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Re: [RFC PATCH] hw/arm/virt: Support NMI injection

From: Gavin Shan
Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH] hw/arm/virt: Support NMI injection
Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 17:48:32 +1100
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Thunderbird/68.2.0

[including more folks into the discussion]

On Fri, 17 Jan 2020 at 14:00, Peter Maydell <address@hidden> wrote:
On Thu, 19 Dec 2019 at 04:06, Gavin Shan <address@hidden> wrote:
This supports NMI injection for virtual machine and currently it's only
supported on GICv3 controller, which is emulated by qemu or host kernel.
The design is highlighted as below:

* The NMI is identified by its priority (0x20). In the guest (linux)
kernel, the GICC_PMR is set to 0x80, to block all interrupts except
the NMIs when the external interrupt is disabled. It means the FIQ
and IRQ bit in PSTATE isn't touched when the functionality (NMI) is
* LPIs aren't considered as NMIs because of their nature. It means NMI
is either SPI or PPI. Besides, the NMIs are injected in round-robin
fashion is there are multiple NMIs existing.
* When the GICv3 controller is emulated by qemu, the interrupt states
(e.g. enabled, priority) is fetched from the corresponding data struct
directly. However, we have to pause all CPUs to fetch the interrupt
states from host in advance if the GICv3 controller is emulated by

The testing scenario is to tweak guest (linux) kernel where the pl011 SPI
can be enabled as NMI by request_nmi(). Check "/proc/interrupts" after injecting
several NMIs, to see if the interrupt count is increased or not. The result
is just as expected.

So, QEMU is trying to emulate actual hardware. None of this
looks to me like what GICv3 hardware does... If you want to
have the virt board send an interrupt, do it the usual way
by wiring up a qemu_irq from some device to the GIC, please.
(More generally, there is no concept of an "NMI" in the GIC;
there are just interrupts at varying possible guest-programmable
priority levels.)

Peter, I missed to read your reply in time and apologies for late response.

Yes, there is no concept of "NMI" in the GIC from hardware perspective.
However, NMI has been supported from the software by kernel commit
bc3c03ccb4641 ("arm64: Enable the support of pseudo-NMIs"). The NMIs
have higher priority than normal ones. NMIs are deliverable after
local_irq_disable() because the SYS_ICC_PMR_EL1 is tweaked so that
normal interrupts are masked only.

It's unclear about the purpose of "nmi" QMP/HMP command. It's why I
put a RFC tag. The command has been supported by multiple architects
including x86/ppc. However, they are having different behaviors. The
system will be restarted on ppc with this command, but a NMI is injected
through LAPIC on x86. So I'm not sure what architect (system reset on
ppc or injecting NMI on x86) aarch64 should follow.


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