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www/gnu manifesto.zh-cn.html po/manifesto.zh-cn...


From: GNUN
Subject: www/gnu manifesto.zh-cn.html po/manifesto.zh-cn...
Date: Wed, 3 Nov 2021 22:31:26 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     21/11/03 22:31:26

Modified files:
        gnu            : manifesto.zh-cn.html 
        gnu/po         : manifesto.zh-cn-en.html manifesto.zh-cn.po 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/manifesto.zh-cn.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/manifesto.zh-cn-en.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/manifesto.zh-cn.po?cvsroot=www&r1=1.11&r2=1.12

Patches:
Index: manifesto.zh-cn.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/manifesto.zh-cn.html,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- manifesto.zh-cn.html        16 Feb 2019 12:59:25 -0000      1.3
+++ manifesto.zh-cn.html        4 Nov 2021 02:31:24 -0000       1.4
@@ -1,34 +1,49 @@
 <!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/gnu/manifesto.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.zh-cn.html" -->
-<!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="TAGS" value="gnu-history" -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
 
 <!-- This file is automatically generated by GNUnited Nations! -->
 <title>GNU宣言 - GNU工程 - 自由软件基金会</title>
+<style type="text/css" media="print,screen"><!--
+a.ftn { font-size: .94em; }
+-->
+</style>
 
 <!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/manifesto.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/gnu-breadcrumb.zh-cn.html" -->
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.zh-cn.html" -->
+<div class="article reduced-width">
 <h2>GNU宣言</h2>
+<div class="thin"></div>
 
-<p> GNU宣言(如下所示)由<a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard
+<div class="introduction">
+<p> GNU宣言(如下所示)由<a href="https://www.stallman.org/";>Richard
 
Stallman</a>在1985年撰写,用来请求大家支持GNU操作系统的开发。å
…¶éƒ¨åˆ†æ–‡æœ¬æ‘˜è‡ª1983年撰写的初始声明。直到1987年,因
为开发的原因
它时时小有更改;那时起,看起来最好是保持它不再改变。</p>
 
 <p>时过境迁,我们认识到使用不同的措辞可以避å…
ä¸€äº›å¸¸è§çš„误解。从1993年起,我们添加了脚注来澄清
这些问题。</p>
 
 <p>如果你想安装GNU/Linux系统,我们建议你使用<a
 href="/distros">100%自由的GNU/Linux发行版</a>之一。如果你
想做出贡献,请参看<a
-href="/help/help.html">http://www.gnu.org/help</a>。</p>
+href="/help/help.html">gnu.org/help</a>。</p>
 
 <p>GNU工程是自由软件运动的一部分,该运动诣在捍卫<a
 
href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">软件用户的自由</a>。把GNU和&ldquo;开源&rdquo;一词联系在一起是错误的&mdash;该词汇是1998年由一些不赞同自由软件运动之道德价值的人士发明的。他们使用该词汇来推动同一领域的<a
 href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">非道德方案</a>。</p>
+<hr class="no-display" />
+</div>
 
 <h3 id="whats-gnu">GNU为何?GNU并非UNIX!</h3>
 
 <p>
    GNU,代表的是Gnu's Not
-Unix(GNU并非UNIX),是我正在编写的一个完全å…
¼å®¹Unix的软件系统,这æ 
·æˆ‘就可以把它自由地交给想要使用它的人。<a
-href="#f1">(1)</a>还有几个志愿者
在帮助我。我们非常需要大家在时间、金钱、程序和设备方面的贡献。</p>
+Unix(GNU并非UNIX),是我正在编写的一个完全å…
¼å®¹Unix的软件系统,这æ 
·æˆ‘就可以把它自由地交给想要使用它的人&#8239;<a
+class="ftn" href="#f1">[1]</a>。还有几个志愿者
在帮助我。我们非常需要大家在时间、金钱、程序和设备方面的贡献。</p>
 
 <p>
    
目前,我们有一个可以用lisp编写编辑命令的Emacs文本编辑器、一个源代ç
 çº§åˆ«çš„调试器、一个兼容yacc的分析器生成工å…
·ã€ä¸€ä¸ªé“¾æŽ¥å™¨å’Œå¤§çº¦35个应用程序。shell(命令解释器)也接近完成。一个新的可移植的优化C编译器已经可以自我编译,可能会在年å†
…发布。现有一个初始的内核,不过还需要增加
很多功能才可以模拟Unix。当内æ 
¸å’Œç¼–译器完成后,我们就有可能发布一个适合开发程序的GNU系统。我们会使用Tex作为文本排版工å
…
·ï¼Œä¸è¿‡nroff还需要一些工作。我们还会使用自由的、可移植的X
@@ -51,8 +66,8 @@
    我认可的黄金法则是如果我喜欢一个程序,我就必
须把它分享给喜欢它的人。软件销售商通过让每个用户保证不和å
…¶ä»–人分享来分化用户并控制他们。我拒绝以这种方式打ç 
´å’Œå…¶ä»–用户组成的统一体。我的良知让我无法签署这æ 
·çš„保密协议或软件许可证协议。几
年来,我在人工智能实验室都在反抗这种趋势以及其他冷漠
,但是最终他们还是走得太远了:我无
法再呆在一个为我做违背我意愿之事的机构。</p>
 
 <p>
-   为了能够继续不失颜面地使用计算机,我决定把一些必
要的自由软件集合在一起,这æ 
·æˆ‘就能够继续下去而不需要任何非自由软件。我从人工智能实验室辞了职,这æ
 ·å°±å¯ä»¥åœ¨æˆ‘发布GNU时避免和MIT产生法律纠葛。<a
-href="#f2a">(2)</a></p>
+   为了能够继续不失颜面地使用计算机,我决定把一些必
要的自由软件集合在一起,这æ 
·æˆ‘就能够继续下去而不需要任何非自由软件。我从人工智能实验室辞了职,这æ
 ·å°±å¯ä»¥åœ¨æˆ‘发布GNU时避免和MIT产生法律纠葛&#8239;<a
+class="ftn" href="#f2a">[2]</a>。</p>
 
 <h3 id="compatible">为什么GNU将会兼容Unix</h3>
 
@@ -78,14 +93,14 @@
 
 <h3 id="contribute">你该如何做出贡献</h3>
 
-<blockquote>
+<div class="comment">
 <p>
 (现今,软件帮助任务请看<a
 href="http://fsf.org/campaigns/priority-projects";>高优å…
ˆçº§é¡¹ç›®åˆ—表</a>和<a
 
href="http://savannah.gnu.org/people/?type_id=1";>GNU帮助需求列表</a>,这是GNU软件åŒ
…的一般任务列表。其他帮助,请看<a
 href="/help/help.html">帮助GNU操作系统的指南</a>。)
 </p>
-</blockquote>
+</div>
 
 <p>
    我请求计算机制造
商捐助机器和金钱。我请求个人捐助程序和作品。</p>
@@ -103,7 +118,7 @@
 <h3 id="benefit">为什么所有计算机用户都会受益</h3>
 
 <p>
-   
一旦GNU完成,任何人都能够自由地得到一个好用的系统,正如得到空气一æ
 ·ã€‚<a href="#f2">(3)</a></p>
+   
一旦GNU完成,任何人都能够自由地得到一个好用的系统,正如得到空气一æ
 ·&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f2">[3]</a>。</p>
 
 <p>
    其意义远远超
出了只是为每个人省去一份Unix许可证费用。这意味着避å…
äº†å¤§é‡é‡å¤çš„系统编程工作造
成的浪费。这些努力就可以用于推进技术的进步。</p>
@@ -125,15 +140,16 @@
 
 <h3 id="rebutted-objections">一些容易驳斥的、反对GNU目æ 
‡çš„观点</h3>
 
-<p id="support">
-<strong>&ldquo;如果免费,就没有人会用了,因为用户没有可靠
的技术支持。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dl>
+<dt id="support">
+<strong>&ldquo;如果免费,就没有人会用了,因为用户没有可靠
的技术支持。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+
+<dt>
+<strong>&ldquo;你必
须对程序收钱才能提供技术支持。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
-<strong>&ldquo;你必
须对程序收钱才能提供技术支持。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
-<p>
-   如果人们宁愿å…
è´¹èŽ·å¾—没有服务的GNU,而不是付费给GNU获得服务,那么为å…
è´¹GNU提供技术服务的公司应该是有利可图的。<a
-href="#f3">(4)</a></p>
+   如果人们宁愿å…
è´¹èŽ·å¾—没有服务的GNU,而不是付费给GNU获得服务,那么为å…
è´¹GNU提供技术服务的公司应该是有利可图的&#8239;<a
+class="ftn" href="#f3">[4]</a>。</p>
 
 <p>
    我们必须区别对待真正的编程和仅仅
是手把手服务这两种形式的技术支持。前者是你
不能依赖一个软件供应商来解决的。如果你
的问题没有被足够多的人共同体会,那么供应商会告诉你
:快走开。</p>
@@ -146,38 +162,41 @@
 
 <p>
    这些服务可以由那些只销售手把手服务和修复服务的å…
¬å¸æä¾›ã€‚如果用户愿意花钱买带服务的产品,那么他们也应该会为å
…è´¹çš„产品购买服务。服务公司竞争的是质量和价æ 
¼ï¼›ç”¨æˆ·ä¸ä¼šç»‘定在某个服务商上。同时,像我们这æ 
·çš„不需要服务的人可以不用购买服务来使用程序。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="advertising">
-<strong>&ldquo;不打广告,不可能有很多人知道,所以你必
须对程序收费才能够支付广告费。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
-<p>
-<strong>&ldquo;对免费可得的程序打广告是做无
用功。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="advertising">
+<strong>&ldquo;不打广告,不可能有很多人知道,所以你必
须对程序收费才能够支付广告费。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dt>
+<strong>&ldquo;对免费可得的程序打广告是做无
用功。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    有很多免费或极其廉价的宣传
形式可以用来通知计算机用户å…
³äºŽGNU的消息。但是使用广告可能会通知到更多的计算机用户。如果真是这æ
 
·ï¼Œé‚£ä¹ˆé€šè¿‡å¹¿å‘Šæ”¶è´¹å¯„送GNU拷贝的业务应该可以赚回广告费及更多。这æ
 ·çš„话,只有从该广告获利的用户才付费。</p>
 
 <p>
-   
另一方面,如果许多人从朋友处获得GNU,而此类业务并不成功,那么说明é
 å¹¿å‘Šä¼ æ’­GNU并无实际必要。为什么自由市场的倡导者
不能让自由市场决定这件事呢?<a
-href="#f4">(5)</a></p>
-
-<p id="competitive">
-<strong>&ldquo;我å…
¬å¸éœ€è¦ä¸“有操作系统来在竞争中取胜。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+   
另一方面,如果许多人从朋友处获得GNU,而此类业务并不成功,那么说明é
 å¹¿å‘Šä¼ æ’­GNU并无实际必要。为什么自由市场的倡导者
不能让自由市场决定这件事呢??&#8239;<a
+class="ftn" href="#f4">[5]</a></p>
+</dd>
+
+<dt id="competitive">
+<strong>&ldquo;我å…
¬å¸éœ€è¦ä¸“有操作系统来在竞争中取胜。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    GNU将把操作系统软件从竞争的王国中移除。你
不能在此取胜,你的对手也不能。你们将在å…
¶ä»–方面竞争,但同时在操作系统领域获利。如果你
的业务是销售操作系统,那么你不会喜欢GNU,但这对你
来说是困难的事。如果你的业务是其他,GNU能够把你
从昂贵的操作系统售价中解救出来。</p>
 
 <p>
-   我很想看到许多制造商和用户会捐助GNU的开发,这æ 
·ä¼šé™ä½Žä»–们的花费。<a href="#f5">(6)</a></p>
-
-<p id="deserve">
-<strong>&ldquo;难道程序员不该因为他们的创造
力得到回报吗?&rdquo;</strong></p>
+   我很想看到许多制造商和用户会捐助GNU的开发,这æ 
·ä¼šé™ä½Žä»–们的花费&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f5">[6]</a>。</p>
+</dd>
 
+<dt id="deserve">
+<strong>&ldquo;难道程序员不该因为他们的创造
力得到回报吗?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    值得回报的东西应该是对社会的贡献。创造
力可以是一种社会贡献,但只有在社会能够自由使用å…
¶ç»“果时才是。如果程序员应该由于创新程序而得到回报,同理,他们也应该由于限制程序的使用而得到惩罚。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="reward">
-<strong>&ldquo;难道程序员不能为自己的创造
力要求回报吗?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="reward">
+<strong>&ldquo;难道程序员不能为自己的创造
力要求回报吗?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    工作获得报酬或追求更高的薪é…
¬å¹¶æ²¡æœ‰ä»€ä¹ˆä¸å¯¹ï¼Œåªè¦æˆ‘们不使用ç 
´åæ€§çš„手段。但是今天,软件领域的常规手段就是建立在ç 
´åä¹‹ä¸Šçš„。</p>
 
@@ -187,10 +206,11 @@
 <p>
    优秀公民不会使用这种破坏手段来致富的原因
是,如果每人都这样,我们都会被相互ç 
´åæžå¾—更穷困。这是康德伦理<sup><a
 href="#TransNote2">2</a></sup>;或者叫黄金定律。因
为我不喜欢这æ 
·çš„结果,所以如果每个人都囤积信息,我就有义务说这æ 
·åšæ˜¯ä¸å¯¹çš„。特别地,希望个人的创造
力有回报并不能证明剥夺其他人的这种创造力就是对的。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="starve">
-<strong>&ldquo;程序员不就饿死了吗?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="starve">
+<strong>&ldquo;程序员不就饿死了吗?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    我可能会回答没人被迫成为程序员。我们大多数人无法靠
沿街乞讨过活。但结果是,我们并没有被迫沿街乞讨并挨饿。我们会去做å
…¶ä»–事情。</p>
 
@@ -201,21 +221,22 @@
    程序员不被饿死的真正原因
是他们还有能从编程谋生的方法;只是不如现在赚得多罢了。</p>
 
 <p>
-   限制拷贝不是软件行业唯一的基础。它是最常见的基础<a
-href="#f8">(7)</a>因
为它收获了最多的金钱。如果它被禁止或被客户拒绝,软件行业会迁移到那些现在不常用的基础结构之上。总是有多种方式来组织经营活动的。</p>
+   
限制拷贝不是软件行业唯一的基础。它是最常见的基础&#8239;<a
 class="ftn"
+href="#f8">[7]</a>因
为它收获了最多的金钱。如果它被禁止或被客户拒绝,软件行业会迁移到那些现在不常用的基础结构之上。总是有多种方式来组织经营活动的。</p>
 
 <p>
    也许在新基础之上的编程工作不再象现在一æ 
·å¯ä»¥èµšå¤§é’±ã€‚可是那并不是反驳该变化的论据。现在销售人员按劳取é
…¬å¹¶æ— ä¸å¦¥ã€‚如果程序员这样,那么也是正当的。(实际
上,他们也许还能赚更多。)</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="right-to-control">
-<strong>&ldquo;难道人们没有权利控制自己的创造
力如何被使用?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="right-to-control">
+<strong>&ldquo;难道人们没有权利控制自己的创造
力如何被使用?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
 &ldquo;控制自己想法的应用&rdquo;真的构成对å…
¶ä»–人生活的控制;而且通常是使他人的生活更困难。</p>
 
 <p>
-   认真研究过知识产权问题<a
-href="#f6">(8)</a>的人(比如律师)会说知识产权并非天生的权利。政府确认的那些知识产权种类是有å
…·ä½“目的的特定法律活动的产物。</p>
+   认真研究过知识产权问题&#8239;<a class="ftn"
+href="#f6">[8]</a>的人(比如律师)会说知识产权并非天生的权利。政府确认的那些知识产权种类是有å
…·ä½“目的的特定法律活动的产物。</p>
 
 <p>
    比如,专利体系是为了鼓励发明家公开其发明详情
而建立的。å…
¶ç›®çš„是帮助社会而不是帮助发明家。那时,17年的专利期相比技术进步的速度是短暂的。由于专利只是制é€
 
商之间的问题,对他们来说,专利协议的花费比生产建设要小,所以专利通常没有太大的害处。专利没有限制使用它们的大多数用户。</p>
@@ -228,19 +249,21 @@
 
 <p>
    
今天的软件和一百年前的书籍有很大的不同。软件最容易的拷贝是人ä¼
 äººï¼Œè½¯ä»¶æœ‰æºä»£ç å’Œç›®æ ‡ä»£ç 
ä¸¤ç§ä¸åŒå½¢å¼ï¼Œè½¯ä»¶æ˜¯æ¥ä½¿ç”¨è€Œä¸æ˜¯é˜…
读和欣赏的,这些事实结合在一起就构成了一种情
形。在此情形下,加
强版权对整个社会在物质和精神上都是伤害;无论法律是否å…
è®¸ï¼Œæˆ‘们此时都不应该再维护版权。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="competition">
-<strong>&ldquo;竞争使东西变得更好。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="competition">
+<strong>&ldquo;竞争使东西变得更好。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    赛跑是竞争的典范:通过回报优胜者
,我们鼓励人们跑得更快。当资本主义真的这æ 
·è¿ä½œæ—¶ï¼Œå®ƒåšå¾—很好;但是其辩护者
做的这个假设并不总是对的。如果竞争者忘记了回报的原因
而只想着胜利,不计方法,那么他们就可能使用å…
¶ä»–çš„ç­–ç•¥&mdash;比如攻击别的竞争者。如果竞争者
在互相打架,大家就都跑不快。</p>
 
 <p>
    专有软件和保密软件在道德上等同于互相打架的竞争者
。令人沮丧的是,我们唯一的裁判看来并不反对打架;他只是规范打架è€
…(&ldquo;每跑10米,你
们可以打一下&rdquo;)。他真的应该把他们分开,并严惩试图打架的竞争è€
…。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="stop-programming">
-<strong>&ldquo;没有金钱刺激,人们不就不再编程了吗?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="stop-programming">
+<strong>&ldquo;没有金钱刺激,人们不就不再编程了吗?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    实际上,许多人在绝对没有金钱刺激的情
况下也会编程。编程对一些人有不可抗拒的魔力,这些人往往是最æ“
…
长编程的那些人。从来也不缺少坚持音乐的职业音乐家,即使他们毫æ—
 å¸Œæœ›é éŸ³ä¹è°‹ç”Ÿã€‚</p>
 
@@ -255,16 +278,18 @@
 
 <p>
    
这说明人们会为致富之外的理由编程;如果有同时也能赚到大钱的机会,他们也会选择它。薪水低的企业在和薪水高的企业竞争时表现不佳,但是如果薪水高的企业被禁止,低薪水的企业不应该再表现差劲吧。</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="desperate">
-<strong>&ldquo;我们迫切需要程序员。如果他们要求我们不要帮助友邻,我们不得不那æ
 ·åšã€‚&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="desperate">
+<strong>&ldquo;我们迫切需要程序员。如果他们要求我们不要帮助友邻,我们不得不那æ
 ·åšã€‚&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    你永远也不会绝望到去遵守这æ 
·çš„命令。请记住:宁为玉碎,不为瓦全!<sup><a 
href="#TransNote3">3</a></sup></p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="living">
-<strong>&ldquo;程序员也需要谋生啊。&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="living">
+<strong>&ldquo;程序员也需要谋生啊。&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    短期来看,是这æ 
·çš„。不过,程序员有很多不用出卖程序的使用权利就可以谋生的方法。出卖权利现在成了惯例,是å›
 ä¸ºå®ƒå¸¦ç»™ç¨‹åºå‘˜å’Œç”Ÿæ„äººæœ€å¤šçš„钱财,而不是因
为它是谋生的唯一手段。如果想要,我们能够轻易找到å…
¶ä»–的方法。这里举几个例子。</p>
 
@@ -275,7 +300,8 @@
    教育培训、手把手服务和维护服务也可能雇佣程序员。</p>
 
 <p>
-   有新想法的人可以发布免费软件<a 
href="#f7">(9)</a>,并向对此满意的用户寻求捐助,或者
是销售手把手服务。我就碰到一些成功这样做的人。</p>
+   有新想法的人可以发布免费软件&#8239;<a class="ftn"
+href="#f7">[9]</a>,并向对此满意的用户寻求捐助,或者
是销售手把手服务。我就碰到一些成功这样做的人。</p>
 
 <p>
    需求相å…
³çš„用户可以组建用户组,并支付会费。用户组就可以和程序å
…¬å¸ç­¾çº¦è®©å…¬å¸å®šåˆ¶ç»„内成员需要的程序。</p>
@@ -301,14 +327,18 @@
 <li>该社群决定应该支持到什么程度。</li>
 <li>用户可以根据自己的需要来选择要支持的项目。</li>
 </ul>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
+
 <p>
    
长远来看,让软件自由是通往富足世界的一小步;在富足世界里,人们不å¿
…
辛苦工作来谋生。人们在每周10小时的法律活动、家庭咨询、机器人维修和流星观察等规定任务之外,能够自由投å
…¥åˆ°è±¡ç¼–程这样的有趣活动中。那时,就没有必
要再以编程为谋生手段了。</p>
 
 <p>
    
我们已经把整个社会要维持生产力的工作大大减少了,但是只有很少一部分转化为劳动è€
…的闲暇,因为生产活动需要夹杂很多的非生产活动。å…
¶ä¸»è¦åŽŸå› 
是官僚主义和对竞争的抗拒。自由软件会大大减少在软件生产领域的生产力流失。我们å¿
…
须做这件事,为了使技术进步带来的生产力提高能够转化为人们工作的减少。</p>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
 
-
-<h3 id="footnotes">脚注</h3>
+<h3 id="footnotes" class="footnote">脚注</h3>
 
 <!-- The anchors do not match the actual footnote numbers because of
      revisions over time.  And if a new footnote is added, the references
@@ -319,12 +349,12 @@
 <li id="f2a">&ldquo;èµ 
送&rdquo;是另一个不妥的表达,它再次说明我那时还没有清
楚地分开价æ 
¼å’Œè‡ªç”±çš„问题。我们现在建议在谈论自由软件时避å…
è¿™ä¸€è¡¨è¾¾ã€‚请参看&ldquo;<a
 href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#GiveAwaySoftware">不清
楚的词汇和短语</a>&rdquo;了解更多解释。</li>
 
-<li 
id="f2">这是又一个我没有认真区别&ldquo;free&rdquo;一词的两种意思的地方。该陈述并没有错&mdash;ä½
 æ˜¯å¯ä»¥å…
è´¹èŽ·å¾—GNU软件,从朋友那里或从网上下载。但是它在提倡错误的理念。</li>
+<li 
id="f2">这是又一个我没有认真区别&ldquo;free&rdquo;一词的两种意思的地方。该陈述并没有错&mdash;&mdash;ä½
 æ˜¯å¯ä»¥å…
è´¹èŽ·å¾—GNU软件,从朋友那里或从网上下载。但是它在提倡错误的理念。</li>
 
 <li id="f3">现在就有几个这样的公司。</li>
 
 <li id="f4">虽然它不是公司而只是æ…
ˆå–„机构,自由软件基金会有10年是靠发行服务来获得å…
¶å¤§éƒ¨åˆ†èµ„金的。你可以通过<a
-href="/order/order.html">在FSF购物</a>来支持它的工作。
+href="https://shop.fsf.org/";>在FSF购物</a>来支持它的工作。
 </li>
 
 <li id="f5">一组公司在1991年左右集资来支持GNU 
C编译器的维护。</li>
@@ -338,6 +368,7 @@
 href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Freeware">不清
楚的词汇和短语</a>&rdquo;了解更多解释。</li>
 
 </ol>
+</div>
 
 <div class="translators-notes">
 
@@ -355,7 +386,7 @@
 
 <!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/footer.zh-cn.html" -->
-<div id="footer">
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
 <div class="unprintable">
 
 <p>请将有å…
³è‡ªç”±è½¯ä»¶åŸºé‡‘会(FSF)&amp;GNU的一般性问题发送到<a
@@ -374,11 +405,13 @@
 
         &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
 
-        <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        <p>For information on coordinating and contributing translations of
         our web pages, see <a
         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
         README</a>. -->
-若您想翻译本文,请参看<a 
href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">翻译须知</a>。</p>
+我们尽最大努力来提供精准和高质量的翻译,但难å…
ä¼šå­˜åœ¨é”™è¯¯å’Œä¸è¶³ã€‚如果您在这方面有评论或一般性的建议,请发送至
 <a
+href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>&lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>。</p><p>å
…³äºŽè¿›è¡Œåè°ƒä¸Žæäº¤ç¿»è¯‘的更多信息参见
+<a href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">《译者
指南》</a>。</p>
 </div>
 
 <!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
@@ -397,8 +430,8 @@
      
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
-<p>Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2014, 2015
-Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2015, 2021 Free
+Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
 
 <p>
 
任何人有权,通过任何媒体,发布本文的逐字拷贝版,前提是保留版权声明和许可声明,并且发布è€
…授权其接收者按照本许可进一步发布本文的许可。
@@ -413,16 +446,17 @@
 <b>审校</b>:<a href="mailto:PsiACE@Outlook.com";>&lt;尚卓燃&gt;</a>、<a
 href="mailto:hagb_green@qq.com";>&lt;郭俊余&gt;</a>,2018。<br></br>
 <b>翻译团队</b>:<a rel="team"
-href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn/";>&lt;CTT&gt;</a>,2018,2019。</div>
+href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn/";>&lt;CTT&gt;</a>,2018,2019,2021。</div>
 
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 最后更新:
 
-$Date: 2019/02/16 12:59:25 $
+$Date: 2021/11/04 02:31:24 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>
 </div>
+<!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include -->
 </body>
 </html>

Index: po/manifesto.zh-cn-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/manifesto.zh-cn-en.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- po/manifesto.zh-cn-en.html  15 Mar 2018 13:29:21 -0000      1.1
+++ po/manifesto.zh-cn-en.html  4 Nov 2021 02:31:26 -0000       1.2
@@ -1,13 +1,25 @@
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
-<!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="TAGS" value="gnu-history" -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
 <title>The GNU Manifesto
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
+<style type="text/css" media="print,screen"><!--
+a.ftn { font-size: .94em; }
+--></style>
 <!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/manifesto.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/gnu/gnu-breadcrumb.html" -->
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.html" -->
+<div class="article reduced-width">
 <h2>The GNU Manifesto</h2>
+<div class="thin"></div>
 
+<div class="introduction">
 <p> The GNU Manifesto (which appears below) was written
-by <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a> in 1985 to
+by <a href="https://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a> in 1985 to
 ask for support in developing the GNU operating system.  Part of the
 text was taken from the original announcement of 1983.  Through 1987,
 it was updated in minor ways to account for developments; since then,
@@ -20,7 +32,7 @@
 <p>If you want to install the GNU/Linux system, we recommend you use
 one of the <a href="/distros">100% free software GNU/Linux
 distributions</a>.  For how to contribute,
-see <a href="/help/help.html">http://www.gnu.org/help</a>.</p>
+see <a href="/help/help.html">gnu.org/help</a>.</p>
 
 <p>The GNU Project is part of the Free Software Movement, a campaign
 for <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">freedom for users of
@@ -29,13 +41,15 @@
 who disagree with the Free Software Movement's ethical values.  They
 use it to promote an
 <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">amoral approach</a> to 
the same field.</p>
+<hr class="no-display" />
+</div>
 
 <h3 id="whats-gnu">What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!</h3>
 
 <p>
    GNU, which stands for Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete
 Unix-compatible software system which I am writing so that I can give
-it away free to everyone who can use it.<a href="#f1">(1)</a> Several
+it away free to everyone who can use it&#8239;<a class="ftn" 
href="#f1">[1]</a>. Several
 other volunteers are helping me.  Contributions of time, money,
 programs and equipment are greatly needed.</p>
 
@@ -94,7 +108,7 @@
 decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I
 will be able to get along without any software that is not free.  I
 have resigned from the AI Lab to deny MIT any legal excuse to prevent
-me from giving GNU away.<a href="#f2a">(2)</a></p>
+me from giving GNU away&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f2a">[2]</a>.</p>
 
 <h3 id="compatible">Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix</h3>
 
@@ -143,7 +157,7 @@
 
 <h3 id="contribute">How You Can Contribute</h3>
 
-<blockquote>
+<div class="comment">
 <p>
 (Nowadays, for software tasks to work on, see the <a
 href="http://fsf.org/campaigns/priority-projects";>High Priority Projects
@@ -152,7 +166,7 @@
 ways to help, see <a href="/help/help.html">the guide to helping
 the GNU operating system</a>.)
 </p>
-</blockquote>
+</div>
 
 <p>
    I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and
@@ -191,7 +205,7 @@
 
 <p>
    Once GNU is written, everyone will be able to obtain good system
-software free, just like air.<a href="#f2">(3)</a></p>
+software free, just like air&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f2">[3]</a>.</p>
 
 <p>
    This means much more than just saving everyone the price of a Unix
@@ -237,18 +251,19 @@
 
 <h3 id="rebutted-objections">Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's 
Goals</h3>
 
-<p id="support">
+<dl>
+<dt id="support">
 <strong>&ldquo;Nobody will use it if it is free, because that means
-they can't rely on any support.&rdquo;</strong></p>
+they can't rely on any support.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
 
-<p>
+<dt>
 <strong>&ldquo;You have to charge for the program to pay for providing
-the support.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+the support.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    If people would rather pay for GNU plus service than get GNU free
 without service, a company to provide just service to people who have
-obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.<a href="#f3">(4)</a></p>
+obtained GNU free ought to be profitable&#8239;<a class="ftn" 
href="#f3">[4]</a>.</p>
 
 <p>
    We must distinguish between support in the form of real programming
@@ -279,15 +294,15 @@
 will compete in quality and price; users will not be tied to any
 particular one.  Meanwhile, those of us who don't need the service
 should be able to use the program without paying for the service.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="advertising">
+<dt id="advertising">
 <strong>&ldquo;You cannot reach many people without advertising, and
-you must charge for the program to support that.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
-<p>
+you must charge for the program to support that.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dt>
 <strong>&ldquo;It's no use advertising a program people can get
-free.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+free.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    There are various forms of free or very cheap publicity that can be
 used to inform numbers of computer users about something like GNU.  But
@@ -301,12 +316,13 @@
    On the other hand, if many people get GNU from their friends, and
 such companies don't succeed, this will show that advertising was not
 really necessary to spread GNU.  Why is it that free market advocates
-don't want to let the free market decide this?<a href="#f4">(5)</a></p>
+don't want to let the free market decide this?&#8239;<a class="ftn" 
href="#f4">[5]</a></p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="competitive">
+<dt id="competitive">
 <strong>&ldquo;My company needs a proprietary operating system to get
-a competitive edge.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+a competitive edge.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    GNU will remove operating system software from the realm of
 competition.  You will not be able to get an edge in this area, but
@@ -319,23 +335,25 @@
 
 <p>
    I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many
-manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.<a href="#f5">(6)</a></p>
+manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each&#8239;<a class="ftn" 
href="#f5">[6]</a>.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="deserve">
+<dt id="deserve">
 <strong>&ldquo;Don't programmers deserve a reward for their
-creativity?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+creativity?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    If anything deserves a reward, it is social contribution.
 Creativity can be a social contribution, but only in so far as society
 is free to use the results.  If programmers deserve to be rewarded for
 creating innovative programs, by the same token they deserve to be
 punished if they restrict the use of these programs.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="reward">
+<dt id="reward">
 <strong>&ldquo;Shouldn't a programmer be able to ask for a reward for
-his creativity?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+his creativity?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    There is nothing wrong with wanting pay for work, or seeking to
 maximize one's income, as long as one does not use means that are
@@ -358,10 +376,11 @@
 to do so.  Specifically, the desire to be rewarded for one's creativity
 does not justify depriving the world in general of all or part of that
 creativity.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="starve">
-<strong>&ldquo;Won't programmers starve?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="starve">
+<strong>&ldquo;Won't programmers starve?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    I could answer that nobody is forced to be a programmer.  Most of us
 cannot manage to get any money for standing on the street and making
@@ -381,7 +400,7 @@
 
 <p>
    Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software.
-It is the most common basis<a href="#f8">(7)</a> because it brings in
+It is the most common basis&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f8">[7]</a> because it 
brings in
 the most money.  If it
 were prohibited, or rejected by the customer, software business would
 move to other bases of organization which are now used less often.
@@ -394,11 +413,12 @@
 now do.  If programmers made the same, that would not be an injustice
 either.  (In practice they would still make considerably more than
 that.)</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="right-to-control">
+<dt id="right-to-control">
 <strong>&ldquo;Don't people have a right to control how their
-creativity is used?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+creativity is used?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
 &ldquo;Control over the use of one's ideas&rdquo; really constitutes
 control over other people's lives; and it is usually used to make
@@ -406,7 +426,7 @@
 
 <p>
    People who have studied the issue of intellectual property
-rights<a href="#f6">(8)</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say that there
+rights&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f6">[8]</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say 
that there
 is no intrinsic right to intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed
 intellectual property rights that the government recognizes were
 created by specific acts of legislation for specific purposes.</p>
@@ -448,11 +468,12 @@
 which a person who enforces a copyright is harming society as a whole
 both materially and spiritually; in which a person should not do so
 regardless of whether the law enables him to.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="competition">
+<dt id="competition">
 <strong>&ldquo;Competition makes things get done
-better.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+better.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    The paradigm of competition is a race: by rewarding the winner, we
 encourage everyone to run faster.  When capitalism really works this
@@ -468,11 +489,12 @@
 to object to fights; he just regulates them (&ldquo;For every ten
 yards you run, you can fire one shot&rdquo;).  He really ought to
 break them up, and penalize runners for even trying to fight.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="stop-programming">
+<dt id="stop-programming">
 <strong>&ldquo;Won't everyone stop programming without a monetary
-incentive?&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+incentive?&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    Actually, many people will program with absolutely no monetary
 incentive.  Programming has an irresistible fascination for some
@@ -503,18 +525,20 @@
 will come to expect and demand it.  Low-paying organizations do poorly
 in competition with high-paying ones, but they do not have to do badly
 if the high-paying ones are banned.</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="desperate">
+<dt id="desperate">
 <strong>&ldquo;We need the programmers desperately.  If they demand
-that we stop helping our neighbors, we have to obey.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+that we stop helping our neighbors, we have to obey.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    You're never so desperate that you have to obey this sort of demand.
 Remember: millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!</p>
+</dd>
 
-<p id="living">
-<strong>&ldquo;Programmers need to make a living somehow.&rdquo;</strong></p>
-
+<dt id="living">
+<strong>&ldquo;Programmers need to make a living somehow.&rdquo;</strong></dt>
+<dd>
 <p>
    In the short run, this is true.  However, there are plenty of ways
 that programmers could make a living without selling the right to use a
@@ -533,7 +557,7 @@
 
 <p>
    People with new ideas could distribute programs as
-freeware<a href="#f7">(9)</a>, asking for donations from satisfied
+freeware&#8239;<a class="ftn" href="#f7">[9]</a>, asking for donations from 
satisfied
 users, or selling handholding services.  I have met people who are
 already working this way successfully.</p>
 
@@ -570,6 +594,10 @@
 <li>Users who care which projects their share is spent on can
           choose this for themselves.</li>
 </ul>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
+
 <p>
    In the long run, making programs free is a step toward the
 postscarcity world, where nobody will have to work very hard just to
@@ -588,9 +616,9 @@
 competition.  Free software will greatly reduce these drains in the
 area of software production.  We must do this, in order for technical
 gains in productivity to translate into less work for us.</p>
+<div class="column-limit"></div>
 
-
-<h3 id="footnotes">Footnotes</h3>
+<h3 id="footnotes" class="footnote">Footnotes</h3>
 
 <!-- The anchors do not match the actual footnote numbers because of
      revisions over time.  And if a new footnote is added, the references
@@ -619,7 +647,7 @@
 Words and Phrases</a>&rdquo; for more explanation.</li>
 
 <li id="f2">This is another place I failed to distinguish
-carefully between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free&rdquo;.
+carefully between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free.&rdquo;
 The statement as it stands is not false&mdash;you can get copies of GNU
 software at no charge, from your friends or over the net.  But it does
 suggest the wrong idea.</li>
@@ -629,7 +657,7 @@
 <li id="f4">Although it is a
 charity rather than a company, the Free Software Foundation for 10 years raised
 most of its funds from its distribution service.  You
-can <a href="/order/order.html">order things from the FSF</a>
+can <a href="https://shop.fsf.org/";>order things from the FSF</a>
 to support its work.
 </li>
 
@@ -648,7 +676,7 @@
 
 <li id="f6">In the 1980s I had not yet realized how confusing
 it was to speak of &ldquo;the issue&rdquo; of &ldquo;intellectual
-property&rdquo;.  That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the
+property.&rdquo;  That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the
 fact that it lumps together various disparate laws which raise very
 different issues.  Nowadays I urge people to reject the term
 &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; entirely, lest it lead others to
@@ -658,7 +686,7 @@
 this term spreads confusion and bias.</li>
 
 <li id="f7">Subsequently we learned to distinguish
-between &ldquo;free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;freeware&rdquo;.  The
+between &ldquo;free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;freeware.&rdquo;  The
 term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; means software you are free to
 redistribute, but usually you are not free to study and change the
 source code, so most of it is not free software.  See
@@ -666,10 +694,11 @@
 Words and Phrases</a>&rdquo; for more explanation.</li>
 
 </ol>
+</div>
 
 </div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
-<div id="footer">
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
 <div class="unprintable">
 
 <p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
@@ -687,13 +716,13 @@
         to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>
         &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
 
-        <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        <p>For information on coordinating and contributing translations of
         our web pages, see <a
         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
         README</a>. -->
 Please see the <a
 href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
-README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and contributing translations
 of this article.</p>
 </div>
 
@@ -714,7 +743,7 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
 
-<p>Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2014, 2015
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1985, 1993, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2015, 2021
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
 
 <p>
@@ -731,10 +760,10 @@
 
 <p class="unprintable">Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2018/03/15 13:29:21 $
+$Date: 2021/11/04 02:31:26 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>
-</div>
+</div><!-- for class="inner", starts in the banner include -->
 </body>
 </html>

Index: po/manifesto.zh-cn.po
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/manifesto.zh-cn.po,v
retrieving revision 1.11
retrieving revision 1.12
diff -u -b -r1.11 -r1.12
--- po/manifesto.zh-cn.po       4 Nov 2021 02:04:27 -0000       1.11
+++ po/manifesto.zh-cn.po       4 Nov 2021 02:31:26 -0000       1.12
@@ -14,7 +14,6 @@
 "MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
 "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
 "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
-"X-Outdated-Since: 2021-11-02 14:27+0000\n"
 
 #. type: Content of: <title>
 msgid "The GNU Manifesto - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"



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