.  This article is concerned with cases that
+involve strictly and only the sale of exceptions.</p>
+
+<p>I've considered selling exceptions acceptable since the 1990s, and on
+occasion I've suggested it to companies.  Sometimes this approach has
+made it possible for important programs to become free software.</p>
+
+<p>The KDE desktop was developed in the 90s based on the Qt library.  Qt
+was proprietary software, and TrollTech charged for permission to
+embed it in proprietary applications.  TrollTech allowed gratis use of
+Qt in free applications, but this did not make it free/libre software.
+Completely free operating systems therefore could not include Qt, so
+they could not use KDE either.</p>
+
+<p>In 1998, the management of TrollTech recognized that they could
+make Qt free software and continue charging for permission to embed it
+in proprietary software.  I do not recall whether the suggestion came
+from me, but I certainly was happy to see the change, which made it
+possible to use Qt and thus KDE in the free software world.</p>
+
+<p>Initially, they used their own license, the Q Public License
+(QPL)&mdash;quite restrictive as free software licenses go, and
+incompatible with the GNU GPL.  Later they switched to the GNU GPL; I
+think I had explained to them that it would work for the purpose.</p>
+
+<p>Selling exceptions depends fundamentally on using a copyleft
+license, such as the GNU GPL, for the free software release.  A
+copyleft license permits embedding in a larger program only if the
+whole combined program is released under that license; this is how it
+ensures extended versions will also be free.  Thus, users that want to
+make the combined program proprietary need special permission.  Only
+the copyright holder can grant that, and selling exceptions is one
+style of doing so.  Someone else, who received the code under the GNU
+GPL or another copyleft license, cannot grant an exception.</p>
+
+<p>When I first heard of the practice of selling exceptions, I asked
+myself whether the practice is ethical.  If someone buys an exception
+to embed a program in a larger proprietary program, he's doing
+something wrong (namely, making proprietary software).  Does it follow
+that the developer that sold the exception is doing something wrong
+too?</p>
+
+<p>If that implication is valid, it would also apply to releasing the
+same program under a noncopyleft free software license, such as the
+X11 license.  That also permits such embedding.  So either we have to
+conclude that it's wrong to release anything under the X11
+license&mdash;a conclusion I find unacceptably extreme&mdash;or reject
+this implication.  Using a noncopyleft license is weak, and usually an
+inferior choice, but it's not wrong.</p>
+
+<p>In other words, selling exceptions permits limited embedding of the
+code in proprietary software, but the X11 license goes even further,
+permitting unlimited use of the code (and modified versions of it) in
+proprietary software.  If this doesn't make the X11 license
+unacceptable, it doesn't make selling exceptions unacceptable.</p>
+
+<p>There are three reasons why the FSF doesn't practice selling
+exceptions.  One is that it doesn't lead to the FSF's goal: assuring
+freedom for each user of our software.  That's what we wrote the GNU
+GPL for, and the way to achieve this most thoroughly is to release
+under GPL version 3-or-later and not allow embedding in proprietary
+software.  Selling exceptions wouldn't achieve this, just as release
+under the X11 license wouldn't.  So normally we don't do either of
+those things.  We release under the GPL only.</p>
+
+<p>Another reason we release only under the GPL is so as not to permit
+proprietary extensions that would present practical advantages over
+our free programs.  Users for whom freedom is not a value might choose
+those non-free versions rather than the free programs they are based
+on&mdash;and lose their freedom.  We don't want to encourage that.</p>
+
+<p>But there are occasional cases where, for specific reasons of
+strategy, we decide that using a more permissive license on a certain
+program is better for the cause of freedom.  In those cases, we
+release the program to everyone under that permissive license.</p>
+
+<p>This is because of another ethical principle that the FSF follows:
+to treat all users the same.  An idealistic campaign for freedom
+should not discriminate, so the FSF is committed to giving the same
+license to all users.  The FSF never sells exceptions; whatever
+license or licenses we release a program under, that is available to
+everyone.</p>
+
+<p>But we need not insist that companies follow that principle.  I
+consider selling exceptions an acceptable thing for a company to do,
+and I will suggest it where appropriate as a way to get programs
+freed.</p>
+
+<h4>Footnotes</h4>
+
+<p id="footnote">This is a local copy of the document
+from <a 
href="http://keionline.org/sites/default/files/ec_letter_mysql_oct19.pdf";>its
+original location</a>.</p>
+
+</div>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2009, 2010 Richard Stallman</p>
+
+<p>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No
+Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this
+license,
+visit <a 
href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/</a>
+or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300,
+San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.</p>
+
+<p>Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:33 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. -->
+<!--      Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. -->
+<!--      Write the language name in its own language (Deutsch) in the text. 
-->
+<!--      If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!--      advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--       - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--       - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--       - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--       to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!--      Please also check you have the language code right; see: -->
+<!--      http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php -->
+<!--      If the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code is not available, -->
+<!--      use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. -->
+<!--      Please use W3C normative character entities. -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/selling.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/selling.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/selling.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/selling.ru-en.html    26 Dec 2011 09:29:33 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,298 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Selling Free Software - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
+<h2>Selling Free Software</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<p><em><a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">Some views on the
+ideas of selling exceptions to free software licenses, such as the GNU
+GPL</a> are also available.</em></p>
+
+<p>
+Many people believe that the spirit of the GNU Project is that you
+should not charge money for distributing copies of software, or that
+you should charge as little as possible &mdash; just enough to cover
+the cost.  This is a misunderstanding.</p>
+
+<p>
+Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a>
+to charge as much as they wish or can.  If this seems surprising to
+you, please read on.</p>
+
+<p>
+The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer
+either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
+we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
+not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
+the program, change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+without changes.</p>
+
+<p>
+Free programs are sometimes distributed gratis, and sometimes for a
+substantial price.  Often the same program is available in both ways
+from different places.  The program is free regardless of the price,
+because users have freedom in using it.</p>
+
+<p>
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">Nonfree programs</a>
+are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
+a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because users don't have
+freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Since free software is not a matter of price, a low price doesn't make
+the software
+free, or even closer to free.  So if you are redistributing copies of free
+software, you might as well charge a substantial fee and <em>make
+some money</em>.  Redistributing free software is a good and
+legitimate activity; if you do it, you might as well make a profit
+from it.</p>
+
+<p>
+Free software is a community project, and everyone who depends on it
+ought to look for ways to contribute to building the community.  For a
+distributor, the way to do this is to give a part of the profit to free 
software development projects or to the
+<a href="/fsf/fsf.html">Free Software Foundation</a>.  This way you can
+advance the world of free software.</p>
+
+<p>
+<strong>Distributing free software is an opportunity to raise
+funds for development.  Don't waste it!</strong></p>
+
+<p>
+In order to contribute funds, you need to have some extra.  If you
+charge too low a fee, you won't have anything to spare to support
+development.</p>
+
+
+<h3>Will a higher distribution price hurt some users?</h3>
+
+<p>
+People sometimes worry that a high distribution fee will put free
+software out of range for users who don't have a lot of money.  With
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">proprietary
+software</a>, a high price does exactly that &mdash; but free software
+is different.</p>
+
+<p>
+The difference is that free software naturally tends to spread around,
+and there are many ways to get it.</p>
+
+<p>
+Software hoarders try their damnedest to stop you from running a
+proprietary program without paying the standard price.  If this price
+is high, that does make it hard for some users to use the program.</p>
+
+<p>
+With free software, users don't <em>have</em> to pay the
+distribution fee in order to use the software.  They can copy the
+program from a friend who has a copy, or with the help of a friend who
+has network access.  Or several users can join together, split the
+price of one CD-ROM, then each in turn can install the software.  A high
+CD-ROM price is not a major obstacle when the software is free.</p>
+
+
+<h3>Will a higher distribution price discourage use of free software?</h3>
+
+<p>
+Another common concern is for the popularity of free software.  People
+think that a high price for distribution would reduce the number of
+users, or that a low price is likely to encourage users.</p>
+
+<p>
+This is true for proprietary software &mdash; but free software is
+different.  With so many ways to get copies, the price of distribution
+service has less effect on popularity.</p>
+
+<p>
+In the long run, how many people use free software is determined
+mainly by <em>how much free software can do</em>, and how easy it
+is to use.  Many users do not make freedom their priority; they
+may continue to use proprietary software if
+free software can't do all the jobs they want done.  Thus, if we want
+to increase the number of users in the long run, we should above all
+<em>develop more free software</em>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The most direct way to do this is by writing needed
+<a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/tasklist";>free software</a>
+or
+<a href="/doc/doc.html">manuals</a> yourself.  But if you do
+distribution rather than writing, the best way you can help is by
+raising funds for others to write them.</p>
+
+
+<h3>The term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; can be confusing too</h3>
+
+<p>
+Strictly speaking, &ldquo;selling&rdquo; means trading goods for
+money.  Selling a copy of a free program is legitimate, and we
+encourage it.</p>
+
+<p>
+However, when people think of
+<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#SellSoftware">&ldquo;selling 
software&rdquo;</a>,
+they usually imagine doing it the way most companies do it: making the
+software proprietary rather than free.</p>
+
+<p>
+So unless you're going to draw distinctions carefully, the way this
+article does, we suggest it is better to avoid using the term
+&ldquo;selling software&rdquo; and choose some other wording instead.
+For example, you could say &ldquo;distributing free software for a
+fee&rdquo;&mdash;that is unambiguous.</p>
+
+
+<h3>High or low fees, and the GNU GPL</h3>
+
+<p>
+Except for one special situation, the
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl.html">GNU General Public License</a> (GNU GPL)
+has no requirements about how much you can charge for distributing a
+copy of free software.  You can charge nothing, a penny, a dollar, or
+a billion dollars.  It's up to you, and the marketplace, so don't
+complain to us if nobody wants to pay a billion dollars for a
+copy.</p>
+
+<p>
+The one exception is in the case where binaries are distributed
+without the corresponding complete source code.  Those who do this are
+required by the GNU GPL to provide source code on subsequent request.
+Without a limit on the fee for the source code, they would be able set
+a fee too large for anyone to pay&mdash;such as a billion
+dollars&mdash;and thus pretend to release source code while in truth
+concealing it.  So in this case we have to limit the fee for source in order
+to ensure the user's freedom.  In ordinary situations, however, there
+is no such justification for limiting distribution fees, so we do not
+limit them.</p>
+
+<p>
+Sometimes companies whose activities cross the line stated in the GNU
+GPL plead for permission, saying that they &ldquo;won't charge
+money for the GNU software&rdquo; or such like.  That won't get them anywhere
+with us.  Free software is about freedom, and enforcing the GPL is
+defending freedom.  When we defend users' freedom, we are not
+distracted by side issues such as how much of a distribution fee is
+charged.  Freedom is the issue, the whole issue, and the only issue.</p>
+
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
+<!-- all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    -->
+<!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     -->
+<!-- with the webmasters first. --> 
+<!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document -->
+<!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." -->
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+
+<p>
+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to 
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> 
+the FSF.
+<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";><em>address@hidden</em></a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Please see the 
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting
+translations of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+</p>
+<address>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, USA</address>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:33 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- <div id="translations"> -->
+<!-- <h4>Translations of this page</h4> -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<!-- Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is Deutsch. -->
+<!-- If you add a new language here, please -->
+<!-- advise address@hidden and add it to -->
+<!--  - /home/www/bin/nightly-vars either TAGSLANG or WEBLANG -->
+<!--  - /home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html -->
+<!--  - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway" -->
+<!--  - if there is a translation team, you also have to add an alias -->
+<!--  to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases -->
+<!-- Please also check you have the 2 letter language code right versus -->
+<!-- <URL:http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.htm> -->
+<!-- Please use W3C normative character entities -->
+<!--  -->
+<!-- <ul class="translations-list"> -->
+<!-- Arabic -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ar.html">&#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1577;</a>&nbsp;[ar]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Bulgarian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.bg.html">&#x431;&#x44A;&#x43B;&#x433;&#x430;&#x440;&#x441;&#x43A;&#x438;</a>&nbsp;[bg]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Catalan -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ca.html">Catal&#x00e0;</a>&nbsp;[ca]</li> -->
+<!-- Czech -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.cs.html">&#x010c;esky</a>&nbsp;[cs]</li> 
-->
+<!-- German -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.de.html">Deutsch</a>&nbsp;[de]</li> -->
+<!-- Greek -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.el.html">&#x0395;&#x03bb;&#x03bb;&#x03b7;&#x03bd;&#x03b9;&#x03ba;&#x03ac;</a>&nbsp;[el]</li>
 -->
+<!-- English -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li> -->
+<!-- Spanish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.es.html">Espa&#x00f1;ol</a>&nbsp;[es]</li> -->
+<!-- French -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.fr.html">Fran&#x00e7;ais</a>&nbsp;[fr]</li> -->
+<!-- Indonesian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.id.html">Bahasa&nbsp;Indonesia</a>&nbsp;[id]</li> -->
+<!-- Italian -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.it.html">Italiano</a>&nbsp;[it]</li> -->
+<!-- Japanese -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ja.html">&#x65e5;&#x672c;&#x8a9e;</a>&nbsp;[ja]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Malayalam -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ml.html">&#3374;&#3378;&#3375;&#3390;&#3379;&#3330;</a>&nbsp;[ml]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Dutch -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.nl.html">Nederlands</a>&nbsp;[nl]</li> 
-->
+<!-- Polish -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.pl.html">polski</a>&nbsp;[pl]</li> -->
+<!-- Brazilian Portuguese -->
+<!-- <li><a href="/philosophy/selling.pt-br.html">portugu&ecirc;s do 
Brasil</a>&nbsp;[pt-br]</li> -->
+<!-- Romanian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ro.html">Rom&#x00e2;n&#x0103;</a>&nbsp;[ro]</li> -->
+<!-- Russian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.ru.html">&#x0440;&#x0443;&#x0441;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;&#x0439;</a>&nbsp;[ru]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Serbian -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.sr.html">&#x0421;&#x0440;&#x043f;&#x0441;&#x043a;&#x0438;</a>&nbsp;[sr]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Turkish -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.tr.html">T&#x00fc;rk&#x00e7;e</a>&nbsp;[tr]</li> -->
+<!-- Chinese(Simplified) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-cn.html">&#x7b80;&#x4f53;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-cn]</li>
 -->
+<!-- Chinese(Traditional) -->
+<!-- <li><a 
href="/philosophy/selling.zh-tw.html">&#x7e41;&#x9ad4;&#x4e2d;&#x6587;</a>&nbsp;[zh-tw]</li>
 -->
+<!-- </ul> -->
+<!-- </div> -->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

Index: philosophy/po/shouldbefree.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/shouldbefree.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/shouldbefree.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/shouldbefree.ru-en.html       26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 -0000      
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,948 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>Why Software Should Be Free - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation 
(FSF)</title>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/shouldbefree.translist" -->
+<h2>Why Software Should Be Free</h2>
+
+<!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 Strict, but may be served as -->
+<!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers -->
+<!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. -->
+
+<!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. -->
+<!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant -->
+<!-- language, where necessary. -->
+
+<p>
+by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a></p>
+<h3 id="introduction">Introduction</h3>
+<p>
+The existence of software inevitably raises the question of how
+decisions about its use should be made.  For example, suppose one
+individual who has a copy of a program meets another who would like a
+copy.  It is possible for them to copy the program; who should decide
+whether this is done?  The individuals involved?  Or another party,
+called the &ldquo;owner&rdquo;?</p>
+<p>
+   Software developers typically consider these questions on the
+assumption that the criterion for the answer is to maximize developers'
+profits. The political power of business has led to the government
+adoption of both this criterion and the answer proposed by the
+developers: that the program has an owner, typically a corporation
+associated with its development.</p>
+<p>
+   I would like to consider the same question using a different
+criterion: the prosperity and freedom of the public in general.</p>
+<p>
+   This answer cannot be decided by current law&mdash;the law should
+conform to ethics, not the other way around.  Nor does current
+practice decide this question, although it may suggest possible
+answers.  The only way to judge is to see who is helped and who is
+hurt by recognizing owners of software, why, and how much.  In other
+words, we should perform a cost-benefit analysis on behalf of society
+as a whole, taking account of individual freedom as well as production
+of material goods.</p>
+<p>
+   In this essay, I will describe the effects of having owners, and
+show that the results are detrimental.  My conclusion is that
+programmers have the duty to encourage others to share, redistribute,
+study, and improve the software we write: in other words, to write
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">&ldquo;free&rdquo;
+software</a>.<a href="#f1">(1)</a></p>
+
+<h3 id="owner-justification">How Owners Justify Their Power</h3>
+<p>
+   Those who benefit from the current system where programs are property
+offer two arguments in support of their claims to own programs: the
+emotional argument and the economic argument.</p>
+<p>
+   The emotional argument goes like this: &ldquo;I put my sweat, my
+heart, my soul into this program.  It comes from <em>me</em>,
+it's <em>mine</em>!&rdquo;</p>
+<p>
+   This argument does not require serious refutation.  The feeling of
+attachment is one that programmers can cultivate when it suits them;
+it is not inevitable.  Consider, for example, how willingly the same
+programmers usually sign over all rights to a large corporation for a
+salary; the emotional attachment mysteriously vanishes.  By contrast,
+consider the great artists and artisans of medieval times, who didn't
+even sign their names to their work.  To them, the name of the artist
+was not important.  What mattered was that the work was done&mdash;and
+the purpose it would serve.  This view prevailed for hundreds of
+years.</p>
+<p>
+   The economic argument goes like this: &ldquo;I want to get rich
+(usually described inaccurately as &lsquo;making a living&rsquo;), and
+if you don't allow me to get rich by programming, then I won't
+program.  Everyone else is like me, so nobody will ever program.  And
+then you'll be stuck with no programs at all!&rdquo; This threat is
+usually veiled as friendly advice from the wise.</p>
+<p>
+   I'll explain later why this threat is a bluff.  First I want to
+address an implicit assumption that is more visible in another
+formulation of the argument.</p>
+<p>
+   This formulation starts by comparing the social utility of a
+proprietary program with that of no program, and then concludes that
+proprietary software development is, on the whole, beneficial, and
+should be encouraged.  The fallacy here is in comparing only two
+outcomes&mdash;proprietary software versus no software&mdash;and assuming
+there are no other possibilities.</p>
+<p>
+   Given a system of software copyright, software development is
+usually linked with the existence of an owner who controls the
+software's use.  As long as this linkage exists, we are often faced with
+the choice of proprietary software or none.  However, this linkage is
+not inherent or inevitable; it is a consequence of the specific
+social/legal policy decision that we are questioning: the decision to
+have owners.  To formulate the choice as between proprietary software
+versus no software is begging the question.</p>
+
+<h3 id="against-having-owners">The Argument against Having Owners</h3>
+<p>
+   The question at hand is, &ldquo;Should development of software be linked
+with having owners to restrict the use of it?&rdquo;</p>
+<p>
+   In order to decide this, we have to judge the effect on society of
+each of those two activities <em>independently</em>: the effect of developing
+the software (regardless of its terms of distribution), and the effect
+of restricting its use (assuming the software has been developed).  If
+one of these activities is helpful and the other is harmful, we would be
+better off dropping the linkage and doing only the helpful one.</p>
+<p>
+   To put it another way, if restricting the distribution of a program
+already developed is harmful to society overall, then an ethical
+software developer will reject the option of doing so.</p>
+<p>
+   To determine the effect of restricting sharing, we need to compare
+the value to society of a restricted (i.e., proprietary) program with
+that of the same program, available to everyone.  This means comparing
+two possible worlds.</p>
+<p>
+   This analysis also addresses the simple counterargument sometimes
+made that &ldquo;the benefit to the neighbor of giving him or her a
+copy of a program is cancelled by the harm done to the owner.&rdquo;
+This counterargument assumes that the harm and the benefit are equal
+in magnitude.  The analysis involves comparing these magnitudes, and
+shows that the benefit is much greater.</p>
+<p>
+   To elucidate this argument, let's apply it in another area: road
+construction.</p>
+<p>
+   It would be possible to fund the construction of all roads with
+tolls. This would entail having toll booths at all street corners.
+Such a system would provide a great incentive to improve roads.  It
+would also have the virtue of causing the users of any given road to
+pay for that road.  However, a toll booth is an artificial obstruction
+to smooth driving&mdash;artificial, because it is not a consequence of
+how roads or cars work.</p>
+<p>
+   Comparing free roads and toll roads by their usefulness, we find
+that (all else being equal) roads without toll booths are cheaper to
+construct, cheaper to run, safer, and more efficient to
+use.<a href="#f2">(2)</a> In a poor country, tolls may make the roads
+unavailable to many citizens.  The roads without toll booths thus
+offer more benefit to society at less cost; they are preferable for
+society.  Therefore, society should choose to fund roads in another
+way, not by means of toll booths.  Use of roads, once built, should be
+free.</p>
+<p>
+   When the advocates of toll booths propose them as <em>merely</em> a
+way of raising funds, they distort the choice that is available.  Toll
+booths do raise funds, but they do something else as well: in effect,
+they degrade the road.  The toll road is not as good as the free road;
+giving us more or technically superior roads may not be an improvement
+if this means substituting toll roads for free roads.</p>
+<p>
+   Of course, the construction of a free road does cost money, which the
+public must somehow pay.  However, this does not imply the inevitability
+of toll booths.  We who must in either case pay will get more value for
+our money by buying a free road.</p>
+<p>
+   I am not saying that a toll road is worse than no road at all.
+That would be true if the toll were so great that hardly anyone used
+the road&mdash;but this is an unlikely policy for a toll collector.
+However, as long as the toll booths cause significant waste and
+inconvenience, it is better to raise the funds in a less obstructive
+fashion.</p>
+<p>
+   To apply the same argument to software development, I will now show
+that having &ldquo;toll booths&rdquo; for useful software programs
+costs society dearly: it makes the programs more expensive to
+construct, more expensive to distribute, and less satisfying and
+efficient to use.  It will follow that program construction should be
+encouraged in some other way.  Then I will go on to explain other
+methods of encouraging and (to the extent actually necessary) funding
+software development.</p>
+
+<h4 id="harm-done">The Harm Done by Obstructing Software</h4>
+<p>
+   Consider for a moment that a program has been developed, and any
+necessary payments for its development have been made; now society must
+choose either to make it proprietary or allow free sharing and use.
+Assume that the existence of the program and its availability is a
+desirable thing.<a href="#f3">(3)</a></p>
+<p>
+   Restrictions on the distribution and modification of the program
+cannot facilitate its use.  They can only interfere.  So the effect can
+only be negative.  But how much?  And what kind?</p>
+<p>
+   Three different levels of material harm come from such obstruction:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>Fewer people use the program.</li>
+
+<li>None of the users can adapt or fix the program.</li>
+
+<li>Other developers cannot learn from the program, or base new work on 
it.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+   Each level of material harm has a concomitant form of psychosocial
+harm. This refers to the effect that people's decisions have on their
+subsequent feelings, attitudes, and predispositions.  These changes in
+people's ways of thinking will then have a further effect on their
+relationships with their fellow citizens, and can have material
+consequences.</p>
+<p>
+   The three levels of material harm waste part of the value that the
+program could contribute, but they cannot reduce it to zero.  If they
+waste nearly all the value of the program, then writing the program
+harms society by at most the effort that went into writing the program.
+Arguably a program that is profitable to sell must provide some net
+direct material benefit.</p>
+<p>
+   However, taking account of the concomitant psychosocial harm, there
+is no limit to the harm that proprietary software development can do.</p>
+
+<h4 id="obstructing-use">Obstructing Use of Programs</h4>
+<p>
+   The first level of harm impedes the simple use of a program.  A copy
+of a program has nearly zero marginal cost (and you can pay this cost by
+doing the work yourself), so in a free market, it would have nearly zero
+price.  A license fee is a significant disincentive to use the program.
+If a widely useful program is proprietary, far fewer people will use it.</p>
+<p>
+   It is easy to show that the total contribution of a program to
+society is reduced by assigning an owner to it.  Each potential user of
+the program, faced with the need to pay to use it, may choose to pay,
+or may forego use of the program.  When a user chooses to pay, this is a
+zero-sum transfer of wealth between two parties.  But each time someone
+chooses to forego use of the program, this harms that person without
+benefiting anyone.  The sum of negative numbers and zeros must be
+negative.</p>
+<p>
+   But this does not reduce the amount of work it takes to <em>develop</em>
+the program.  As a result, the efficiency of the whole process, in
+delivered user satisfaction per hour of work, is reduced.</p>
+<p>
+   This reflects a crucial difference between copies of programs and
+cars, chairs, or sandwiches.  There is no copying machine for material
+objects outside of science fiction.  But programs are easy to copy;
+anyone can produce as many copies as are wanted, with very little
+effort.  This isn't true for material objects because matter is
+conserved: each new copy has to be built from raw materials in the same
+way that the first copy was built.</p>
+<p>
+   With material objects, a disincentive to use them makes sense,
+because fewer objects bought means less raw material and work needed
+to make them.  It's true that there is usually also a startup cost, a
+development cost, which is spread over the production run.  But as long
+as the marginal cost of production is significant, adding a share of the
+development cost does not make a qualitative difference.  And it does
+not require restrictions on the freedom of ordinary users.</p>
+<p>
+   However, imposing a price on something that would otherwise be free
+is a qualitative change.  A centrally imposed fee for software
+distribution becomes a powerful disincentive.</p>
+<p>
+   What's more, central production as now practiced is inefficient even
+as a means of delivering copies of software.  This system involves
+enclosing physical disks or tapes in superfluous packaging, shipping
+large numbers of them around the world, and storing them for sale.  This
+cost is presented as an expense of doing business; in truth, it is part
+of the waste caused by having owners.</p>
+
+<h4 id="damaging-social-cohesion">Damaging Social Cohesion</h4>
+<p>
+   Suppose that both you and your neighbor would find it useful to run a
+certain program.  In ethical concern for your neighbor, you should feel
+that proper handling of the situation will enable both of you to use it.
+A proposal to permit only one of you to use the program, while
+restraining the other, is divisive; neither you nor your neighbor should
+find it acceptable.</p>
+<p>
+   Signing a typical software license agreement means betraying your
+neighbor: &ldquo;I promise to deprive my neighbor of this program so
+that I can have a copy for myself.&rdquo; People who make such choices
+feel internal psychological pressure to justify them, by downgrading
+the importance of helping one's neighbors&mdash;thus public spirit
+suffers. This is psychosocial harm associated with the material harm
+of discouraging use of the program.</p>
+<p>
+   Many users unconsciously recognize the wrong of refusing to share, so
+they decide to ignore the licenses and laws, and share programs anyway.
+But they often feel guilty about doing so.  They know that they must
+break the laws in order to be good neighbors, but they still consider
+the laws authoritative, and they conclude that being a good neighbor
+(which they are) is naughty or shameful.  That is also a kind of
+psychosocial harm, but one can escape it by deciding that these licenses
+and laws have no moral force.</p>
+<p>
+   Programmers also suffer psychosocial harm knowing that many users
+will not be allowed to use their work.  This leads to an attitude of
+cynicism or denial.  A programmer may describe enthusiastically the
+work that he finds technically exciting; then when asked, &ldquo;Will I be
+permitted to use it?&rdquo;, his face falls, and he admits the answer is no. 
+To avoid feeling discouraged, he either ignores this fact most of the
+time or adopts a cynical stance designed to minimize the importance of
+it.</p>
+<p>
+   Since the age of Reagan, the greatest scarcity in the United States
+is not technical innovation, but rather the willingness to work together
+for the public good.  It makes no sense to encourage the former at the
+expense of the latter.</p>
+
+<h4 id="custom-adaptation">Obstructing Custom Adaptation of Programs</h4>
+<p>
+   The second level of material harm is the inability to adapt programs.
+The ease of modification of software is one of its great advantages over
+older technology.  But most commercially available software isn't
+available for modification, even after you buy it.  It's available for
+you to take it or leave it, as a black box&mdash;that is all.</p>
+<p>
+   A program that you can run consists of a series of numbers whose
+meaning is obscure.  No one, not even a good programmer, can easily
+change the numbers to make the program do something different.</p>
+<p>
+   Programmers normally work with the &ldquo;source code&rdquo; for a
+program, which is written in a programming language such as Fortran or
+C.  It uses names to designate the data being used and the parts of
+the program, and it represents operations with symbols such as
+&lsquo;+&rsquo; for addition and &lsquo;-&rsquo; for subtraction.  It
+is designed to help programmers read and change programs.  Here is an
+example; a program to calculate the distance between two points in a
+plane:</p>
+
+<pre>
+     float
+     distance (p0, p1)
+          struct point p0, p1;
+     {
+       float xdist = p1.x - p0.x;
+       float ydist = p1.y - p0.y;
+       return sqrt (xdist * xdist + ydist * ydist);
+     }
+</pre>
+<p>
+   Precisely what that source code means is not the point; the point
+   is that it looks like algebra, and a person who knows this
+   programming language will find it meaningful and clear.  By
+   contrast, here is same program in executable form, on the computer
+   I normally used when I wrote this:
+</p>
+
+<pre>
+     1314258944      -232267772      -231844864      1634862
+     1411907592      -231844736      2159150         1420296208
+     -234880989      -234879837      -234879966      -232295424
+     1644167167      -3214848        1090581031      1962942495
+     572518958       -803143692      1314803317
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+   Source code is useful (at least potentially) to every user of a
+program. But most users are not allowed to have copies of the source
+code. Usually the source code for a proprietary program is kept secret
+by the owner, lest anybody else learn something from it.  Users receive
+only the files of incomprehensible numbers that the computer will
+execute. This means that only the program's owner can change the
+program.</p>
+<p>
+   A friend once told me of working as a programmer in a bank for
+about six months, writing a program similar to something that was
+commercially available.  She believed that if she could have gotten
+source code for that commercially available program, it could easily
+have been adapted to their needs.  The bank was willing to pay for
+this, but was not permitted to&mdash;the source code was a secret.  So
+she had to do six months of make-work, work that counts in the GNP but
+was actually waste.</p>
+<p>
+   The <abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</abbr>
+Artificial Intelligence Lab (AI Lab) received a graphics printer as a
+gift from Xerox around 1977.  It was run by free software to which we
+added many convenient features.  For example, the software would
+notify a user immediately on completion of a print job.  Whenever the
+printer had trouble, such as a paper jam or running out of paper, the
+software would immediately notify all users who had print jobs
+queued. These features facilitated smooth operation.</p>
+<p>
+   Later Xerox gave the AI Lab a newer, faster printer, one of the first
+laser printers.  It was driven by proprietary software that ran in a
+separate dedicated computer, so we couldn't add any of our favorite
+features.  We could arrange to send a notification when a print job was
+sent to the dedicated computer, but not when the job was actually
+printed (and the delay was usually considerable).  There was no way to
+find out when the job was actually printed; you could only guess.  And
+no one was informed when there was a paper jam, so the printer often
+went for an hour without being fixed.</p>
+<p>
+   The system programmers at the AI Lab were capable of fixing such
+problems, probably as capable as the original authors of the program.
+Xerox was uninterested in fixing them, and chose to prevent us, so we
+were forced to accept the problems.  They were never fixed.</p>
+<p>
+   Most good programmers have experienced this frustration.  The bank
+could afford to solve the problem by writing a new program from
+scratch, but a typical user, no matter how skilled, can only give up.</p>
+<p>
+   Giving up causes psychosocial harm&mdash;to the spirit of
+self-reliance.  It is demoralizing to live in a house that you cannot
+rearrange to suit your needs.  It leads to resignation and
+discouragement, which can spread to affect other aspects of one's
+life.  People who feel this way are unhappy and do not do good
+work.</p>
+<p>
+   Imagine what it would be like if recipes were hoarded in the same
+fashion as software.  You might say, &ldquo;How do I change this
+recipe to take out the salt?&rdquo; and the great chef would respond,
+&ldquo;How dare you insult my recipe, the child of my brain and my
+palate, by trying to tamper with it?  You don't have the judgment to
+change my recipe and make it work right!&rdquo;</p>
+<p>
+   &ldquo;But my doctor says I'm not supposed to eat salt!  What can I
+do?  Will you take out the salt for me?&rdquo;</p>
+<p>
+   &ldquo;I would be glad to do that; my fee is only $50,000.&rdquo;
+Since the owner has a monopoly on changes, the fee tends to be large.
+&ldquo;However, right now I don't have time.  I am busy with a
+commission to design a new recipe for ship's biscuit for the Navy
+Department.  I might get around to you in about two years.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<h4 id="software-development">Obstructing Software Development</h4>
+<p>
+   The third level of material harm affects software development.
+Software development used to be an evolutionary process, where a
+person would take an existing program and rewrite parts of it for one
+new feature, and then another person would rewrite parts to add
+another feature; in some cases, this continued over a period of twenty
+years.  Meanwhile, parts of the program would be
+&ldquo;cannibalized&rdquo; to form the beginnings of other
+programs.</p>
+<p>
+   The existence of owners prevents this kind of evolution, making it
+necessary to start from scratch when developing a program.  It also
+prevents new practitioners from studying existing programs to learn
+useful techniques or even how large programs can be structured.</p>
+<p>
+   Owners also obstruct education.  I have met bright students in
+computer science who have never seen the source code of a large
+program.  They may be good at writing small programs, but they can't
+begin to learn the different skills of writing large ones if they can't
+see how others have done it.</p>
+<p>
+   In any intellectual field, one can reach greater heights by
+standing on the shoulders of others.  But that is no longer generally
+allowed in the software field&mdash;you can only stand on the
+shoulders of the other people <em>in your own company</em>.</p>
+<p>
+   The associated psychosocial harm affects the spirit of scientific
+cooperation, which used to be so strong that scientists would cooperate
+even when their countries were at war.  In this spirit, Japanese
+oceanographers abandoning their lab on an island in the Pacific
+carefully preserved their work for the invading U.S. Marines, and left a
+note asking them to take good care of it.</p>
+<p>
+   Conflict for profit has destroyed what international conflict spared.
+Nowadays scientists in many fields don't publish enough in their papers
+to enable others to replicate the experiment.  They publish only enough
+to let readers marvel at how much they were able to do.  This is
+certainly true in computer science, where the source code for the
+programs reported on is usually secret.</p>
+
+<h4 id="does-not-matter-how">It Does Not Matter How Sharing Is Restricted</h4>
+<p>
+   I have been discussing the effects of preventing people from
+copying, changing, and building on a program.  I have not specified
+how this obstruction is carried out, because that doesn't affect the
+conclusion.  Whether it is done by copy protection, or copyright, or
+licenses, or encryption, or <acronym title="Read-only Memory">ROM</acronym>
+cards, or hardware serial numbers, if it <em>succeeds</em> in
+preventing use, it does harm.</p>
+<p>
+   Users do consider some of these methods more obnoxious than others. 
+I suggest that the methods most hated are those that accomplish their
+objective.</p>
+
+<h4 id="should-be-free">Software Should be Free</h4>
+<p>
+   I have shown how ownership of a program&mdash;the power to restrict
+changing or copying it&mdash;is obstructive.  Its negative effects are
+widespread and important.  It follows that society shouldn't have
+owners for programs.</p>
+<p>
+   Another way to understand this is that what society needs is free
+software, and proprietary software is a poor substitute.  Encouraging
+the substitute is not a rational way to get what we need.</p>
+<p>
+   Vaclav Havel has advised us to &ldquo;Work for something because it is
+good, not just because it stands a chance to succeed.&rdquo;  A business
+making proprietary software stands a chance of success in its own narrow
+terms, but it is not what is good for society.</p>
+
+<h3 id="why-develop">Why People Will Develop Software</h3>
+<p>
+   If we eliminate copyright as a means of encouraging
+people to develop software, at first less software will be developed,
+but that software will be more useful.  It is not clear whether the
+overall delivered user satisfaction will be less; but if it is, or if
+we wish to increase it anyway, there are other ways to encourage
+development, just as there are ways besides toll booths to raise money
+for streets. Before I talk about how that can be done, first I want to
+question how much artificial encouragement is truly necessary.</p>
+
+<h4 id="fun">Programming is Fun</h4>
+<p>
+   There are some lines of work that few will enter except for money;
+road construction, for example.  There are other fields of study and
+art in which there is little chance to become rich, which people enter
+for their fascination or their perceived value to society.  Examples
+include mathematical logic, classical music, and archaeology; and
+political organizing among working people.  People compete, more sadly
+than bitterly, for the few funded positions available, none of which is
+funded very well.  They may even pay for the chance to work in the
+field, if they can afford to.</p>
+<p>
+   Such a field can transform itself overnight if it begins to offer the
+possibility of getting rich.  When one worker gets rich, others demand
+the same opportunity.  Soon all may demand large sums of money for doing
+what they used to do for pleasure.  When another couple of years go by,
+everyone connected with the field will deride the idea that work would
+be done in the field without large financial returns.  They will advise
+social planners to ensure that these returns are possible, prescribing
+special privileges, powers, and monopolies as necessary to do so.</p>
+<p>
+   This change happened in the field of computer programming in the
+1980s.  In the 1970s, there were articles on
+&ldquo;computer addiction&rdquo;: users were &ldquo;onlining&rdquo;
+and had hundred-dollar-a-week habits.  It was generally understood
+that people frequently loved programming enough to break up their
+marriages.  Today, it is generally understood that no one would
+program except for a high rate of pay. People have forgotten what they
+knew back then.</p>
+<p>
+   When it is true at a given time that most people will work in a
+certain field only for high pay, it need not remain true.  The dynamic
+of change can run in reverse, if society provides an impetus.  If we
+take away the possibility of great wealth, then after a while, when the
+people have readjusted their attitudes, they will once again be eager
+to work in the field for the joy of accomplishment.</p>
+<p>
+   The question &ldquo;How can we pay programmers?&rdquo; becomes an
+easier question when we realize that it's not a matter of paying them
+a fortune.  A mere living is easier to raise.</p>
+
+<h4 id="funding">Funding Free Software</h4>
+<p>
+   Institutions that pay programmers do not have to be software houses.
+Many other institutions already exist that can do this.</p>
+<p>
+   Hardware manufacturers find it essential to support software
+development even if they cannot control the use of the software.  In
+1970, much of their software was free because they did not consider
+restricting it. Today, their increasing willingness to join consortiums
+shows their realization that owning the software is not what is really
+important for them.</p>
+<p>
+   Universities conduct many programming projects.  Today they often
+sell the results, but in the 1970s they did not.  Is there any doubt
+that universities would develop free software if they were not allowed
+to sell software?  These projects could be supported by the same
+government contracts and grants that now support proprietary software
+development.</p>
+<p>
+   It is common today for university researchers to get grants to
+develop a system, develop it nearly to the point of completion and
+call that &ldquo;finished&rdquo;, and then start companies where they
+really finish the project and make it usable.  Sometimes they declare
+the unfinished version &ldquo;free&rdquo;; if they are thoroughly
+corrupt, they instead get an exclusive license from the university.
+This is not a secret; it is openly admitted by everyone concerned.
+Yet if the researchers were not exposed to the temptation to do these
+things, they would still do their research.</p>
+<p>
+   Programmers writing free software can make their living by selling
+services related to the software.  I have been hired to port the
+<a href="/software/gcc/">GNU C compiler</a> to new hardware, and
+to make user-interface extensions to
+<a href="/software/emacs/">GNU Emacs</a>.  (I offer these improvements
+to the public once they are done.)  I also teach classes for which I
+am paid.</p>
+<p>
+   I am not alone in working this way; there is now a successful,
+growing corporation which does no other kind of work.  Several other
+companies also provide commercial support for the free software of the
+GNU system. This is the beginning of the independent software support
+industry&mdash;an industry that could become quite large if free
+software becomes prevalent.  It provides users with an option
+generally unavailable for proprietary software, except to the very
+wealthy.</p>
+<p>
+   New institutions such as the <a href="/fsf/fsf.html">Free Software
+Foundation</a> can also fund programmers.  Most of the Foundation's
+funds come from users buying tapes through the mail.  The software on
+the tapes is free, which means that every user has the freedom to copy
+it and change it, but many nonetheless pay to get copies.  (Recall
+that &ldquo;free software&rdquo; refers to freedom, not to price.)
+Some users who already have a copy order tapes as a way of making a
+contribution they feel we deserve.  The Foundation also receives
+sizable donations from computer manufacturers.</p>
+<p>
+   The Free Software Foundation is a charity, and its income is spent on
+hiring as many programmers as possible.  If it had been set up as a
+business, distributing the same free software to the public for the same
+fee, it would now provide a very good living for its founder.</p>
+<p>
+   Because the Foundation is a charity, programmers often work for the
+Foundation for half of what they could make elsewhere.  They do this
+because we are free of bureaucracy, and because they feel satisfaction
+in knowing that their work will not be obstructed from use.  Most of
+all, they do it because programming is fun.  In addition, volunteers
+have written many useful programs for us.  (Even technical writers
+have begun to volunteer.)</p>
+<p>
+   This confirms that programming is among the most fascinating of all
+fields, along with music and art.  We don't have to fear that no one
+will want to program.</p>
+
+<h4 id="owe">What Do Users Owe to Developers?</h4>
+<p>
+   There is a good reason for users of software to feel a moral
+obligation to contribute to its support.  Developers of free software
+are contributing to the users' activities, and it is both fair and in
+the long-term interest of the users to give them funds to continue.</p>
+<p>
+   However, this does not apply to proprietary software developers,
+since obstructionism deserves a punishment rather than a reward.</p>
+<p>
+   We thus have a paradox: the developer of useful software is entitled
+to the support of the users, but any attempt to turn this moral
+obligation into a requirement destroys the basis for the obligation.  A
+developer can either deserve a reward or demand it, but not both.</p>
+<p>
+   I believe that an ethical developer faced with this paradox must act
+so as to deserve the reward, but should also entreat the users for
+voluntary donations.  Eventually the users will learn to support
+developers without coercion, just as they have learned to support public
+radio and television stations.</p>
+
+<h3 id="productivity">What Is Software Productivity? </h3>
+<p>
+   If software were free, there would still be programmers, but perhaps
+fewer of them.  Would this be bad for society?</p>
+<p>
+   Not necessarily.  Today the advanced nations have fewer farmers than
+in 1900, but we do not think this is bad for society, because the few
+deliver more food to the consumers than the many used to do.  We call
+this improved productivity.  Free software would require far fewer
+programmers to satisfy the demand, because of increased software
+productivity at all levels:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li> Wider use of each program that is developed.</li>
+<li> The ability to adapt existing programs for customization instead
+     of starting from scratch.</li>
+<li> Better education of programmers.</li>
+<li> The elimination of duplicate development effort.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+   Those who object to cooperation claiming it would result in the
+employment of fewer programmers are actually objecting to increased
+productivity.  Yet these people usually accept the widely held belief
+that the software industry needs increased productivity.  How is this?</p>
+<p>
+   &ldquo;Software productivity&rdquo; can mean two different things:
+the overall productivity of all software development, or the
+productivity of individual projects.  Overall productivity is what
+society would like to improve, and the most straightforward way to do
+this is to eliminate the artificial obstacles to cooperation which
+reduce it.  But researchers who study the field of &ldquo;software
+productivity&rdquo; focus only on the second, limited, sense of the
+term, where improvement requires difficult technological advances.</p>
+
+<h3 id="competition">Is Competition Inevitable?</h3>
+<p>
+   Is it inevitable that people will try to compete, to surpass their
+rivals in society?  Perhaps it is.  But competition itself is not
+harmful; the harmful thing is <em>combat</em>.</p>
+<p>
+   There are many ways to compete.  Competition can consist of trying
+to achieve ever more, to outdo what others have done.  For example, in
+the old days, there was competition among programming
+wizards&mdash;competition for who could make the computer do the most
+amazing thing, or for who could make the shortest or fastest program
+for a given task.  This kind of competition can benefit
+everyone, <em>as long as</em> the spirit of good sportsmanship is
+maintained.</p>
+<p>
+   Constructive competition is enough competition to motivate people to
+great efforts.  A number of people are competing to be the first to have
+visited all the countries on Earth; some even spend fortunes trying to
+do this.  But they do not bribe ship captains to strand their rivals on
+desert islands.  They are content to let the best person win.</p>
+<p>
+   Competition becomes combat when the competitors begin trying to
+impede each other instead of advancing themselves&mdash;when
+&ldquo;Let the best person win&rdquo; gives way to &ldquo;Let me win,
+best or not.&rdquo; Proprietary software is harmful, not because it is
+a form of competition, but because it is a form of combat among the
+citizens of our society.</p>
+<p>
+   Competition in business is not necessarily combat.  For example, when
+two grocery stores compete, their entire effort is to improve their own
+operations, not to sabotage the rival.  But this does not demonstrate a
+special commitment to business ethics; rather, there is little scope for
+combat in this line of business short of physical violence.  Not all
+areas of business share this characteristic.  Withholding information
+that could help everyone advance is a form of combat.</p>
+<p>
+   Business ideology does not prepare people to resist the temptation to
+combat the competition.  Some forms of combat have been banned with
+antitrust laws, truth in advertising laws, and so on, but rather than
+generalizing this to a principled rejection of combat in general,
+executives invent other forms of combat which are not specifically
+prohibited.  Society's resources are squandered on the economic
+equivalent of factional civil war.</p>
+
+<h3 id="communism">&ldquo;Why Don't You Move to Russia?&rdquo;</h3>
+<p>
+   In the United States, any advocate of other than the most extreme
+form of laissez-faire selfishness has often heard this accusation.  For
+example, it is leveled against the supporters of a national health care
+system, such as is found in all the other industrialized nations of the
+free world.  It is leveled against the advocates of public support for
+the arts, also universal in advanced nations.  The idea that citizens
+have any obligation to the public good is identified in America with
+Communism.  But how similar are these ideas?</p>
+<p>
+   Communism as was practiced in the Soviet Union was a system of
+central control where all activity was regimented, supposedly for the
+common good, but actually for the sake of the members of the Communist
+party. And where copying equipment was closely guarded to prevent
+illegal copying.</p>
+<p>
+   The American system of software copyright exercises central control
+over distribution of a program, and guards copying equipment with
+automatic copying-protection schemes to prevent illegal copying.</p>
+<p>
+   By contrast, I am working to build a system where people are free
+to decide their own actions; in particular, free to help their
+neighbors, and free to alter and improve the tools which they use in
+their daily lives.  A system based on voluntary cooperation and on
+decentralization.</p>
+<p>
+   Thus, if we are to judge views by their resemblance to Russian
+Communism, it is the software owners who are the Communists.</p>
+
+<h3 id="premises">The Question of Premises</h3>
+<p>
+   I make the assumption in this paper that a user of software is no
+less important than an author, or even an author's employer.  In other
+words, their interests and needs have equal weight, when we decide
+which course of action is best.</p>
+<p>
+   This premise is not universally accepted.  Many maintain that an
+author's employer is fundamentally more important than anyone else.
+They say, for example, that the purpose of having owners of software
+is to give the author's employer the advantage he
+deserves&mdash;regardless of how this may affect the public.</p>
+<p>
+   It is no use trying to prove or disprove these premises.  Proof
+requires shared premises.  So most of what I have to say is addressed
+only to those who share the premises I use, or at least are interested
+in what their consequences are.  For those who believe that the owners
+are more important than everyone else, this paper is simply irrelevant.</p>
+<p>
+   But why would a large number of Americans accept a premise that
+elevates certain people in importance above everyone else?  Partly
+because of the belief that this premise is part of the legal traditions
+of American society.  Some people feel that doubting the premise means
+challenging the basis of society.</p>
+<p>
+   It is important for these people to know that this premise is not
+part of our legal tradition.  It never has been.</p>
+<p>
+   Thus, the Constitution says that the purpose of copyright is to
+&ldquo;promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts.&rdquo; The
+Supreme Court has elaborated on this, stating in <em>Fox Film
+v. Doyal</em>; that &ldquo;The sole interest of the United States
+and the primary object in conferring the [copyright] monopoly lie in
+the general benefits derived by the public from the labors of
+authors.&rdquo;</p>
+<p>
+   We are not required to agree with the Constitution or the Supreme
+Court.  (At one time, they both condoned slavery.)  So their positions
+do not disprove the owner supremacy premise.  But I hope that the
+awareness that this is a radical right-wing assumption rather than a
+traditionally recognized one will weaken its appeal.</p>
+
+<h3 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h3>
+<p>
+   We like to think that our society encourages helping your neighbor;
+but each time we reward someone for obstructionism, or admire them for
+the wealth they have gained in this way, we are sending the opposite
+message.</p>
+<p>
+   Software hoarding is one form of our general willingness to disregard
+the welfare of society for personal gain.  We can trace this disregard
+from Ronald Reagan to Dick Cheney, from Exxon to Enron, from
+failing banks to failing schools.  We can measure it with the size of
+the homeless population and the prison population.  The antisocial
+spirit feeds on itself, because the more we see that other people will
+not help us, the more it seems futile to help them.  Thus society decays
+into a jungle.</p>
+<p>
+   If we don't want to live in a jungle, we must change our attitudes. 
+We must start sending the message that a good citizen is one who
+cooperates when appropriate, not one who is successful at taking from
+others.  I hope that the free software movement will contribute to
+this: at least in one area, we will replace the jungle with a more
+efficient system which encourages and runs on voluntary cooperation.</p>
+
+
+<h3 id="footnotes">Footnotes</h3>
+
+<ol>
+<li id="f1">The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; in &ldquo;free software&rdquo;
+refers to freedom, not to price; the price paid for a copy of a free
+program may be zero, or small, or (rarely) quite large.</li>
+
+<li id="f2">The issues of pollution and traffic congestion do not
+alter this conclusion.  If we wish to make driving more expensive to
+discourage driving in general, it is disadvantageous to do this using
+toll booths, which contribute to both pollution and congestion.  A tax
+on gasoline is much better.  Likewise, a desire to enhance safety by
+limiting maximum speed is not relevant; a free-access road enhances
+the average speed by avoiding stops and delays, for any given speed
+limit.</li>
+
+<li id="f3">One might regard a particular computer program as a
+harmful thing that should not be available at all, like the Lotus
+Marketplace database of personal information, which was withdrawn from
+sale due to public disapproval.  Most of what I say does not apply to
+this case, but it makes little sense to argue for having an owner on
+the grounds that the owner will make the program less available.  The
+owner will not make it <em>completely</em> unavailable, as one would
+wish in the case of a program whose use is considered
+destructive.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<hr />
+<h4>This essay is published
+in <a href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/";><cite>Free
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
+M. Stallman</cite></a></h4>
+
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general, -->
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+Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
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+
+<p>
+Please see the
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyright &copy; 1991, 1992, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007, 2010 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.
+</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/26 09:29:34 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
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Index: philosophy/po/udi.ru-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: philosophy/po/udi.ru-en.html
diff -N philosophy/po/udi.ru-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ philosophy/po/udi.ru-en.html        26 Dec 2011 09:29:34 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,184 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+
+<title>UDI - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/udi.translist" -->
+
+<h2>The Free Software Movement and UDI</h2>
+
+<p>
+A project called UDI (Uniform Driver Interface) aims to define a
+single interface between operating system kernels and device drivers.
+What should the free software movement make of this idea?</p>
+<p>
+If we imagine a number of operating systems and hardware developers,
+all cooperating on an equal footing, UDI (if technically feasible)
+would be a very good idea.  It would permit us to develop just one
+driver for any given hardware device, and then all share it.  It would
+enable a higher level of cooperation.</p>
+<p>
+When we apply the idea to the actual world, which contains both free
+software developers seeking cooperation, and proprietary software
+developers seeking domination, the consequences are very different.
+No way of using UDI can benefit the free software movement.  If it
+does anything, it will divide and weaken us.</p>
+<p>
+If Linux supported UDI, and if we started designing new drivers to
+communicate with Linux through UDI, what would the consequences be?</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li> People could run free GPL-covered Linux drivers with Windows systems.
+<p>
+This would help only Windows users; it would do nothing for us users
+of free operating systems.  It would not directly hurt us, either; but
+the developers of GPL-covered free drivers could be discouraged to see
+them used in this way, and that would be very bad.  It can also be a
+violation of the GNU GPL to link the drivers into a proprietary
+kernel.  To increase the temptation to do so is asking for trouble.</p></li>
+
+<li> People could run non-free Windows drivers
+on <