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www/philosophy free-sw.html


From: Therese Godefroy
Subject: www/philosophy free-sw.html
Date: Fri, 16 Jul 2021 05:33:53 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /webcvs/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Therese Godefroy <th_g> 21/07/16 05:33:53

Modified files:
        philosophy     : free-sw.html 

Log message:
        Reorganize some paragraphs, add breadcrumb, update to boilerplate 1.96
        + some restyling (see www-discuss 2021-07-10: "Proposed adjustments to
        free-sw.html", approved by RMS).

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.173&r2=1.174

Patches:
Index: free-sw.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /webcvs/www/www/philosophy/free-sw.html,v
retrieving revision 1.173
retrieving revision 1.174
diff -u -b -r1.173 -r1.174
--- free-sw.html        3 Feb 2021 12:31:45 -0000       1.173
+++ free-sw.html        16 Jul 2021 09:33:53 -0000      1.174
@@ -1,6 +1,9 @@
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
-<!-- Parent-Version: 1.86 -->
-<title>What is free software?
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.96 -->
+<!-- This page is derived from /server/standards/boilerplate.html -->
+<!--#set var="TAGS" value="aboutfs" -->
+<!--#set var="DISABLE_TOP_ADDENDUM" value="yes" -->
+<title>What is Free Software?
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
 <style type="text/css" media="print,screen"><!--
 .note { margin-left: 6%; margin-right: 6%; }
@@ -10,42 +13,17 @@
 --></style>
 <meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, Emacs, GCC, Unix, Free Software, Operating System, GNU Kernel, HURD, GNU 
HURD, Hurd" />
 <meta http-equiv="Description" content="Since 1983, developing the free Unix 
style operating system GNU, so that computer users can have the freedom to 
share and improve the software they use." />
-
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/free-sw.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
-
-<h2>What is free software?</h2>
+<!--#include virtual="/philosophy/ph-breadcrumb.html" -->
+<!--GNUN: OUT-OF-DATE NOTICE-->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/top-addendum.html" -->
+<div class="reduced-width">
+<h2>What is Free Software?</h2>
+<div class="thin"></div>
 
 <div class="article">
-<h3>The Free Software Definition</h3>
-
-<blockquote class="note" id="fsf-licensing"><p style="font-size: 80%">
-Have a question about free software licensing not answered here?
-See our other <a href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing";>licensing resources</a>,
-and if necessary contact the FSF Compliance Lab
-at <a href="mailto:licensing@fsf.org";>licensing@fsf.org</a>.</p>
-</blockquote>
-
-<div class="comment">
-<p>
-The free software definition presents the criteria for whether a
-particular software program qualifies as free software.  From time to
-time we revise this definition, to clarify it or to resolve questions
-about subtle issues.  See the <a href="#History">History section</a>
-below for a list of changes that affect the definition of free
-software.
-</p>
-
-<p>
-&ldquo;Open source&rdquo; is something different: it has a very
-different philosophy based on different values.  Its practical
-definition is different too, but nearly all open source programs are
-in fact free.  We explain the
-difference in <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">
-Why &ldquo;Open Source&rdquo; misses the point of Free Software</a>.
-</p>
-</div>
-
+<div class="important">
 <p>
 &ldquo;Free software&rdquo; means software that respects users'
 freedom and community.  Roughly, it means that <b>the users have the
@@ -60,6 +38,14 @@
 </p>
 
 <p>
+You may have paid money to get copies of a free program, or you may
+have obtained copies at no charge.  But regardless of how you got your
+copies, you always have the freedom to copy and change the software,
+even to <a href="/philosophy/selling.html">sell copies</a>.
+</p>
+</div>
+
+<p>
 We campaign for these freedoms because everyone deserves them.  With
 these freedoms, the users (both individually and collectively) control
 the program and what it does for them.  When users don't control the
@@ -70,8 +56,76 @@
 an instrument of unjust power</a>.
 </p>
 
-<h4> The four essential freedoms</h4>
+<p>
+&ldquo;Open source&rdquo; is something different: it has a very
+different philosophy based on different values.  Its practical
+definition is different too, but nearly all open source programs are
+in fact free.  We explain the
+difference in <a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">
+Why &ldquo;Open Source&rdquo; misses the point of Free Software</a>.
+</p>
+
+<div class="toc">
+<hr class="no-display" />
+<h3 class="no-display">Table of contents</h3>
+<ul>
+ <li><a href="#fs-definition">The Free Software Definition</a>
+  <ul>
+   <li><a href="#four-freedoms">The four essential freedoms</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#selling">Free software <em>can</em> be commercial</a></li>
+  </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#clarifying">Clarifying the Boundary Between Free and Nonfree</a>
+  <ul>
+   <li><a href="#run-the-program">The freedom to run the program as you
+     wish</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#make-changes">The freedom to study the source code and make
+     changes</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#redistribute">The freedom to redistribute if you wish:
+     basic requirements</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#copyleft">Copyleft</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#packaging">Rules about packaging and distribution
+     details</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#exportcontrol">Export regulations</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#legal-details">Legal considerations</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#contracts">Contract-based licenses</a></li>
+  </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#in-practice">The Free Software Definition in Practice</a>
+  <ul>
+   <li><a href="#interpretation">How we interpret these criteria</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#get-help">Get help with free licenses</a></li>
+   <li><a href="#terminology">Use the right words when talking about free
+     software</a></li>
+  </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#beyond-software">Beyond Software</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#History">History</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+<div class="edu-note" id="fsf-licensing">
+<p style="font-size:80%">
+Have a question about free software licensing not answered here?
+See our other <a href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing";>licensing resources</a>,
+and if necessary contact the FSF Compliance Lab
+at <a href="mailto:licensing@fsf.org";>licensing@fsf.org</a>.</p>
+<hr class="no-display" />
+</div>
+
 
+<h3 id="fs-definition" class="subheader">The Free Software Definition</h3>
+
+<p>
+The free software definition presents the criteria for whether a
+particular software program qualifies as free software.  From time to
+time we revise this definition, to clarify it or to resolve questions
+about subtle issues.  See the <a href="#History">History section</a>
+below for a list of changes that affect the definition of free
+software.
+</p>
+
+<h4 id="four-freedoms">The four essential freedoms</h4>
 <p>
 A program is free software if the program's users have the
 four essential freedoms: <a href="#f1">[1]</a>
@@ -108,6 +162,9 @@
 are free.  However, if we plan to modify A so that it doesn't use B,
 only A needs to be free; B is not pertinent to that plan.</p>
 
+
+<h4 id="selling">Free software <em>can</em> be commercial</h4>
+
 <p>
 &ldquo;Free software&rdquo; does not mean &ldquo;noncommercial&rdquo;.
 On the contrary, a free program must be available for commercial use,
@@ -145,20 +202,14 @@
 renders the program nonfree.
 </p>
 
-<p>
-You may have paid money to get copies of a free program, or you may
-have obtained copies at no charge.  But regardless of how you got your
-copies, you always have the freedom to copy and change the software,
-even to <a href="/philosophy/selling.html">sell copies</a>.
-</p>
 
-<h3>Clarifying the boundary between free and nonfree</h3>
+<h3 id="clarifying" class="subheader">Clarifying the Boundary Between Free and 
Nonfree</h3>
 
 <p>In the rest of this article we explain more precisely how far the
 various freedoms need to extend, on various issues, in order for a
 program to be free.</p>
 
-<h4>The freedom to run the program as you wish</h4>
+<h4 id="run-the-program">The freedom to run the program as you wish</h4>
 
 <p>
 The freedom to run the program means the freedom for any kind of person
@@ -191,7 +242,7 @@
 all&rdquo; if that is what you wish.  So there is no need for a
 separate &ldquo;freedom not to run a program.&rdquo;</p>
 
-<h4>The freedom to study the source code and make changes</h4>
+<h4 id="make-changes">The freedom to study the source code and make 
changes</h4>
 
 <p>
 In order for freedoms 1 and 3 (the freedom to make changes and the
@@ -233,7 +284,8 @@
 Thus, freedom 1 includes the &ldquo;freedom to delete the program.&rdquo;
 </p>
 
-<h4>The freedom to redistribute if you wish: basic requirements</h4>
+<h4 id="redistribute">The freedom to redistribute if you wish: basic
+requirements</h4>
 
 <p>Freedom to distribute (freedoms 2 and 3) means you are free to
 redistribute copies, either with or without modifications, either
@@ -254,7 +306,7 @@
 Freedom 3 includes the freedom to release your modified versions
 as free software.  A free license may also permit other ways of
 releasing them; in other words, it does not have to be
-a <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> license.  However, a
+a <a href="/licenses/copyleft.html">copyleft</a> license.  However, a
 license that requires modified versions to be nonfree does not qualify
 as a free license.
 </p>
@@ -270,12 +322,12 @@
 make them.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Copyleft</h4>
+<h4 id="copyleft">Copyleft</h4>
 
 <p>
 Certain kinds of rules about the manner of distributing free
 software are acceptable, when they don't conflict with the central
-freedoms.  For example, <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">copyleft</a>
+freedoms.  For example, <a href="/licenses/copyleft.html">copyleft</a>
 (very simply stated) is the rule that when redistributing the program,
 you cannot add restrictions to deny other people the central freedoms.
 This rule does not conflict with the central freedoms; rather it
@@ -295,7 +347,7 @@
 relate to each other.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Rules about packaging and distribution details</h4>
+<h4 id="packaging">Rules about packaging and distribution details</h4>
 
 <p>
 Rules about how to package a modified version are acceptable,
@@ -330,10 +382,10 @@
 facility that allows you to specify the original program's name as an
 alias for the modified version.</p>
 
-<h4>Export regulations</h4>
+<h4 id="exportcontrol">Export regulations</h4>
 
 <p>
-Sometimes government <a id="exportcontrol">export control regulations</a>
+Sometimes government export control regulations
 and trade sanctions can constrain your freedom to distribute copies of
 programs internationally.  Software developers do not have the power to
 eliminate or override these restrictions, but what they can and must do
@@ -354,7 +406,7 @@
 software nonfree.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Legal considerations</h4>
+<h4 id="legal-details">Legal considerations</h4>
 
 <p>
 In order for these freedoms to be real, they must be permanent and
@@ -378,7 +430,7 @@
 law applies, or where litigation must be done, or both.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Contract-based licenses</h4>
+<h4 id="contracts">Contract-based licenses</h4>
 
 <p>
 Most free software licenses are based on copyright, and there are limits
@@ -399,23 +451,12 @@
 it is nonfree.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Use the right words when talking about free software</h4>
-
-<p>
-When talking about free software, it is best to avoid using terms
-like &ldquo;give away&rdquo; or &ldquo;for free,&rdquo; because those terms 
imply that
-the issue is about price, not freedom.  Some common terms such
-as &ldquo;piracy&rdquo; embody opinions we hope you won't endorse.  See 
-<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">Confusing Words and Phrases that
-are Worth Avoiding</a> for a discussion of these terms.  We also have
-a list of proper <a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html">translations of
-&ldquo;free software&rdquo;</a> into various languages.
-</p>
+<h3 id="in-practice" class="subheader">The Free Software Definition in 
Practice</h3>
 
-<h4>How we interpret these criteria</h4>
+<h4 id="interpretation">How we interpret these criteria</h4>
 
 <p>
-Finally, note that criteria such as those stated in this free software
+Note that criteria such as those stated in this free software
 definition require careful thought for their interpretation.  To decide
 whether a specific software license qualifies as a free software license,
 we judge it based on these criteria to determine whether it fits their
@@ -428,7 +469,7 @@
 it easier to see why certain licenses do or don't qualify.
 </p>
 
-<h4>Get help with free licenses</h4>
+<h4 id="get-help">Get help with free licenses</h4>
 
 <p>
 If you are interested in whether a specific license qualifies as a free
@@ -452,7 +493,28 @@
 and avoid various practical problems.
 </p>
 
-<h3 id="beyond-software">Beyond Software</h3>
+<h4 id="terminology">Use the right words when talking about free software</h4>
+
+<p>
+When talking about free software, it is best to avoid using terms
+like &ldquo;give away&rdquo; or &ldquo;for free,&rdquo; because those terms 
imply that
+the issue is about price, not freedom.  Some common terms such
+as &ldquo;piracy&rdquo; embody opinions we hope you won't endorse.  See 
+<a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">Confusing Words and Phrases that
+are Worth Avoiding</a> for a discussion of these terms.  We also have
+a list of proper <a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html">translations of
+&ldquo;free software&rdquo;</a> into various languages.
+</p>
+
+<p id="open-source">
+Another group uses the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; to mean
+something close (but not identical) to &ldquo;free software&rdquo;.  We
+prefer the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; because, once you have heard that
+it refers to freedom rather than price, it calls to mind freedom.  The
+word &ldquo;open&rdquo; never refers to freedom.
+</p>
+
+<h3 id="beyond-software" class="subheader">Beyond Software</h3>
 
 <p>
 <a href="/philosophy/free-doc.html">Software manuals must be free</a>,
@@ -464,7 +526,7 @@
 The same arguments also make sense for other kinds of works of
 practical use &mdash; that is to say, works that embody useful knowledge,
 such as educational works and reference
-works.  <a href="http://wikipedia.org";>Wikipedia</a> is the best-known
+works.  <a href="https://wikipedia.org";>Wikipedia</a> is the best-known
 example.
 </p>
 
@@ -473,17 +535,7 @@
 has been extended to a definition of <a href="http://freedomdefined.org/";>
 free cultural works</a> applicable to any kind of works.
 </p>
-
-<h3 id="open-source">Open Source?</h3>
-
-<p>
-Another group uses the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; to mean
-something close (but not identical) to &ldquo;free software&rdquo;.  We
-prefer the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; because, once you have heard that
-it refers to freedom rather than price, it calls to mind freedom.  The
-word &ldquo;open&rdquo; <a 
href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">
-never refers to freedom</a>.
-</p>
+<hr class="column-limit" />
 </div>
 
 <h3 id="History">History</h3>
@@ -625,8 +677,9 @@
 You can review the complete list of changes to the page through
 the <a 
href="http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewvc/www/philosophy/free-sw.html?root=www&amp;view=log";>cvsweb
 interface</a>.</p>
+<hr class="column-limit" />
 
-<h3 style="font-size:1em">Footnote</h3>
+<h3 class="footnote">Footnote</h3>
 <ol>
 <li id="f1">The reason they are numbered 0, 1, 2 and 3 is historical. Around
 1990 there were three freedoms, numbered 1, 2 and 3. Then we realized that
@@ -634,10 +687,11 @@
 It was clearly more basic than the other three, so it properly should
 precede them. Rather than renumber the others, we made it freedom&nbsp;0.</li>
 </ol>
+</div>
 
 </div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
-<div id="footer">
+<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
 <div class="unprintable">
 
 <p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
@@ -655,13 +709,13 @@
         to <a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org";>
         &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;</a>.</p>
 
-        <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        <p>For information on coordinating and contributing translations of
         our web pages, see <a
         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
         README</a>. -->
 Please see the <a
 href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
-README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and contributing translations
 of this article.</p>
 </div>
 
@@ -682,7 +736,7 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
 
-<p>Copyright &copy; 1996, 2002, 2004-2007, 2009-2019, 2021
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1996, 2002, 2004-2007, 2009-2021
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
 
 <p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
@@ -693,7 +747,7 @@
 
 <p class="unprintable">Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2021/02/03 12:31:45 $
+$Date: 2021/07/16 09:33:53 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>



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