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www/education po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life...


From: GNUN
Subject: www/education po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life...
Date: Tue, 9 Nov 2021 05:34:54 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     21/11/09 05:34:54

Modified files:
        education/po   : 
                         
drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist 
Added files:
        education      : 
                         
drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html 
        education/po   : 
                         
drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn-en.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/education/po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/education/po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist
===================================================================
RCS file: 
/web/www/www/education/po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist      
2 Oct 2021 07:34:12 -0000       1.1
+++ po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist      
9 Nov 2021 10:34:54 -0000       1.2
@@ -3,8 +3,10 @@
 value='<div id="translations">
 <p>
 <span dir="ltr" class="original">[en]&nbsp;<a lang="en" hreflang="en" 
href="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.en.html">English</a>
 &nbsp;</span>
+<span dir="ltr">[zh-cn]&nbsp;<a lang="zh-cn" hreflang="zh-cn" 
href="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html">简体中文</a>
 &nbsp;</span>
 </p>
 </div>' -->
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" 
href="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.html"
 hreflang="x-default" />
 <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="en" hreflang="en" 
href="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.en.html"
 title="English" />
+<link rel="alternate" type="text/html" lang="zh-cn" hreflang="zh-cn" 
href="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html"
 title="简体中文" />
 <!-- end translist file -->

Index: drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html
===================================================================
RCS file: drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html
diff -N drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn.html        
9 Nov 2021 10:34:52 -0000       1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,251 @@
+<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" 
value="/education/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.en.html"
 -->
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
+
+<!-- This file is automatically generated by GNUnited Nations! -->
+<title>电子教科书中的 DRM:当生活就象反乌托邦的故事 - GNU 
工程 - 自由软件基金会</title>
+<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/side-menu.css" media="screen" />
+
+<!--#include 
virtual="/education/po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.translist"
 -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div class="nav">
+<a id="side-menu-button" class="switch" href="#navlinks">
+ <img id="side-menu-icon" height="25" width="31"
+      src="/graphics/icons/side-menu.png"
+      title="教育内容"
+      alt="&nbsp;[教育内容]&nbsp;" />
+</a>
+
+<p class="breadcrumb">
+ <a href="/"><img src="/graphics/icons/home.png" height="26" width="26"
+    alt="GNU 主页" title="GNU 主页" /></a>&nbsp;/ <a 
href="/education/education.html">教育</a>&nbsp;/ <a
+href="/education/education.html#indepth">深入探讨</a>&nbsp;/</p>
+</div>
+
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div style="clear: both"></div>
+<div id="last-div" class="article reduced-width">
+
+<h2>电子教科书中的 DRM:当生活就象反乌托邦的故事</h2>
+
+<address class="byline">Barra O'Cathain <a href="#barra" 
id="barra-rev"><sup>[*]</sup></a> 著</address>
+
+<div class="article">
+<p>能够遇到类似书本里读到的情
景,那怕只是有那么一点相似,也会感到如梦如幻。当你
意识到你读到的情景是反乌托帮的故事,是å…
³äºŽå¤§ä¼ä¸šå¯¹å­¦ç”Ÿçš„贪婪和虐待之危险的警告,情
况就更糟糕了。</p>
+
+<p>在 1997 年 2 月,<cite><abbr title="Association for Computing
+Machinery">ACM</abbr> 通讯</cite> 杂志发表了 Richard M. Stallman 的 <a
+href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html"><cite>阅
读的权利</cite></a>,这是一个关于未来的警示性幻想故事,故
事里的出版商和政府一起变本加利地大规模严惩人们的所谓
+&ldquo;盗版行为&rdquo;&nbsp;<a href="#piracy" 
id="piracy-rev">[1]</a>。</p>
+
+<p><cite>阅读的权利 Read</cite> 中描述了一名叫 Lissa Lenz
+的大学生遇到一个难题。她的电脑坏了,里面有她的å…
¨éƒ¨è¯¾æœ¬ï¼Œé‚£æ˜¯å¥¹å®ŒæˆæœŸä¸­é¡¹ç›®çš„唯一工具。她向朋友 Dan 
Halbert 借电脑用。这让 Dan
+面临巨大的挑战。如果 Lissa 读了他的书,那么
+SPA&mdash;&mdash;专门对付分享的政府机构&mdash;就会以侵犯版权逮捕他并判罪。最终,为了朋友,他做出了出人意料的决定:为了向
 SPA
+隐藏版权侵犯的痕迹,他给了 Lissa 他的密ç 
ã€‚这是直率的违法行为。</p>
+
+<p>Stallman 在故
事中预言了许多恶劣事端。悲哀的是,它们已经变成现实。<cite>é˜
…读的权利</cite>
+不再是假想的场景,也不再只是对未来可能性的预警。</p>
+
+<p>它就是我们身在的 <em>当下</em>。</p>
+
+<h3>DRM 是什么?</h3>
+
+<p>DRM 是一个首字母缩写词,原意是 
&ldquo;数字权利管理(Digital Rights Management),&rdquo;但是实际
上说它是
+&ldquo;数字限制管理(Digital <em>Restrictions</em> Management)&rdquo;
+更准确。它指的是一切控制版权与专有数字作品和硬件的手段。å
…¶ç›®çš„是限制用户。DRM
+是一个涵盖实现以上目标的各种工å…
·çš„总括术语,法律协议(所谓不服务的技术)或企图防止某些活动的恶意软件都是工å
…·çš„个例。比如,还有防止用户经由 TOR
+网络或从某些地区(象我说的,爱尔å…
°ï¼‰è®¿é—®æŸä¸ªç½‘站的手段等。更多 DRM 的例子,请参看网页 
&ldquo;<a
+href="/proprietary/proprietary-drm.html">专有 DRM</a>。&rdquo;</p>
+
+<h3>一个生活实例却变成了非法</h3>
+
+<p>我在初中时,有个朋友找我,他不知怎的在期中假期把课本丢在学æ
 ¡çš„储物柜里了,然后他的学习
就遇到了麻烦。把他的错误放一边,我觉得把我的密ç 
ç»™ä»–让他可以看我的电子书不是什么大事,这些书放在出版商的平台
+(&ldquo;服务平台&rdquo;)。这样,他就能学习
并通过接下来的考试,没有害处。我并不知道,æ 
¹æ®ï¼ˆä¸ï¼‰æœåŠ¡çš„条款和条件,我刚刚做的事是一个人能做的最邪恶、最该被谴责的事:帮助朋友&mdash;&mdash;或è€
…,以出版商的眼光来看,&ldquo;盗版。&rdquo;</p>
+ 
+<p>(不)服务的条款和条件&nbsp;<a href="#terms" 
id="terms-rev">[2]</a>
+不容易找到,这让人觉得这个出版商不厚道。它们并不放在登录页面,也不在主藏书页面;
+它们藏在帮助部分。我不会å…
¨æ–‡å¼•ç”¨å®ƒä»¬ï¼Œä½†æ˜¯å®ƒä»¬ç¡®å®žå†™äº†ç¦æ­¢åˆ†äº«å¯†ç ã€‚它们还包
括一些有必要评论的内容,下面我会一一讲来。</p>
+
+<p>这些条款和条件非常非常明确地表达了一件事:不许你
在任何情况下、以任何方式分享电子书。</p>
+
+<p>让我说清楚一件事。我并不实际
拥有此电子书。此书的纸质版封面自豪地写着购买此书å…
è´¹èŽ·å¾—电子版。这个说它误导算是最客气了。我得到的是一个带时限的å†
…
容访问许可,只能使用出版商的专有平台。我不能把书下载到本地离线é˜
…读,因为出版商声称书
+&ldquo;太大了&rdquo;,不能放进可移动媒体,完å…
¨ä¸ç†ä¼šæˆ‘可能只是要放到硬盘的事实。我决定看看出版商的说法是不是真的,结果发现该电子书比
+CD-R 
碟片的容量还要小个数量级。难道我们会相信他们说的可移动媒体容量太小的理由?
 照我来看,真正的原因
是他们不想让人们下载并以此防止分享。</p>
+
+<h3>共同的限制</h3>
+
+<p>我生活在爱尔兰,这里有些新学校使用 iPad (这种东西从内
到外带有很多 <a
+href="/proprietary/malware-apple.html">隐私和道德问题</a>) 
把所有学生的课本转移到
+&ldquo;在线服务。&rdquo;
+大家谈论的好处是减轻学生书包的重量、容易整理和å…
·æœ‰å¤šåª’体功能。这些都对,但是把书移到电子设备上需要学生同意这些å
…¬å¸å¼ºåŠ çš„服务条款。这些条款会限制学生们探索、研究和
+<em>学习</em> 的能力。</p>
+
+<p>把电子书放在这些平台上还有许多实际
的坏处。它们需要稳定的互联网连接,许多学æ 
¡å¾ˆéš¾åšåˆ°è¿™ä¸€ç‚¹ã€‚它们无
法下载,所以没有便利的互联网连接的同学们基本上就相当于æ—
 ä¹¦å¯è¯»ã€‚它们可能不支持某些设备,或者仅
可用于单一操作系统或浏览器。最大的坏处可能是它们只能从一个中心处获得,只授权于已付费的人访问,并且该权限还有时间限制。ä½
 èƒ½æƒ³è±¡æœ‰äººæ¥åˆ°ä½ çš„毕业现场然后一句话也不说就把你
的纸质课本都收回吗?
+这是一个可笑至极的场面,但是电子书就是这么做的。</p>
+
+<p>使用纸质书时,学生至少可以购买二手书,或者
把书转让给朋友和å…
„弟姐妹。如果现实变成学生从单一的中心化出版商处获取电子书的访问ç
 ï¼Œé‚£ä¹ˆæˆ‘们就会看到出版商对教课书的垄断会让我们的å…
è´¹æ•™è‚²å¸¦ä¸Šé«˜æ˜‚的价格标签。结局可能就象德州仪器的情
况,一个公司卡住了教育的脖子漫天要价而无
需创新和升级。这种情况是该公司在å…
¨ç¾Žæ•°å­¦æ•™å¸ˆç†äº‹ä¼šï¼ˆNational
+Council of Teachers of
+Mathematics)力推自己成为教育标准时形成的。一旦自己成了æ 
‡å‡†ï¼Œè¯¥å…¬å¸å°±å¼€å§‹æ»¥ç”¨è‡ªå·±çš„地位,他们即使在å…
¶è®¡ç®—器制造成本逐年下降的情形下也拒绝降价。这让该å…
¬å¸çš„毛利高达
+90%,同时让低收入家庭很难付担起孩子的教育。</p>
+
+<p>学生们对自己要使用的平台并没有多少发言权。学æ 
¡å¯èƒ½åªæ˜¯ç»™å­¦ç”Ÿä¸€ä¸ªç”±å¾®è½¯ 365
+办å…
¬è½¯ä»¶æä¾›çš„电子邮件地址,并要求他们同意那些由出版商强åŠ
 
的条款。学生的课本可能来自多个出版商,他们可能要同意多个出版商的条款。而且即使他们同意了交过来的合同版本,大多数出版商也会保留修改合同的权利。出版商也会&mdash;&mdash;就象我在较早的(不)服务条款中提到的&mdash;&mdash;保留以后对访问电子书收费的权利。学生们真的有选择吗?
+目前没有。除非情况变化,他们没的选。无
论他们觉得这些条款怎么æ 
·ï¼Œä»–们都得被迫接受这些条款,否则他们就会因
为没书而失去教育机会。</p>
+
+<h3>挑战这些假设</h3>
+
+<p>有人可能会说这些条款不无
道理,学生们受教育时并没有权利了解使用的工å…
·ï¼Œä¹Ÿä¸èƒ½å’ŒåŒå­¦åˆ†äº«ä¿¡æ¯ã€‚</p>
+
+<p>你会反对一个学生在法国度假时研读自己的课本吗? 
亦或是反对她在北爱尔兰读? 或者是在公共汽车上? 还是在å…
¬å…±å›¾ä¹¦é¦†?</p>
+
+<p>答案是当然不会。</p>
+
+<p>你又会反对诸如一个学生把书借给一个朋友的事吗? 或者
她允许坐在旁边的人看一看她的书? 
如果她把书中的一个句子复制到笔记本上,她就变成了小偷或是海盗?
+老师就应该对此报警?</p>
+
+<p>答案是当然不会。</p>
+
+<p>如果学生询问书本是如何装订的,又将如何? 询问纸张
是怎么造的呢? 墨水是什么成分呢? 书写的过程又是怎样呢? 
书又是怎样运到书店的呢?
+想了解出版技术的学生难到应该被惩罚?</p>
+
+<p>答案是当然不会。</p>
+
+<p>最后,你会反对学生们把不再需要的课本卖掉吗? 或者
她把根据课本做的笔记送给他人呢? 你
会说学生们不能把做了注记的课本再给别人吗?</p>
+
+<p>答案是当然不会。</p>
+
+<p>我的朋友做了一个非常合适的总结:<q>[学校] 大概让å…
¬å¸çš„权利超越了学生的权利。</q></p>
+
+<p>就目前教育机构引入新技术的范围来看,我们必须谨æ…
Žã€‚如果没有合理的思考和行动,我们可能会让自己置身于更接近
 <cite>阅读的权利</cite>
+所描述的世界。学æ 
¡è‘£äº‹ä¼šè¿‡åŽ»å·²ç»çŠ¯äº†é”™è¯¯ï¼Œå°±è±¡å¾·å·žä»ªå™¨ã€‚我敦促所有人反对这些条款。下面是我的一些建议:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>在选择教科书的程序中,你们可以发起让学æ 
¡è®¤çœŸè€ƒè™‘电子书服务条款的请愿并要求电子书不带 DRM 
和可下载。</li> 
+
+<li>你可以根据本地教学大纲准备相应的教科书,并以类似 
<a href="/licenses/licenses.html#FDL">GNU
+自由文档许可证</a>、<a 
href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/";>CC
+BY-SA</a> 等方式发布。</li>
+
+<li>请支持 FSF 废止电子书 DRM 的 <a
+href="https://www.defectivebydesign.org/ebooks.html";>活动</a>。</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>请保证学校不能处罚学习。 </p>
+
+<p>请保证 <a
+href="/philosophy/ebooks-must-increase-freedom.html">电子书增加
我们的自由,而不是减少</a>。</p>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
+</div>
+
+<h3 class="footnote">作者注</h3>
+<ol >
+<li><a href="#piracy-rev" id="piracy">&#8593;</a>&ldquo;隐私权&rdquo; 
是一个 <a
+href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Piracy">污蔑性用语</a>。</li>
+
+<li><a href="#terms-rev" id="terms">&#8593;</a>å…
³äºŽï¼ˆä¸ï¼‰æœåŠ¡æ¡æ¬¾å’Œæ¡ä»¶çš„注记:
+<ul>
+ <li>不能分享密码。 </li>
+ 
<li>出版商在(不)服务条款中保留以后收取费用的权利。</li>
+ <li>除非获得明确许可,读者
不能分发(不)服务的任何信息。</li>
+ <li>禁止通过反向工程研究(不)服务的工作原理,包
括解析源代码或其他方法。</li>
+ <li>这些书针对爱尔å…
°æœ‰åœ°åŒºé”ï¼ˆåªå¯ä»¥ä»ŽæŸäº›åœ°åŒºè®¿é—®ï¼‰ã€‚ </li>
+ <li>没有售后保障。(不)服务不承担造
成任何损害的责任,却让你承担你对他们的损害责任。</li>
+</ul></li>
+</ol>
+
+<h3 class="footnote">致谢</h3>
+
+<p style="font-size:1rem">
+感谢 Richard Stallman、Andy Oram 和 GNU 
教育团队提供想法和帮助。</p>
+
+<div class="infobox extra" role="complementary">
+<hr />
+
+<p><a href="#barra-rev" id="barra">[*]</a>Barra O'Cathain
+是一位来自爱尔å…
°çš„黑客。他正在攻读计算机科学的学士学位。他对自由软件和编程的浓厚å
…´è¶£å§‹äºŽçœ‹åˆ° Quake III Arena 的源代码,它以 GNU
+GPL 许可证发布于 2005 年。</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div class="translators-notes">
+
+<!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.-->
+ </div>
+</div>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/education/education-menu.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
+<div class="unprintable">
+
+<p>请将有关自由软件基金会(FSF) &amp; GNU 
的一般性问题发送到<a
+href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org";>&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;</a>。也可以通过 <a
+href="/contact/">其他联系方法</a> 
联系自由软件基金会(FSF)。有关失效链接或å…
¶ä»–错误和建议,请发送邮件到<a
+href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org";>&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;</a>。</p>
+
+<p>
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+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
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+<p>Copyright &copy; 2021 Barra O'Cathain</p>
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+
+<p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
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Index: 
po/drm-in-school-ebooks-when-life-imitates-dystopian-stories.zh-cn-en.html
===================================================================
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+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
+<title>DRM In School eBooks: When Life Imitates Dystopian Stories
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
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+<div id="last-div" class="article reduced-width">
+
+<h2>DRM In School eBooks: When Life Imitates Dystopian Stories</h2>
+
+<address class="byline">by Barra O'Cathain <a href="#barra" 
id="barra-rev"><sup>[*]</sup></a></address>
+
+<div class="article">
+<p>It always feels surreal to come across situations that are just a little 
+too close to something you've read. It's even worse when you realize that 
+something you've read is a dystopian story warning about the dangers of 
+corporate greed and abuse of students.</p>
+
+<p>In February 1997, the magazine <cite>Communications of the
+<abbr title="Association for Computing Machinery">ACM</abbr></cite> 
+published Richard M. Stallman's <a href="/philosophy/right-to-read.html">
+<cite>The Right to Read</cite></a>, a cautionary tale of a future where 
+publishers and the government crack down on so-called 
&ldquo;piracy&rdquo;&nbsp;<a 
+href="#piracy" id="piracy-rev">[1]</a> to a massive extent.</p>
+
+<p>In <cite>The Right to Read</cite>, a college student named Lissa Lenz has 
+an issue. Her computer, which contains all her textbooks and is the only 
+tool for writing her midterm project, breaks down. She asks her friend Dan 
+Halbert to borrow his computer. This is a big problem for Dan. If Lissa were 
+to read his books, the SPA&mdash;a government agency created to combat 
+sharing&mdash;would arrest him for copyright infringement and brand him 
+a criminal. In the end, out of concern for his friend, he does the 
+unthinkable: he gives Lissa his password in an attempt to hide the copyright 
+infringement from the SPA, breaking the law with that simple act.</p>
+
+<p>Stallman predicted a lot of bad things in that piece of fiction. Sadly, 
+they have already come true. <cite>The Right to Read</cite> is no longer 
+a hypothetical scenario, no longer just a story warning about a possible 
+future.</p>
+
+<p>It is our <em>present</em>.</p>
+
+<h3>What is DRM?</h3>
+
+<p>DRM is an initialism which is supposed to stand for 
+&ldquo;Digital Rights Management,&rdquo; but in practice it's more accurate 
+to say it stands for &ldquo;Digital <em>Restrictions</em> Management.&rdquo; 
+It refers to any means used to control copyrighted and proprietary digital 
+works and hardware. Its purpose is to restrict what users can do. DRM is an 
+umbrella term for various tools aimed at achieving that goal, such as legal 
+agreements (which is the technique the dis-service in question is using), 
+or malware that seeks to prevent specific actions. For example, to prevent 
+users from connecting to a website through the TOR network or from outside 
+of a certain geographical area (Ireland, in my case). For some examples of 
+Digital Restrictions Management, take a look at the page on &ldquo;<a 
+href="/proprietary/proprietary-drm.html">proprietary DRM</a>.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<h3>A Real-Life Encounter With Becoming Illegal</h3>
+
+<p>During the course of my secondary school education, I was contacted by a
+friend who was finding it difficult to study because he had managed to mess
+things up by leaving his textbooks in his locker over a mid-term break. 
+Silly mistake aside, I thought nothing of lending him a modified version of 
+my password so that he could access my copies of the ebooks, hosted at the 
+publisher's platform (the &ldquo;service&rdquo;). He'd be able to 
+study and pass the upcoming exams, no harm done. Little did I know that, 
+according to the terms and conditions of the dis-service, I had just 
+committed the most vile, despicable act a human being could commit: 
+help my friend&mdash;or, in the eyes of the publisher, 
+&ldquo;piracy.&rdquo;</p>
+ 
+<p>The terms and conditions&nbsp;<a href="#terms" id="terms-rev">[2]</a> 
+of the dis-service are somewhat hard to find, which makes one feel the 
+publisher is untrustworthy. They are not readily available on the login page 
+or on the main library page; instead, they are hidden in the help section. 
+I won't quote them exactly, but they do expressly forbid the sharing of 
+passwords. They also contain several other things worth noting, which I will 
+discuss later.</p>
+
+<p>The terms and conditions are very, very clear about one thing: you're not
+allowed to share the ebook in any way, with any means, under any  
+circumstances.</p>
+
+<p>Let me clear up one thing. I don't actually own the ebook. The physical 
+version of the book proudly displays a notice on the cover saying you'll get 
+a free ebook version along with your purchase. That's misleading, at best. 
+What I get is a time-limited license to access its contents, exclusively on 
+the publisher's proprietary platform. I can't download it to get a local 
+copy to read offline because the publisher claims it's &ldquo;too big&rdquo; 
+to fit in removable media, ignoring the fact that I may just want it on my 
+hard drive. I decided to see if the claim was true and found that the grand 
+total size of the ebook came in orders of magnitude lower than even the 
+capacity of a CD-R disc. Are we really to believe the reason we can't 
+download a copy of a digital book is that it can't fit in removable media? 
+In my opinion, the real reason they don't want people to download copies is 
+to prevent sharing.</p>
+
+<h3>Common Restrictions</h3>
+
+<p>Some new schools where I live in Ireland are using iPads (which have a
+whole host of <a href="/proprietary/malware-apple.html">privacy and ethical 
+concerns</a> in and of themselves) with the goal of moving all their students' 
+books to these online &ldquo;services.&rdquo; Benefits cited often include 
+reduced weight in students' bags, ease of organization, and multimedia 
+capabilities. All of which are true, but what is often neglected is that the 
+move to digital devices requires students to agree to terms of service 
+imposed by companies. These terms restrict students' ability to explore, 
+research, and <em>learn</em>.</p>
+
+<p>There are also a lot of practical downsides to ebooks on these platforms. 
+They have to be used with a constant connection to the Internet, which will 
+be difficult for many schools to maintain. They can't be downloaded, so 
+students who don't have easy access to the Internet will be essentially 
+stuck with no books. They may not be supported on all devices, or may be 
+restricted to a single operating system or browser. Probably the biggest 
+downside is that they can be obtained only from one centralized location, 
+with authorized access granted only to the person who paid for it, and taken 
+away after a limited time. Could you imagine a company coming to your 
+graduation and wordlessly snatching your physical books back? A silly, 
+ridiculous image, but it's what happens with ebooks.</p>
+
+<p>When schools use physical books, students at least have the option of 
+buying them second-hand, or getting them handed down from a friend or a 
+sibling. If the practice of getting an ebook access code from a single 
+centralized publisher continues, we may see a publisher's monopoly  
+where textbooks needed for our free education are held away from us with a 
+massive price tag. We may end up with a situation like Texas Instruments, 
+where a company with a stranglehold on education can charge astronomical 
+prices without the need to innovate or upgrade. Such a position was gained  
+by pushing themselves as the educational standard in the National Council of 
+Teachers of Mathematics. Once established as such, the company began to 
+abuse its position by refusing to reduce the price of their calculators as 
+they become cheaper to manufacture year after year. This leaves the company 
+with gross profit margins of up to 90 percent, all the while making it very 
+difficult for lower income families to educate their children.</p>
+
+<p>Students don't have much of a say about which platforms they'll be 
+required to use. The school may give them an email address, provided by 
+Microsoft Office&nbsp;365, and require them to agree to the terms imposed 
+by the publisher. Students may need books from different publishers, and may 
+have to agree to multiple contracts. And even if they do agree to a given 
+version of a contract, most publishers reserve the right to change it. 
+Perhaps the publisher might&mdash;as I discovered in the terms of the 
+dis-service I mentioned earlier&mdash;reserve the right to later charge fees 
+to access the books. Do the students really have a choice? Not at the moment. 
+Unless something changes, they don't have a choice. They're forced to accept 
+the terms, no matter what they think of them, otherwise they lose their 
+chances for education by losing their books.</p>
+
+<h3>Challenging the Assumptions</h3>
+
+<p>Some may say that these terms are reasonable, that students aren't 
+entitled to learn how the tools they use during their education work, or 
+to share information with their peers.</p>
+
+<p>Would you object to a student reading her schoolbook while on holidays in 
+France? If she reads it while traveling to Northern Ireland? On a bus? In a 
+public library?</p>
+
+<p>Of course not.</p>
+
+<p>Would you also object to, say, a student lending a copy of his book to a 
+friend? Allowing someone sitting next to him to look at his book? If a 
+student copies a sentence from a book into his notes, is he a thief or a 
+pirate? Should the teacher report him for illegal activity?</p>
+
+<p>Of course not.</p>
+
+<p>And what if the student were to ask how the book was bound? How the paper 
+was made? What the ink was made up of? How the process of writing works? How 
+they are delivered to bookstores to be sold? Should this student be punished 
+for attempting to learn about the publisher's techniques?</p>
+
+<p>Of course not.</p>
+
+<p>And finally, would you object to students selling their textbooks when 
+they no longer have a need for them? To giving away their notes, made using 
+information from the book, to other students? Would you say students 
+shouldn't be allowed to give away their book if it has a line crossed out 
+and rewritten?</p>
+
+<p>Of course not.</p>
+
+<p>My friend made quite an apt summary: <q>It's like [school systems] put 
+the rights of companies over the rights of the students.</q></p>
+
+<p>With the current landscape of educational institutions planning to 
+introduce new technologies, we need to be careful. Without proper 
+consideration and action, we may find ourselves in a reality even closer to 
+the one described in <cite>The Right to Read</cite>. School boards have 
+already made mistakes in the past, like with Texas Instruments. I would urge 
+everyone to start pushing against this sort of terms. Here are some 
+suggestions:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>During the decision process about which textbooks to use, you could 
+petition your school to consider the terms and conditions of ebook 
+services and make it a requirement that ebooks be DRM-free and 
+downloadable.</li> 
+
+<li>You could start the preparation of a textbook for your local 
+curriculum and publish it under a free license such as the <a 
+href="/licenses/licenses.html#FDL">GNU Free Documentation License</a>, 
+<a 
+href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/";>CC BY-SA</a>, or
+similar.</li>
+
+<li>Support the FSF's <a 
+href="https://www.defectivebydesign.org/ebooks.html";>campaign</a> to 
+abolish eBook DRM.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>Let's make sure schools don't punish learning. </p>
+
+<p>Let's make sure <a href="/philosophy/ebooks-must-increase-freedom.html">
+ebooks increase our freedom, not decrease it</a>.</p>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
+</div>
+
+<h3 class="footnote">Author's Notes</h3>
+<ol >
+<li><a href="#piracy-rev" id="piracy">&#8593;</a> &ldquo;Piracy&rdquo; is a 
+<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Piracy">smear word</a>.</li>
+
+<li><a href="#terms-rev" id="terms">&#8593;</a> Some notes from the Terms and 
+Conditions of dis-services:
+<ul>
+ <li>Passwords must not be shared. </li>
+ <li>The publisher reserves the right to later charge for access to the 
+     dis-service.</li>
+ <li>The reader can't distribute any information from the dis-service unless 
+     in ways explicitly allowed.</li>
+ <li>It is forbidden to attempt to learn how the dis-service works by
+     reverse-engineering, attempting to derive source code, or by any other 
+     means.</li>
+ <li>The books are region-locked (only accessible in a certain area) to the
+     Republic of Ireland. </li>
+ <li>No warranties are provided. The dis-service shall not be liable for any
+     damages, yet expects you to be liable for damages to them.</li>
+</ul></li>
+</ol>
+
+<h3 class="footnote">Thanks</h3>
+
+<p style="font-size:1rem">
+Thanks to Richard Stallman, Andy Oram, and the GNU Education Team for 
+the idea and the help.</p>
+
+<div class="infobox extra" role="complementary">
+<hr />
+
+<p><a href="#barra-rev" id="barra">[*]</a> Barra O'Cathain is a young hacker 
+from Ireland. He is currently persuing a bachelor's degree in Computer 
+Science. His fascination with free software and programming began when he 
+came across the Quake III Arena source code, which was made available under 
+the GNU GPL in 2005.</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
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+     
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+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
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+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2021 Barra O'Cathain</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" -->
+
+<p class="unprintable">Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2021/11/09 10:34:54 $
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