www-commits
[Top][All Lists]
Advanced

[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]

www/philosophy po/devils-advocate.translist dev...


From: GNUN
Subject: www/philosophy po/devils-advocate.translist dev...
Date: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:43:46 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     21/11/16 00:43:46

Modified files:
        philosophy/po  : devils-advocate.translist 
Added files:
        philosophy     : devils-advocate.zh-cn.html 
        philosophy/po  : devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/devils-advocate.zh-cn.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/devils-advocate.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.5&r2=1.6
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: po/devils-advocate.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/devils-advocate.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.5
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -u -b -r1.5 -r1.6
--- po/devils-advocate.translist        15 Mar 2020 18:34:45 -0000      1.5
+++ po/devils-advocate.translist        16 Nov 2021 05:43:46 -0000      1.6
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 <span dir="ltr">[fr]&nbsp;<a lang="fr" hreflang="fr" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.fr.html">français</a> &nbsp;</span>
 <span dir="ltr">[pt-br]&nbsp;<a lang="pt-br" hreflang="pt-br" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.pt-br.html">português</a> &nbsp;</span>
 <span dir="ltr">[ru]&nbsp;<a lang="ru" hreflang="ru" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.ru.html">русский</a> &nbsp;</span>
+<span dir="ltr">[zh-cn]&nbsp;<a lang="zh-cn" hreflang="zh-cn" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a> &nbsp;</span>
 </p>
 </div>' -->
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.html" 
hreflang="x-default" />
@@ -13,4 +14,5 @@
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.fr.html" title="français" />
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="pt-br" hreflang="pt-br" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.pt-br.html" title="português" />
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.ru.html" title="русский" />
+<link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="zh-cn" hreflang="zh-cn" 
href="/philosophy/devils-advocate.zh-cn.html" title="简体中文" />
 <!-- end translist file -->

Index: devils-advocate.zh-cn.html
===================================================================
RCS file: devils-advocate.zh-cn.html
diff -N devils-advocate.zh-cn.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ devils-advocate.zh-cn.html  16 Nov 2021 05:43:46 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,130 @@
+<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/devils-advocate.en.html" -->
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="TAGS" value="essays upholding action" -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
+
+<!-- This file is automatically generated by GNUnited Nations! -->
+<title>假装反方 - GNU 工程 - 自由软件基金会</title>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/devils-advocate.translist" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/ph-breadcrumb.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div class="article reduced-width">
+<h2>为什么假装反方对找到真相没有帮助</h2>
+
+<address class="byline">Richard Stallman 著</address>
+
+<p>假装
反方的意思是通过模拟假想对手的辩论来挑战某种立场。我经常在访谈的
 Q&amp;A
+环节遇到这种情况,而许多人相信这æ 
·åšèƒ½å¾ˆå¥½åœ°æ£€éªŒä¸€ä¸ªæœ‰äº‰è®®çš„立场。这æ 
·åšçš„真正目的是把该有争议的立场置于弱势地位。</p>
+
+<p>假装反方还有一个间接的方法:&ldquo;假设我维护了你
的立场,如果有人说了如此如此,我该怎么回复呢?&rdquo;
+这样比通常的假装反方友好一些,假装
的反方会直接说如此如此,但是它们的效果一样。</p>
+
+<p>狡狎的敌人会有意地阻碍他们反对的立场。这些狡狎和恶毒敌人(让我们称之为&ldquo;反方&rdquo;)不想让我的观点被大家正常听到,尤å
…
¶æ˜¯è¿™äº›åæ–¹è®¤ä¸ºæˆ‘的观点是对的而大家可能会同意这些观点。最好的方法就是不让我的观点被大家了解。</p>
+
+<p>这些对手通过歪曲我的话来达到目的:他们会提供一个误导人的语境,让我的话看起来的意思和我原本的意思不同。如果成功了,这会迷惑听众并把他们的注意力从原本的问题上分散开,实é™
…上就是让问题无
法正确展现。如果这让我的话看起来变成听众会遣责的东西,而且是大家都不赞成的东西,那么我可能需要解释很长时间才能重会正轨。这æ
 ·æˆ–者时间不够,或者听众已经失去专注度。</p>
+
+<p>即使我成功摆脱了第一个误解,狡狎的敌人还会抛出第二个、第三个。如果他比我还善长词令,那么我可能就没有机会把我的观点展示出来。如果我压力上头、前言不搭后语,那么敌人会觉得胜利了。对手并不在意是我的立场消失了,还ä»
…仅是我个人消失了,他们只要听众拒绝我的观点。</p>
+
+<p>如果你不是一个真正的
+&ldquo;对手,&rdquo;而只是假想对手,那么你实际
上并不想阻止我表达我的本意。但是你
可能在不经意间阻止了它。做为假想对手意味着即使你
没想敌对,你也表现为敌对。一旦你决定象对手那æ 
·è¯´è¯ï¼Œä½ å°±å¯èƒ½ä¼šå°½åŠ›åšå¥½æ­¤äº‹ï¼Œä½ ä¼šæžåŠ›æ¨¡ä»¿æœ€éš¾ç¼ 
的对手:他们的目的是反对而非获得真理。</p>
+
+<p>如果你知道这些对手曾经对我说过什么,或者你
很会想象他们,那么你会和他们说的一æ 
·ã€‚这些话会转移听众的注意力并阻止大家思考问题,就象真正的对手那æ
 ·ã€‚但是如果你不是我的真正对手,那么结果可能不是你
真正想要的。如果你的原意是要让问题显现,那么你
的方法适得其反。</p>
+
+<p>我在许多方面的言论和常规的立场相对,而且我也不期待
没有对问题--包
括问题的论据--做过深思熟虑的人会同意我的看法。实际
上,由于人们对常规的立场耳熟能详,他们几乎无
法把它们置之度外。要判断正误就需要刨根问底。</p>
+
+<p>有利于挖掘真相的问题是狡狎和恶毒的对手不会提出的,而是那些未做决定并爱思考的人们会提出的
 (<a
+href="#ft1">1</a>)。这些问题鼓励分解要讨论的议题,这æ 
·äººä»¬å°±å¯ä»¥æŸ¥çœ‹è¯¥è®®é¢˜å„个方面的各种可能性,它们的含义,它们的å
…³è”。这和假装对手大不相同。</p>
+
+<p>因此,我建议你们采用 &ldquo;探讨问题&rdquo; 的目æ 
‡ï¼Œè€Œä¸æ˜¯å‡è£…对手。如果你
被问及如何回答带敌意的问题,本文也许就是一个好的回应。</p>
+
+<hr class="column-limit" />
+<h3 class="footnote">脚注</h3>
+<ol>
+  <li id="ft1">作者使用性别中立的单数第三人称代词 
&ldquo;person、&rdquo; &ldquo;per、&rdquo; 和
+&ldquo;pers。&rdquo;</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+<div class="translators-notes">
+
+<!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.-->
+ </div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
+<div class="unprintable">
+
+<p>请将有关自由软件基金会(FSF) &amp; GNU 
的一般性问题发送到<a
+href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org";>&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>。也可以通过 <a
+href="/contact/">其他联系方法</a> 
联系自由软件基金会(FSF)。有关失效链接或å…
¶ä»–错误和建议,请发送邮件到<a
+href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org";>&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>。</p>
+
+<p>
+<!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>
+
+        &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+        <p>For information on coordinating and contributing translations of
+        our web pages, see <a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+        README</a>. -->
+我们尽最大努力来提供精准和高质量的翻译,但难å…
ä¼šå­˜åœ¨é”™è¯¯å’Œä¸è¶³ã€‚如果您在这方面有评论或一般性的建议,请发送至
 <a
+href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>&lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>。</p><p>å
…³äºŽè¿›è¡Œåè°ƒä¸Žæäº¤ç¿»è¯‘的更多信息参见
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">《译者
指南》</a>。</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2012, 2017, 2021 Richard Stallman</p>
+
+<p>本页面使用 <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/";>Creative Commons
+Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a> 授权。</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div class="translators-credits">
+
+<!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
+<b>翻译团队</b>:<a rel="team"
+href="//savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn/">&lt;CTT&gt;</a>,2021。</div>
+
+<p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
+最后更新:
+
+$Date: 2021/11/16 05:43:46 $
+
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include -->
+</body>
+</html>

Index: po/devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: po/devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html
diff -N po/devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/devils-advocate.zh-cn-en.html    16 Nov 2021 05:43:46 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,161 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="TAGS" value="essays upholding action" -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
+<title>Devil's Advocate
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
+ <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/devils-advocate.translist" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/ph-breadcrumb.html" -->
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.html" -->
+<div class="article reduced-width">
+<h2>Why the Devil's Advocate Doesn't Help Reach the Truth</h2>
+
+<address class="byline">by Richard Stallman</address>
+
+<p>Playing the devil's advocate means challenging a position by saying
+what a hypothetical adversary would say.  I encounter this frequently
+in interviews and Q&amp;A sessions, and many people believe that this
+is a good way to put a controversial position to the test.  What it
+really does is put the controversial position at a disadvantage.</p>
+
+<p>There is an indirect way of playing the devil's advocate: to say,
+&ldquo;If I defended your position, how should I respond if someone said
+XYZ?&rdquo;  This is less unfriendly than the ordinary devil's advocate,
+who would simply say XYZ, but has the same effect.</p>
+
+<p>Cunning adversaries try intentionally to obstruct thoughtful
+consideration of a position they oppose.  My cunning and unscrupulous
+adversary (the &ldquo;devil,&rdquo; let us say) would not want my views
+to get a proper hearing, especially if the devil thinks they are valid
+and people might agree with them.  The best way to prevent that is to
+block me from making them understood.</p>
+
+<p>The devil achieves that by twisting my words: presenting a misleading
+context in which my words appear to mean something other than what I
+intended.  If this succeeds, it will confuse the audience and distract
+them from the issue, in effect preventing it from being properly raised.
+If this makes my words appear to mean something that the audience will
+condemn, and which nobody present is really in favor of, I may need a
+long explanation to get back on track.  There may not be time for
+this, or the audience might lose focus.</p>
+
+<p>If I succeed in overcoming the first misunderstanding, the cunning
+adversary would spring another, and another.  If the adversary is
+better at verbal fencing than I am, I might never get my point across.
+If the stress makes me heated and I have trouble speaking clearly, the
+adversary will count that a success.  It matters little to the devil
+whether it is my position that is vanquished or only me personally, as
+long as the audience rejects my views.</p>
+
+<p>If you are not a real &ldquo;devil,&rdquo; only playing the devil's
+advocate, you would not really wish to prevent me from presenting the
+intended point.  But you may prevent it without intending to.  Playing
+the devil's advocate means you act hostile even though you don't feel
+hostility.  Once you decide to say what an adversary would say, you
+are likely to do the job as well as you can, by imitating the toughest
+adversary you can imagine: the cunning and unscrupulous one, whose
+goal is to oppose rather than to get at the truth.</p>
+
+<p>If you know what such adversaries have said to me, or if you are
+skilled at imagining them, you would say the same things they do.
+These statements could distract the audience and block consideration
+of the issue, just as if a real adversary had said them.  But if you
+are not really my adversary, that result may not be what you really
+want.  If your goal was to shed light on the issue, your approach will
+have backfired.</p>
+
+<p>What I say on many issues goes against the establishment position, and
+I don't expect people to agree with me without considering the issue
+thoroughly, including the counterarguments.  Indeed, it would be
+almost impossible for anyone to avoid considering the establishment's
+arguments, since everyone knows them by heart.  To judge what is right
+requires getting to the bottom of the issue.</p>
+
+<p>The kind of questions that help get to the bottom of an issue are not
+those that a cunning and unscrupulous adversary would pose, but rather
+those of a thoughtful person who has not made up per mind (<a 
href="#ft1">1</a>).  They
+are questions that prise apart the aspects of the issue, so one can see
+the various possible positions on each aspect, what they imply, and
+how they relate.  Very different from playing devil's advocate.</p>
+
+<p>Thus, instead of trying to play the devil's advocate, I suggest
+that you adopt the goal of &ldquo;probing the issues.&rdquo;  And if
+you are asked how you would answer if someone else asked a hostile
+question, perhaps this essay is a good response.</p>
+
+<hr class="column-limit" />
+<h3 class="footnote">Footnote</h3>
+<ol>
+  <li id="ft1">The author uses the gender-neutral third person singular
+pronouns &ldquo;person,&rdquo; &ldquo;per,&rdquo; and
+&ldquo;pers.&rdquo;</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
+<div class="unprintable">
+
+<p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org";>&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org";>&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+<p><!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>
+        &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+        <p>For information on coordinating and contributing translations of
+        our web pages, see <a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+        README</a>. -->
+Please see the <a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and contributing translations
+of this article.</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2012, 2017, 2021 Richard Stallman</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" -->
+
+<p class="unprintable">Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2021/11/16 05:43:46 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+</div><!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include -->
+</body>
+</html>



reply via email to

[Prev in Thread] Current Thread [Next in Thread]