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www/philosophy/po words-to-avoid.pl.po


From: Therese Godefroy
Subject: www/philosophy/po words-to-avoid.pl.po
Date: Wed, 10 Jul 2019 14:21:48 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /webcvs/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Therese Godefroy <th_g> 19/07/10 14:21:48

Added files:
        philosophy/po  : words-to-avoid.pl.po 

Log message:
        GNUNify.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.pl.po?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: words-to-avoid.pl.po
===================================================================
RCS file: words-to-avoid.pl.po
diff -N words-to-avoid.pl.po
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ words-to-avoid.pl.po        10 Jul 2019 18:21:47 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,2503 @@
+# Polish translation of https://philosophy/words-to-avoid.html
+# Copyright (C) 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original page.
+# < 2001 ?
+# Wojciech Kotwica, 2001, 2002.
+# July 2019: GNUNify.
+#
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: words-to-avoid.html\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2018-09-16 15:55+0000\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: \n"
+"Last-Translator: Wojciech Kotwica <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language-Team: Polish <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language: pl\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+"Outdated-Since: 2002-04-22 08:04\n"
+
+#. type: Content of: <title>
+# | [-Confusing-]Words [-and Phrases that are Worth Avoiding-] {+to Avoid (or
+# | Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing+} - GNU Project - Free
+# | Software Foundation
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Confusing Words and Phrases that are Worth Avoiding - GNU Project - Free "
+#| "Software Foundation"
+msgid ""
+"Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing - GNU "
+"Project - Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr ""
+"Mylące słowa i&nbsp;sformułowania, których lepiej unikać - Projekt GNU - 
"
+"Fundacja Wolnego Oprogramowania"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h2>
+# | [-Some Confusing or Loaded-]Words [-and Phrases that are Worth Avoiding-]
+# | {+to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid "Some Confusing or Loaded Words and Phrases that are Worth Avoiding"
+msgid "Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or Confusing"
+msgstr ""
+"Mylące lub&nbsp;nacechowane słowa i&nbsp;sformułowania, których lepiej 
unikać"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | There are a number of words and phrases [-which-] {+that+} we recommend
+# | avoiding, [-either because they-] {+or avoiding in certain contexts and
+# | usages.  Some+} are ambiguous or [-because they imply an opinion-]
+# | {+misleading; others presuppose a viewpoint+} that we {+disagree with, and
+# | we+} hope you [-may not entirely agree with.-] {+disagree with it too.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "There are a number of words and phrases which we recommend avoiding, "
+#| "either because they are ambiguous or because they imply an opinion that "
+#| "we hope you may not entirely agree with."
+msgid ""
+"There are a number of words and phrases that we recommend avoiding, or "
+"avoiding in certain contexts and usages.  Some are ambiguous or misleading; "
+"others presuppose a viewpoint that we disagree with, and we hope you "
+"disagree with it too."
+msgstr ""
+"Jest kilka wyrazów i&nbsp;sformułowań, których radzimy unikać, albo 
dlatego "
+"że&nbsp;są niejednoznaczne, albo gdyż sugerują słuszność poglądów, 
z&nbsp;"
+"którymi zapewne, mamy nadzieję, nie w&nbsp;pełni się zgadzacie."
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Also note <a href=\"/philosophy/categories.html\">Categories of Free "
+"Software</a>, <a href=\"/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html\">Why Call "
+"It The Swindle?</a>"
+msgstr ""
+"Zobacz też <a href=\"/philosophy/categories.html\">Kategorie wolnego "
+"oprogramowania</a> i&nbsp;<a href=\"/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html"
+"\">Dlaczego nazywać to Swindle</a>."
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-START 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Ad-blocker\">Ad-blocker</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Access\">Access</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Alternative\">Alternative</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Assets\">Assets</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#BSD-style\">BSD-style</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<!--BSD--><a href=\"#BSD-style\">Typu BSD</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Closed\">Closed</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#CloudComputing\">Cloud Computing</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Commercial\">Commercial</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<a href=\"#Commercial\">Komercyjny (commercial)</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Compensation\">Compensation</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Consume\">Consume</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Consumer\">Consumer</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Content\">Content</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#CopyrightOwner\">Copyright Owner</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;<a href=\"#CreativeCommonsLicensed\">Creative Commons licensed</"
+"a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Creator\">Creator</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<a href=\"#Creator\">Twórca</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#DigitalGoods\">Digital Goods</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#DigitalLocks\">Digital Locks</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;<a href=\"#DigitalRightsManagement\">Digital Rights Management</"
+"a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<a href=\"#DigitalRightsManagement\">Zarządzanie&nbsp;Prawami&nbsp;"
+"Cyfrowymi (Digital&nbsp;Rights&nbsp;Management)</a>&rdquo;"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Ecosystem\">Ecosystem</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#FLOSS\">FLOSS</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#ForFree\">For free</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<!--darno--><a href=\"#ForFree\">Za&nbsp;darmo (for&nbsp;free)</"
+"a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#FOSS\">FOSS</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#FreelyAvailable\">Freely available</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Freeware\">Freeware</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<a href=\"#Freeware\">Freeware</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#GiveAwaySoftware\">Give away software</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<a 
href=\"#GiveAwaySoftware\">Rozdawać&nbsp;programy</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Google\">Google</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Hacker\">Hacker</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;<a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">Intellectual property</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">Własność&nbsp;intelektualna "
+"(intellectual&nbsp;property)</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#InternetofThings\">Internet of Things</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#LAMP\">LAMP system</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Linux\">Linux system</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Market\">Market</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Monetize\">Monetize</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#MP3Player\">MP3 player</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Open\">Open</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#PC\">PC</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Photoshop\">Photoshop</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Piracy\">Piracy</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<a href=\"#Piracy\">Piractwo</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#PowerPoint\">PowerPoint</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Product\">Product</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Protection\">Protection</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<a href=\"#Protection\">Ochrona</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#RAND\">RAND</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#SaaS\">SaaS</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#SellSoftware\">Sell software</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;<a href=\"#SellSoftware\">Sprzedawać&nbsp;programy (sell&nbsp;"
+"software)</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;<a href=\"#SharingPersonalData\">Sharing (personal data)</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#SharingEconomy\">Sharing economy</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Skype\">Skype</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#SoftwareIndustry\">Software Industry</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#SourceModel\">Source model</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. #if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX  = /^.(es)$/" 
+#.  TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your
+#.      language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise,
+#.      fill the translation with a space. 
+#.  GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Terminal\">Terminal</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-END-KEY 
+#. #endif
+#.  
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Theft\">Theft</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr "&bdquo;<a href=\"#Theft\">Kradzież</a>&rdquo;&nbsp;|"
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#TrustedComputing\">Trusted Computing</a>&rdquo; |"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "&ldquo;<a href=\"#Vendor\">Vendor</a>&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Ad-blocker&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When the purpose of some program is to block advertisements, &ldquo;ad-"
+"blocker&rdquo; is a good term for it.  However, the GNU browser IceCat "
+"blocks advertisements that track the user as consequence of broader measures "
+"to prevent surveillance by web sites.  This is not an &ldquo;ad-blocker,"
+"&rdquo; this is <em>surveillance protection</em>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Access&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It is a common misunderstanding to think free software means that the public "
+"has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to a program.  That is not what free software means."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The <a href=\"/philosophy/free-sw.html\">criterion for free software</a> is "
+"not about who has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to the program; the four essential "
+"freedoms concern what a user that has a copy of the program is allowed to do "
+"with it.  For instance, freedom 2 says that that user is free to make "
+"another copy and give or sell it to you.  But no user is <em>obligated</em> "
+"to do that for you; you do not have a <em>right</em> to demand a copy of "
+"that program from any user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In particular, if you write a program yourself and never offer a copy to "
+"anyone else, that program is free software albeit in a trivial way, because "
+"every user that has a copy has the four essential freedoms (since the only "
+"such user is you)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In practice, when many users have copies of a program, someone is sure to "
+"post it on the internet, giving everyone access to it.  We think people "
+"ought to do that, if the program is useful.  But that isn't a requirement of "
+"free software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There is one specific point in which a question of having access is directly "
+"pertinent to free software: the GNU GPL permits giving a particular user "
+"access to download a program's source code as a substitute for physically "
+"giving that user a copy of the source.  This applies to the special case in "
+"which the user already has a copy of the program in non-source form."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Instead of <b>with free software, the public has access to the program</b>, "
+"we say, <b>with free software, the users have the essential freedoms</b> and "
+"<b>with free software, the users have control of what the program does for "
+"them</b>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Alternative&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We don't describe free software as an &ldquo;alternative&rdquo; to "
+"proprietary, because that word presumes all the &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; "
+"are legitimate and each additional one makes users better off.  In effect, "
+"it assumes that free software ought to coexist with software that does not "
+"respect users' freedom."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We believe that distribution as free software is the only ethical way to "
+"make software available for others to use.  The other methods, <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\">nonfree software</a> and "
+"<a href=\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\">Service as a "
+"Software Substitute</a> subjugate their users.  We do not think it is good "
+"to offer users those &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; to free software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Assets&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To refer to published works as &ldquo;assets&rdquo;, or &ldquo;digital "
+"assets&rdquo;, is even worse than calling them <a href=\"#Content\">&ldquo;"
+"content&rdquo;</a> &mdash; it presumes they have no value to society except "
+"commercial value."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo;"
+msgstr "<!--BSD-->&bdquo;Typu BSD&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | The expression &ldquo;BSD-style license&rdquo; leads to confusion because
+# | it <a href=\"/licenses/bsd.html\">lumps together licenses that have
+# | important differences</a>.  For instance, the original BSD license with
+# | the advertising clause is incompatible with the [-GPL,-] {+GNU General
+# | Public License,+} but the revised BSD license is compatible with the GPL.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "The expression &ldquo;BSD-style license&rdquo; leads to confusion because "
+#| "it <a href=\"/licenses/bsd.html\">lumps together licenses that have "
+#| "important differences</a>.  For instance, the original BSD license with "
+#| "the advertising clause is incompatible with the GPL, but the revised BSD "
+#| "license is compatible with the GPL."
+msgid ""
+"The expression &ldquo;BSD-style license&rdquo; leads to confusion because it "
+"<a href=\"/licenses/bsd.html\">lumps together licenses that have important "
+"differences</a>.  For instance, the original BSD license with the "
+"advertising clause is incompatible with the GNU General Public License, but "
+"the revised BSD license is compatible with the GPL."
+msgstr ""
+"Określenie &bdquo;licencja typu BSD&rdquo; prowadzi do&nbsp;pomyłek, gdyż 
<a "
+"href=\"/licenses/bsd.html\">scala w&nbsp;jedno dwie licencje, które znaczą
co "
+"się od&nbsp;siebie różnią</a>. Na&nbsp;przykład, pierwotna licencja BSD "
+"z&nbsp;klauzulą ogłoszeniową nie jest zgodna z&nbsp;GPL, 
ale&nbsp;poprawiona "
+"BSD jest zgodna."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To avoid confusion, it is best to name <a href=\"/licenses/license-list.html"
+"\"> the specific license in question</a> and avoid the vague term &ldquo;BSD-"
+"style.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Żeby uniknąć zamieszania najlepiej używać właściwej nazwy konkretnej "
+"licencji i&nbsp;unikać określenia &bdquo;typu BSD&rdquo;."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Closed&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Describing nonfree software as &ldquo;closed&rdquo; clearly refers to the "
+"term &ldquo;open source.&rdquo; In the free software movement, <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> we do not want to be "
+"confused with the open source camp</a>, so we are careful to avoid saying "
+"things that would encourage people to lump us in with them.  For instance, "
+"we avoid describing nonfree software as &ldquo;closed.&rdquo; We call it "
+"&ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; or <a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+"html#ProprietarySoftware\"> &ldquo;proprietary&rdquo;</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Cloud Computing&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; (or just &ldquo;cloud&rdquo;, in the "
+"context of computing) is a marketing buzzword with no coherent meaning.  It "
+"is used for a range of different activities whose only common characteristic "
+"is that they use the Internet for something beyond transmitting files.  "
+"Thus, the term spreads confusion.  If you base your thinking on it, your "
+"thinking will be confused (or, could we say, &ldquo;cloudy&rdquo;?)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When thinking about or responding to a statement someone else has made using "
+"this term, the first step is to clarify the topic.  What scenario is the "
+"statement about? What is a good, clear term for that scenario? Once the "
+"topic is clearly formulated, coherent thought about it becomes possible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One of the many meanings of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; is storing your "
+"data in online services.  In most scenarios, that is foolish because it "
+"exposes you to <a href=\"http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/25/";
+"hackers-spooks-cloud-antiauthoritarian-dream\">surveillance</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another meaning (which overlaps that but is not the same thing)  is <a href="
+"\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\"> Service as a "
+"Software Substitute</a>, which denies you control over your computing.  You "
+"should never use SaaSS."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another meaning is renting a remote physical server, or virtual server.  "
+"These practices are ok under certain circumstances."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another meaning is accessing your own server from your own mobile device.  "
+"That raises no particular ethical issues."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The <a href=\"https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final\";> "
+"NIST definition of \"cloud computing\"</a> mentions three scenarios that "
+"raise different ethical issues: Software as a Service, Platform as a "
+"Service, and Infrastructure as a Service.  However, that definition does not "
+"match the common use of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo;, since it does not "
+"include storing data in online services.  Software as a Service as defined "
+"by NIST overlaps considerably with Service as a Software Substitute, which "
+"mistreats the user, but the two concepts are not equivalent."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"These different computing practices don't even belong in the same "
+"discussion.  The best way to avoid the confusion the term &ldquo;cloud "
+"computing&rdquo; spreads is not to use the term &ldquo;cloud&rdquo; in "
+"connection with computing.  Talk about the scenario you mean, and call it by "
+"a specific term."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Curiously, Larry Ellison, a proprietary software developer, also <a href="
+"\"http://www.cnet.com/news/oracles-ellison-nails-cloud-computing/\";> noted "
+"the vacuity of the term &ldquo;cloud computing.&rdquo;</a> He decided to use "
+"the term anyway because, as a proprietary software developer, he isn't "
+"motivated by the same ideals as we are."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Commercial&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Komercyjny (commercial)&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please don't use &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; as a synonym for &ldquo;nonfree."
+"&rdquo; That confuses two entirely different issues."
+msgstr ""
+"Prosimy nie używać &bdquo;komercyjny&rdquo; jako synonimu &bdquo;nie będą
cy "
+"wolnym&rdquo;. Jest to mieszanie dwu zupełnie różnych kwestii."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity.  A
+# | commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its [-license.-]
+# | {+manner of distribution.+}  Likewise, a program developed by a school or
+# | an individual can be free or nonfree, depending on its [-license.-]
+# | {+manner of distribution.+}  The two questions&mdash;what sort of entity
+# | developed the program and what freedom its users have&mdash;are
+# | independent.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity.  A "
+#| "commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its license.  "
+#| "Likewise, a program developed by a school or an individual can be free or "
+#| "nonfree, depending on its license.  The two questions&mdash;what sort of "
+#| "entity developed the program and what freedom its users have&mdash;are "
+#| "independent."
+msgid ""
+"A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity.  A "
+"commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of "
+"distribution.  Likewise, a program developed by a school or an individual "
+"can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of distribution.  The two "
+"questions&mdash;what sort of entity developed the program and what freedom "
+"its users have&mdash;are independent."
+msgstr ""
+"Program jest komercyjny jeśli został opracowany w&nbsp;ramach 
działalności "
+"gospodarczej. Program komercyjny może być wolny albo nie, zależnie 
od&nbsp;"
+"licencji. Podobnie, program opracowany przez uczelnię czy&nbsp;osobę "
+"prywatną może być wolnym programem lub&nbsp;nie. Oba te zagadnienia 
&ndash; "
+"jaki rodzaj podmiotu stworzył program i&nbsp;jakie wolności &ndash; prawa "
+"mają jego użytkownicy, są od&nbsp;siebie niezależne."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | In the first decade of the [-Free Software Movement,-] {+free software
+# | movement,+} free software packages were almost always noncommercial; the
+# | components of the GNU/Linux operating system were developed by individuals
+# | or by nonprofit organizations such as the FSF and universities.  [-But-] 
+# | {+Later,+} in the [-90's,-] {+1990s,+} free commercial software started to
+# | appear.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "In the first decade of the Free Software Movement, free software packages "
+#| "were almost always noncommercial; the components of the GNU/Linux "
+#| "operating system were developed by individuals or by nonprofit "
+#| "organizations such as the FSF and universities.  But in the 90's, free "
+#| "commercial software started to appear."
+msgid ""
+"In the first decade of the free software movement, free software packages "
+"were almost always noncommercial; the components of the GNU/Linux operating "
+"system were developed by individuals or by nonprofit organizations such as "
+"the FSF and universities.  Later, in the 1990s, free commercial software "
+"started to appear."
+msgstr ""
+"W pierwszym dziesięcioleciu działalności Ruchu Wolnego Oprogramowania, 
Free "
+"Software Movement, pakiety wolnego oprogramowania były niemal zawsze "
+"niekomercyjne. Składniki systemu operacyjnego GNU/Linux zostały stworzone "
+"przez osoby prywatne lub&nbsp;organizacje nonprofit, takie jak FSF i&nbsp;"
+"uniwersytety. Jednak w&nbsp;latach 90. zaczęło się pojawiać wolne "
+"oprogramowanie komercyjne."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we should
+# | encourage it.  But people who think that &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; means
+# | &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; will tend to think that {+the &ldquo;free
+# | commercial&rdquo;+} combination is self-contradictory, and dismiss the
+# | possibility.  Let's be careful not to use the word
+# | &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; in that way.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we should "
+#| "encourage it.  But people who think that &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; means "
+#| "&ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; will tend to think that combination is self-"
+#| "contradictory, and dismiss the possibility.  Let's be careful not to use "
+#| "the word &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; in that way."
+msgid ""
+"Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we should "
+"encourage it.  But people who think that &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; means "
+"&ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; will tend to think that the &ldquo;free "
+"commercial&rdquo; combination is self-contradictory, and dismiss the "
+"possibility.  Let's be careful not to use the word &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; "
+"in that way."
+msgstr ""
+"Wolne oprogramowanie komercyjne jest wkładem na&nbsp;rzecz naszej 
wspólnoty, "
+"więc&nbsp;powinniśmy je popierać. Jednak można się spodziewać, iż 
ludzie, "
+"którzy sądzą, że&nbsp;&bdquo;komercyjny&rdquo; znaczy &bdquo;nie jest "
+"wolny&rdquo; przyjmą, że&nbsp;takie połączenie jest wewnętrznie 
sprzeczne, "
+"i&nbsp;odrzucą tę możliwość. Uważajmy, by nie stosować słowa &bdquo;"
+"komercyjny&rdquo; w&nbsp;taki sposób."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Compensation&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To speak of &ldquo;compensation for authors&rdquo; in connection with "
+"copyright carries the assumptions that (1) copyright exists for the sake of "
+"authors and (2) whenever we read something, we take on a debt to the author "
+"which we must then repay.  The first assumption is simply <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html\">false</a>, and the second is "
+"outrageous."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Compensating the rights-holders&rdquo; adds a further swindle: you're "
+"supposed to imagine that means paying the authors, and occasionally it does, "
+"but most of the time it means a subsidy for the same publishing companies "
+"that are pushing unjust laws on us."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Consume&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Consume&rdquo; refers to what we do with food: we ingest it, after "
+"which the food as such no longer exists.  By analogy, we employ the same "
+"word for other products whose use <em>uses them up</em>.  Applying it to "
+"durable goods, such as clothing or appliances, is a stretch.  Applying it to "
+"published works (programs, recordings on a disk or in a file, books on paper "
+"or in a file), whose nature is to last indefinitely and which can be run, "
+"played or read any number of times, is stretching the word so far that it "
+"snaps.  Playing a recording, or running a program, does not consume it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Those who use &ldquo;consume&rdquo; in this context will say they don't mean "
+"it literally.  What, then, does it mean? It means to regard copies of "
+"software and other works from a narrow economistic point of view.  &ldquo;"
+"Consume&rdquo; is associated with the economics of material commodities, "
+"such as the fuel or electricity that a car uses up.  Gasoline is a "
+"commodity, and so is electricity.  Commodities are <em>fungible</em>: there "
+"is nothing special about a drop of gasoline that your car burns today versus "
+"another drop that it burned last week."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"What does it mean to think of works of authorship as a commodity, with the "
+"assumption that there is nothing special about any one story, article, "
+"program, or song? That is the twisted viewpoint of the owner or the "
+"accountant of a publishing company.  It is no surprise that proprietary "
+"software would like you to think of the use of software as a commodity.  "
+"Their twisted viewpoint comes through clearly in <a href=\"http://www.";
+"businessinsider.com/former-google-exec-launches-sourcepoint-with-10-million-"
+"series-a-funding-2015-6\">this article</a>, which also refers to "
+"publications as &ldquo;<a href=\"#Content\">content</a>.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The narrow thinking associated with the idea that we &ldquo;consume "
+"content&rdquo; paves the way for laws such as the DMCA that forbid users to "
+"break the <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org/\";>Digital Restrictions "
+"Management</a> (DRM) facilities in digital devices.  If users think what "
+"they do with these devices is &ldquo;consume,&rdquo; they may see such "
+"restrictions as natural."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It also encourages the acceptance of &ldquo;streaming&rdquo; services, which "
+"use DRM to perversely limit listening to music, or watching video, to "
+"squeeze those activities into the assumptions of the word &ldquo;consume."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Why is this perverse usage spreading? Some may feel that the term sounds "
+"sophisticated, but rejecting it with cogent reasons can appear even more "
+"sophisticated.  Some want to generalize about all kinds of media, but the "
+"usual English verbs (&ldquo;read,&rdquo; &ldquo;listen to,&rdquo; &ldquo;"
+"watch&rdquo;) don't do this.  Others may be acting from business interests "
+"(their own, or their employers').  Their use of the term in prestigious "
+"forums gives the impression that it's the &ldquo;correct&rdquo; term."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To speak of &ldquo;consuming&rdquo; music, fiction, or any other artistic "
+"works is to treat them as commodities rather than as art.  Do we want to "
+"think of published works that way? Do we want to encourage the public to do "
+"so?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Those who answer no, please join me in shunning the term &ldquo;"
+"consume&rdquo; for this."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"What to use instead? You can use specific verbs such as &ldquo;read,&rdquo; "
+"&ldquo;listen to,&rdquo; &ldquo;watch&rdquo; or &ldquo;look at,&rdquo; since "
+"they help to restrain the tendency to overgeneralize."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If you insist on generalizing, you can use the expression &ldquo;attend to,"
+"&rdquo; which requires less of a stretch than &ldquo;consume.&rdquo; For a "
+"work meant for practical use, &ldquo;use&rdquo; is best."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "See also the following entry."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Consumer&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;consumer,&rdquo; when used to refer to the users of "
+"computing, is loaded with assumptions we should reject.  Some come from the "
+"idea that using the program &ldquo;consumes&rdquo; the program (see <a href="
+"\"#Consume\">the previous entry</a>), which leads people to impose on "
+"copiable digital works the economic conclusions that were drawn about "
+"uncopiable material products."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In addition, describing the users of software as &ldquo;consumers&rdquo; "
+"refers to a framing in which people are limited to selecting between "
+"whatever &ldquo;products&rdquo; are available in the &ldquo;market.&rdquo; "
+"There is no room in this framing for the idea that users can <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\">directly exercise "
+"control over what a program does</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To describe people who are not limited to passive use of works, we suggest "
+"terms such as &ldquo;individuals&rdquo; and &ldquo;citizens,&rdquo; rather "
+"than &ldquo;consumers.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This problem with the word &ldquo;consumer&rdquo; has been <a href=\"http://";
+"www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/11/capitalism-language-raymond-"
+"williams\">noted before</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Content&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If you want to describe a feeling of comfort and satisfaction, by all means "
+"say you are &ldquo;content,&rdquo; but using the word as a noun to describe "
+"publications and works of authorship adopts an attitude you might rather "
+"avoid: it treats them as a commodity whose purpose is to fill a box and make "
+"money.  In effect, it disparages the works themselves.  If you don't agree "
+"with that attitude, you can call them &ldquo;works&rdquo; or &ldquo;"
+"publications.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Those who use the term &ldquo;content&rdquo; are often the publishers that "
+"push for increased copyright power in the name of the authors (&ldquo;"
+"creators,&rdquo; as they say) of the works.  The term &ldquo;content&rdquo; "
+"reveals their real attitude towards these works and their authors.  This was "
+"also recognized by Tom Chatfield <a href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/";
+"culture/2016/aug/02/how-to-deal-with-trump-trolls-online\">in the Guardian</"
+"a>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Content itself is beside the point&mdash;as the very use of words like "
+"content suggests. The moment you start labelling every single piece of "
+"writing in the world &ldquo;content,&rdquo; you have conceded its "
+"interchangeability: its primary purpose as mere grist to the metrical mill."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In other words, &ldquo;content&rdquo; reduces publications and writings to a "
+"sort of pap fit to be piped through the &ldquo;tubes&rdquo; of the internet."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"See also <a href=\"http://www.salon.com/2000/06/14/love_7/\";>Courtney Love's "
+"open letter to Steve Case</a> and search for &ldquo;content provider&rdquo; "
+"in that page.  Alas, Ms. Love is unaware that the term &ldquo;intellectual "
+"property&rdquo; is also <a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\"> biased and "
+"confusing</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"However, as long as other people use the term &ldquo;content provider,"
+"&rdquo; political dissidents can well call themselves &ldquo;malcontent "
+"providers.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;content management&rdquo; takes the prize for vacuity.  "
+"&ldquo;Content&rdquo; means &ldquo;some sort of information,&rdquo; and "
+"&ldquo;management&rdquo; in this context means &ldquo;doing something with "
+"it.&rdquo; So a &ldquo;content management system&rdquo; is a system for "
+"doing something to some sort of information.  Nearly all programs fit that "
+"description."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In most cases, that term really refers to a system for updating pages on a "
+"web site.  For that, we recommend the term &ldquo;web site revision "
+"system&rdquo; (WRS)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Copyright Owner&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyright is an artificial privilege, handed out by the state to achieve a "
+"public interest and lasting a period of time &mdash; not a natural right "
+"like owning a house or a shirt.  Lawyers used to recognize this by referring "
+"to the recipient of that privilege as a &ldquo;copyright holder.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A few decades ago, copyright holders began trying to reduce awareness of "
+"this point.  In addition to citing frequently the bogus concept of <a href="
+"\"#IntellectualProperty\">&ldquo;intellectual property,&rdquo;</a> they also "
+"started calling themselves &ldquo;copyright owners.&rdquo; Please join us in "
+"resisting by using the traditional term &ldquo;copyright holders&rdquo; "
+"instead."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Creative Commons licensed&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The most important licensing characteristic of a work is whether it is "
+"free.  Creative Commons publishes seven licenses; three are free (CC BY, CC "
+"BY-SA and CC0) and the rest are nonfree.  Thus, to describe a work as &ldquo;"
+"Creative Commons licensed&rdquo; fails to say whether it is free, and "
+"suggests that the question is not important.  The statement may be accurate, "
+"but the omission is harmful."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To encourage people to pay attention to the most important distinction, "
+"always specify <em>which</em> Creative Commons license is used, as in &ldquo;"
+"licensed under CC BY-SA.&rdquo; If you don't know which license a certain "
+"work uses, find out and then make your statement."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Creator&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Twórca&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | The term &ldquo;creator&rdquo; as applied to authors implicitly compares
+# | them to a deity (&ldquo;the creator&rdquo;).  The term is used by
+# | publishers to elevate [-the-] authors' moral [-stature-] {+standing+}
+# | above that of ordinary [-people,-] {+people in order+} to justify {+giving
+# | them+} increased copyright [-power that-] {+power, which+} the publishers
+# | can {+then+} exercise in {+their name.  We recommend saying
+# | &ldquo;author&rdquo; instead.  However, in many cases &ldquo;copyright
+# | holder&rdquo; is what you really mean.  These two terms are not
+# | equivalent: often+} the [-name of-] {+copyright holder is not+} the
+# | author[-s-].
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "The term &ldquo;creator&rdquo; as applied to authors implicitly compares "
+#| "them to a deity (&ldquo;the creator&rdquo;).  The term is used by "
+#| "publishers to elevate the authors' moral stature above that of ordinary "
+#| "people, to justify increased copyright power that the publishers can "
+#| "exercise in the name of the authors."
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;creator&rdquo; as applied to authors implicitly compares "
+"them to a deity (&ldquo;the creator&rdquo;).  The term is used by publishers "
+"to elevate authors' moral standing above that of ordinary people in order to "
+"justify giving them increased copyright power, which the publishers can then "
+"exercise in their name.  We recommend saying &ldquo;author&rdquo; instead.  "
+"However, in many cases &ldquo;copyright holder&rdquo; is what you really "
+"mean.  These two terms are not equivalent: often the copyright holder is not "
+"the author."
+msgstr ""
+"Określenie &bdquo;twórca&rdquo; stosowane w&nbsp;odniesieniu 
do&nbsp;autorów "
+"niejawnie porównuje ich z&nbsp;bóstwem (&bdquo;Stwórcą&rdquo;). Jest ono "
+"używane przez wydawców do&nbsp;wywyższenia moralnie autorów ponad 
zwykłych "
+"ludzi, żeby uzasadnić zwiększoną władzę praw autorskich, z&nbsp;jakiej "
+"wydawcy mogą korzystać w&nbsp;imieniu autorów."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Digital Goods&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;digital goods,&rdquo; as applied to copies of works of "
+"authorship, identifies them with physical goods&mdash;which cannot be "
+"copied, and which therefore have to be manufactured in quantity and sold.  "
+"This metaphor encourages people to judge issues about software or other "
+"digital works based on their views and intuitions about physical goods.  It "
+"also frames issues in terms of economics, whose shallow and limited values "
+"don't include freedom and community."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Digital Locks&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Digital locks&rdquo; is used to refer to Digital Restrictions "
+"Management by some who criticize it.  The problem with this term is that it "
+"fails to do justice to the badness of DRM.  The people who adopted that term "
+"did not think it through."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Locks are not necessarily oppressive or bad.  You probably own several "
+"locks, and their keys or codes as well; you may find them useful or "
+"troublesome, but they don't oppress you, because you can open and close "
+"them.  Likewise, we find <a href=\"http://www.theguardian.com/";
+"technology/2015/may/01/encryption-wont-work-if-it-has-a-back-door-only-the-"
+"good-guys-have-keys-to-\">encryption</a> invaluable for protecting our "
+"digital files.  That too is a kind of digital lock that you have control "
+"over."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"DRM is like a lock placed on you by someone else, who refuses to give you "
+"the key&mdash;in other words, like <em>handcuffs</em>.  Therefore, the "
+"proper metaphor for DRM is &ldquo;digital handcuffs,&rdquo; not &ldquo;"
+"digital locks.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A number of opposition campaigns have chosen the unwise term &ldquo;digital "
+"locks&rdquo;; to get things back on the right track, we must firmly insist "
+"on correcting this mistake.  The FSF can support a campaign that opposes "
+"&ldquo;digital locks&rdquo; if we agree on the substance; however, when we "
+"state our support, we conspicuously replace the term with &ldquo;digital "
+"handcuffs&rdquo; and say why."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"&bdquo;Zarządzanie prawami cyfrowymi (Digital Rights Management)&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | &ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo; [-software is actually-]
+# | {+(abbreviated &ldquo;DRM&rdquo;) refers to technical mechanisms+}
+# | designed to impose restrictions on computer users.  The use of the word
+# | &ldquo;rights&rdquo; in this term is propaganda, designed to lead you
+# | unawares into seeing the [-the-] issue from the viewpoint of the few that
+# | impose the restrictions, [-while-] {+and+} ignoring that of the [-many-]
+# | {+general public on+} whom [-the-] {+these+} restrictions are [-imposed
+# | on.-] {+imposed.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "&ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo; software is actually designed to "
+#| "impose restrictions on computer users.  The use of the word &ldquo;"
+#| "rights&rdquo; in this term is propaganda, designed to lead you unawares "
+#| "into seeing the the issue from the viewpoint of the few that impose the "
+#| "restrictions, while ignoring that of the many whom the restrictions are "
+#| "imposed on."
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo; (abbreviated &ldquo;DRM&rdquo;) "
+"refers to technical mechanisms designed to impose restrictions on computer "
+"users.  The use of the word &ldquo;rights&rdquo; in this term is propaganda, "
+"designed to lead you unawares into seeing the issue from the viewpoint of "
+"the few that impose the restrictions, and ignoring that of the general "
+"public on whom these restrictions are imposed."
+msgstr ""
+"Oprogramowanie Digital Rights Management (&bdquo;zarządzanie prawami "
+"cyfrowymi&rdquo;) jest w&nbsp;rzeczywistości przeznaczone do&nbsp;narzucania 
"
+"ograniczeń użytkownikom komputerów. Zastosowanie w&nbsp;tym określeniu 
słowa "
+"&bdquo;prawa&rdquo; jest propagandą, która ma doprowadzić do&nbsp;tego, "
+"byście nieświadomie rozpatrywali to zagadnienie z&nbsp;punktu widzenia "
+"nielicznych, którzy narzucają ograniczenia, lekceważąc tych wielu, 
którym "
+"się je narzuca."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | Good alternatives include &ldquo;Digital Restrictions
+# | Management{+,+}&rdquo; and [-&ldquo;handcuffware.&rdquo;-]
+# | {+&ldquo;digital handcuffs.&rdquo;+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Good alternatives include &ldquo;Digital Restrictions Management&rdquo; "
+#| "and &ldquo;handcuffware.&rdquo;"
+msgid ""
+"Good alternatives include &ldquo;Digital Restrictions Management,&rdquo; and "
+"&ldquo;digital handcuffs.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Dobre alternatywy to, między innymi, &bdquo;cyfrowe zarządzanie "
+"ograniczeniami&rdquo; (Digital Restrictions Management) albo &bdquo;"
+"handcuffware&rdquo; &ndash; &bdquo;kajdankowce&rdquo;."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please sign up to support our <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org/\";> "
+"campaign to abolish DRM</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Ecosystem&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It is inadvisable to describe the free software community, or any human "
+"community, as an &ldquo;ecosystem,&rdquo; because that word implies the "
+"absence of ethical judgment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;ecosystem&rdquo; implicitly suggests an attitude of "
+"nonjudgmental observation: don't ask how what <em>should</em> happen, just "
+"study and understand what <em>does</em> happen.  In an ecosystem, some "
+"organisms consume other organisms.  In ecology, we do not ask whether it is "
+"right for an owl to eat a mouse or for a mouse to eat a seed, we only "
+"observe that they do so.  Species' populations grow or shrink according to "
+"the conditions; this is neither right nor wrong, merely an ecological "
+"phenomenon, even if it goes so far as the extinction of a species."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"By contrast, beings that adopt an ethical stance towards their surroundings "
+"can decide to preserve things that, without their intervention, might "
+"vanish&mdash;such as civil society, democracy, human rights, peace, public "
+"health, a stable climate, clean air and water, endangered species, "
+"traditional arts&hellip;and computer users' freedom."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;FLOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free/Libre and Open Source "
+"Software,&rdquo; was coined as a way to <a href=\"/philosophy/floss-and-foss."
+"html\">be neutral between free software and open source</a>.  If neutrality "
+"is your goal, &ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is the best way to be neutral.  But if you "
+"want to show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;For free&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Za darmo (for free)&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If you want to say that a program is free software, please don't say that it "
+"is available &ldquo;for free.&rdquo; That term specifically means &ldquo;for "
+"zero price.&rdquo; Free software is a matter of freedom, not price."
+msgstr ""
+"Jeśli chcecie powiedzieć, że&nbsp;jakiś program jest wolnym 
oprogramowaniem, "
+"nie mówcie, prosimy, że&nbsp;jest dostępny &bdquo;za darmo&rdquo;, &bdquo;"
+"bezpłatnie&rdquo; (&bdquo;for free&rdquo;). Określenie to znaczy konkretnie 
"
+"&bdquo;po cenie zerowej&rdquo; (&bdquo;for zero price&rdquo;). Wolne "
+"oprogramowanie to kwestia wolności, nie ceny.<sup><a href=\"#TransNote1\" 
id="
+"\"revTransNote1\">1</a></sup>"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free software copies are often available for free&mdash;for example, by "
+"downloading via FTP.  But free software copies are also available for a "
+"price on CD-ROMs; meanwhile, proprietary software copies are occasionally "
+"available for free in promotions, and some proprietary packages are normally "
+"available at no charge to certain users."
+msgstr ""
+"Kopie wolnych programów są często dostępne za darmo &ndash; na&nbsp;"
+"przykład, do&nbsp;ściągnięcia poprzez FTP. Jednak istnieją też kopie 
wolnego "
+"oprogramowania rozprowadzane za pieniądze na&nbsp;CD-ROM-ach. Równocześnie 
"
+"zdarzają się programy prawnie zastrzeżone (proprietary software) dostępne 
"
+"dla niektórych użytkowników bez&nbsp;opłat."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To avoid confusion, you can say that the program is available &ldquo;as free "
+"software.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Dla uniknięcia nieporozumień mówimy, że&nbsp;program jest dostępny 
&bdquo;"
+"jako wolne oprogramowanie&rdquo; (&bdquo;as free software&rdquo;)."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;FOSS&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;FOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free and Open Source Software,"
+"&rdquo; was coined as a way to <a href=\"/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"
+"\">be neutral between free software and open source</a>, but it doesn't "
+"really do that.  If neutrality is your goal, &ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is better.  "
+"But if you want to show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Instead of <b>FOSS</b>, we say, <b>free software</b> or <b>free (libre) "
+"software</b>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Freely available&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Don't use &ldquo;freely available software&rdquo; as a synonym for &ldquo;"
+"free software.&rdquo; The terms are not equivalent.  Software is &ldquo;"
+"freely available&rdquo; if anyone can easily get a copy.  &ldquo;Free "
+"software&rdquo; is defined in terms of the freedom of users that have a copy "
+"of it.  These are answers to different questions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Freeware&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Freeware&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please don't use the term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; as a synonym for &ldquo;"
+"free software.&rdquo; The term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; was used often in the "
+"1980s for programs released only as executables, with source code not "
+"available.  Today it has no particular agreed-on definition."
+msgstr ""
+"Prosimy nie używać terminu &bdquo;freeware&rdquo; jako synominu pojęcia "
+"&bdquo;free software&rdquo;. W&nbsp;latach 80. słowa &bdquo;freeware&rdquo; "
+"często używano na&nbsp;określenie programów wydanych jedynie 
w&nbsp;postaci "
+"wykonywalnej, bez&nbsp;dostępnego kodu źródłowego. Obecnie termin ten nie 
ma "
+"żadnej konkretnej, uzgodnionej definicji."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-Also, if you use other-]{+When using+} languages {+other+} than English,
+# | please [-try to-] avoid borrowing English [-words-] {+terms+} such as
+# | &ldquo;free software&rdquo; or &ldquo;freeware.&rdquo; [-Try-] {+It is
+# | better+} to [-use-] {+translate+} the [-often less ambiguous wording-]
+# | {+term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; into+} <a
+# | [-href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">that your language
+# | offers</a>.-] {+href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your
+# | language</a>.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Also, if you use other languages than English, please try to avoid "
+#| "borrowing English words such as &ldquo;free software&rdquo; or &ldquo;"
+#| "freeware.&rdquo; Try to use the often less ambiguous wording <a href=\"/"
+#| "philosophy/fs-translations.html\">that your language offers</a>."
+msgid ""
+"When using languages other than English, please avoid borrowing English "
+"terms such as &ldquo;free software&rdquo; or &ldquo;freeware.&rdquo; It is "
+"better to translate the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; into <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your language</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"Ponadto, jeśli używacie języka innego niż angielski, spróbujcie unikać "
+"zapożyczania angielskich słów, jak np. &bdquo;free software&rdquo; 
czy&nbsp;"
+"&bdquo;freeware&rdquo;. Próbujcie korzystać z&nbsp;mniej niejednoznacznych "
+"określeń, <a href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">jakie występują "
+"w&nbsp;waszym języku</a>."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | By [-forming-] {+using+} a word in [-your-] {+<a
+# | href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your+} own [-language,-]
+# | {+language</a>,+} you show that you are really referring to freedom and
+# | not just parroting some mysterious foreign marketing concept.  The
+# | reference to freedom may at first seem strange or disturbing to your
+# | [-countrymen,-] {+compatriots,+} but once they see that it means exactly
+# | what it says, they will really understand what the issue is.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "By forming a word in your own language, you show that you are really "
+#| "referring to freedom and not just parroting some mysterious foreign "
+#| "marketing concept.  The reference to freedom may at first seem strange or "
+#| "disturbing to your countrymen, but once they see that it means exactly "
+#| "what it says, they will really understand what the issue is."
+msgid ""
+"By using a word in <a href=\"/philosophy/fs-translations.html\">your own "
+"language</a>, you show that you are really referring to freedom and not just "
+"parroting some mysterious foreign marketing concept.  The reference to "
+"freedom may at first seem strange or disturbing to your compatriots, but "
+"once they see that it means exactly what it says, they will really "
+"understand what the issue is."
+msgstr ""
+"Korzystając z&nbsp;nazwy utworzonej języku pokazujecie, że&nbsp;naprawdę "
+"odwołujecie się do&nbsp;wolności, a&nbsp;nie tylko bezmyślnie powtarzacie 
"
+"jakieś obce pojęcia marketingowe. Odwoływanie się do&nbsp;wolności może 
dla "
+"waszych rodaków na&nbsp;pierwszy rzut oka wyglądać dziwnie czy&nbsp;"
+"niepokojąco, ale&nbsp;gdy tylko dostrzegą, że&nbsp;znaczenie jest 
dokładnie "
+"takie, na&nbsp;jakie wskazuje słowo, wówczas naprawdę zrozumieją o co 
chodzi."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Give away software&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Rozdawać programy&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | It's misleading to use the term &ldquo;give away&rdquo; to mean
+# | &ldquo;distribute a program as free software.&rdquo; [-It-] {+This
+# | locution+} has the same problem as &ldquo;for free&rdquo;: it implies the
+# | issue is price, not freedom.  One way to avoid the confusion is to say
+# | &ldquo;release as free software.&rdquo;
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "It's misleading to use the term &ldquo;give away&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;"
+#| "distribute a program as free software.&rdquo; It has the same problem as "
+#| "&ldquo;for free&rdquo;: it implies the issue is price, not freedom.  One "
+#| "way to avoid the confusion is to say &ldquo;release as free software."
+#| "&rdquo;"
+msgid ""
+"It's misleading to use the term &ldquo;give away&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;"
+"distribute a program as free software.&rdquo; This locution has the same "
+"problem as &ldquo;for free&rdquo;: it implies the issue is price, not "
+"freedom.  One way to avoid the confusion is to say &ldquo;release as free "
+"software.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Używanie czasownika &bdquo;rozdawać&rdquo; w&nbsp;znaczeniu &bdquo;"
+"rozpowszechniać program jako wolne oprogramowanie&rdquo; wprowadza w&nbsp;"
+"błąd. Występuje tu ten sam problem, co przy &bdquo;darmowości&rdquo;: 
słowo "
+"sugeruje, że&nbsp;chodzi nam o cenę, nie o wolność. Można uniknąć mylą
cego "
+"terminu mówiąc &bdquo;wypuścić jako wolny program&rdquo;."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Google&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please avoid using the term &ldquo;google&rdquo; as a verb, meaning to "
+"search for something on the internet. &ldquo;Google&rdquo; is just the name "
+"of one particular search engine among others. We suggest to use the term "
+"&ldquo;search the web&rdquo; or (in some contexts) just &ldquo;"
+"search&rdquo;. Try to use a search engine that respects your privacy; for "
+"instance, <a href=\"https://duckduckgo.com/\";>DuckDuckGo</a> claims not to "
+"track its users.  (There is no way for outsiders to verify claims of that "
+"kind.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Hacker&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A hacker is someone who <a href=\"http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.";
+"html\"> enjoys playful cleverness</a>&mdash;not necessarily with computers.  "
+"The programmers in the old <abbr title=\"Massachusetts Institute of "
+"Technology\">MIT</abbr> free software community of the 60s and 70s referred "
+"to themselves as hackers.  Around 1980, journalists who discovered the "
+"hacker community mistakenly took the term to mean &ldquo;security breaker."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please don't spread this mistake.  People who break security are &ldquo;"
+"crackers.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Intellectual property&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Własność intelektualna (intellectual property)&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as &ldquo;intellectual
+# | [-property.&rdquo; This-] {+property&rdquo;&mdash;a+} term [-carries a
+# | hidden assumption&mdash;that the most natural way-] {+also applied+} to
+# | [-think about the issue of copying is based on an analogy with physical
+# | objects,-] {+patents, trademarks,+} and [-our ideas-] {+other more obscure
+# | areas+} of [-them as property.-] {+law.  These laws have so little in
+# | common, and differ so much, that it is ill-advised to generalize about
+# | them.  It is best to talk specifically about &ldquo;copyright,&rdquo; or
+# | about &ldquo;patents,&rdquo; or about &ldquo;trademarks.&rdquo;+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as &ldquo;intellectual "
+#| "property.&rdquo; This term carries a hidden assumption&mdash;that the "
+#| "most natural way to think about the issue of copying is based on an "
+#| "analogy with physical objects, and our ideas of them as property."
+msgid ""
+"Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as &ldquo;intellectual "
+"property&rdquo;&mdash;a term also applied to patents, trademarks, and other "
+"more obscure areas of law.  These laws have so little in common, and differ "
+"so much, that it is ill-advised to generalize about them.  It is best to "
+"talk specifically about &ldquo;copyright,&rdquo; or about &ldquo;patents,"
+"&rdquo; or about &ldquo;trademarks.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Wydawcy i&nbsp;prawnicy lubią opisywać prawo autorskie jako 
&bdquo;własność "
+"intelektualną&rdquo;. To określenie ten zawiera ukryte założenie: 
że&nbsp;"
+"najbardziej naturalny sposób rozważania kwestii praw autorskich opiera się 
"
+"na&nbsp;analogii z&nbsp;materialnymi obiektami i&nbsp;naszym pojmowaniu ich "
+"jako własności."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-But this analogy overlooks-]{+The term &ldquo;intellectual
+# | property&rdquo; carries a hidden assumption&mdash;that+} the [-crucial
+# | difference between material objects and information: information can be
+# | copied and shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't be. 
+# | Basing your thinking-] {+way to think about all these disparate issues is
+# | based+} on [-this-] {+an+} analogy [-is tantamount to ignoring that
+# | difference.-] {+with physical objects, and our conception of them as
+# | physical property.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "But this analogy overlooks the crucial difference between material "
+#| "objects and information: information can be copied and shared almost "
+#| "effortlessly, while material objects can't be.  Basing your thinking on "
+#| "this analogy is tantamount to ignoring that difference."
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; carries a hidden "
+"assumption&mdash;that the way to think about all these disparate issues is "
+"based on an analogy with physical objects, and our conception of them as "
+"physical property."
+msgstr ""
+"Jednak w&nbsp;przywoływanej analogii umyka dostrzega zasadnicza różnica "
+"pomiędzy obiektami materialnymi a&nbsp;informacją: informację można 
powielać "
+"i&nbsp;dzielić się nią niemal bez&nbsp;żadnego wysiłku, podczas gdy nie 
da "
+"się tak zrobić z&nbsp;przedmiotami. Oparcie swojego rozumowania na&nbsp;"
+"podobnej analogii jest równoznaczne z&nbsp;ignorowaniem tej różnicy."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-Even the US legal system does not entirely accept this analogy,
+# | since-]{+When+} it [-does not treat copyrights like physical object
+# | property rights.-] {+comes to copying, this analogy disregards the crucial
+# | difference between material objects and information: information can be
+# | copied and shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't be.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Even the US legal system does not entirely accept this analogy, since it "
+#| "does not treat copyrights like physical object property rights."
+msgid ""
+"When it comes to copying, this analogy disregards the crucial difference "
+"between material objects and information: information can be copied and "
+"shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't be."
+msgstr ""
+"Nawet system prawny USA nie akceptuje w&nbsp;pełni tej analogii, gdyż nie "
+"traktuje praw autorskich tak samo, jak praw własności do&nbsp;obiektów "
+"materialnych."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-If you don't want to limit yourself to this way of thinking,-]{+To avoid
+# | spreading unnecessary bias and confusion,+} it is best to {+adopt a firm
+# | policy+} <a href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\"> [-avoid using the term
+# | &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;</a>-] {+not to speak or even think+}
+# | in [-your words and thoughts.-] {+terms of &ldquo;intellectual
+# | property&rdquo;</a>.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "If you don't want to limit yourself to this way of thinking, it is best "
+#| "to <a href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\"> avoid using the term &ldquo;"
+#| "intellectual property&rdquo;</a> in your words and thoughts."
+msgid ""
+"To avoid spreading unnecessary bias and confusion, it is best to adopt a "
+"firm policy <a href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\"> not to speak or even think "
+"in terms of &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"Jeśli nie chcecie ograniczać się do&nbsp;tego sposobu myślenia, najlepiej 
<a "
+"href=\"/philosophy/not-ipr.html\">unikać stosowania określenia &bdquo;"
+"własność intelektualna&rdquo; zarówno w&nbsp;słowach</a>, jak 
i&nbsp;w&nbsp;"
+"myślach."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The hypocrisy of calling these powers &ldquo;rights&rdquo; is <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/wipo-PublicAwarenessOfCopyright-2002.html\"> starting to make the "
+"World &ldquo;Intellectual Property&rdquo; Organization embarrassed</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Internet of Things&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When companies decided to make computerized appliances that would connect "
+"over the internet to the manufacturer's server, and therefore could easily "
+"snoop on their users, they realized that this would not sound very nice.  So "
+"they came up with a cute, appealing name: the &ldquo;Internet of Things."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Experience shows that these products often do <a href=\"http://www.locusmag.";
+"com/Perspectives/2015/09/cory-doctorow-what-if-people-were-sensors-not-"
+"things-to-be-sensed/\"> spy on their users</a>.  They are also tailor-made "
+"for <a href=\"http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/rinesi20150806\";>giving "
+"people biased advice</a>.  In addition, the manufacturer can <a href=\"/"
+"proprietary/proprietary-sabotage.html\"> sabotage the product</a> by turning "
+"off the server it depends on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "We call them the &ldquo;Internet of Stings.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;LAMP system&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; stands for &ldquo;Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP&rdquo;"
+"&mdash;a common combination of software to use on a web server, except that "
+"&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; in this context really refers to the GNU/Linux system.  "
+"So instead of &ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; it should be &ldquo;GLAMP&rdquo;: &ldquo;"
+"GNU, Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Linux system&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Linux is the name of the kernel that Linus Torvalds developed starting in "
+"1991.  The operating system in which Linux is used is basically GNU with "
+"Linux added.  To call the whole system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; is both unfair "
+"and confusing.  Please call the complete system <a href=\"/gnu/linux-and-gnu."
+"html\"> GNU/Linux</a>, both to give the GNU Project credit and to "
+"distinguish the whole system from the kernel alone."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Market&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It is misleading to describe the users of free software, or the software "
+"users in general, as a &ldquo;market.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This is not to say there is no room for markets in the free software "
+"community.  If you have a free software support business, then you have "
+"clients, and you trade with them in a market.  As long as you respect their "
+"freedom, we wish you success in your market."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But the free software movement is a social movement, not a business, and the "
+"success it aims for is not a market success.  We are trying to serve the "
+"public by giving it freedom&mdash;not competing to draw business away from a "
+"rival.  To equate this campaign for freedom to a business's efforts for mere "
+"success is to deny the importance of freedom and legitimize proprietary "
+"software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Monetize&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The proper definition of &ldquo;monetize&rdquo; is &ldquo;to use something "
+"as currency.&rdquo; For instance, human societies have monetized gold, "
+"silver, copper, printed paper, special kinds of seashells, and large rocks.  "
+"However, we now see a tendency to use the word in another way, meaning "
+"&ldquo;to use something as a basis for profit&rdquo;."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"That usage casts the profit as primary, and the thing used to get the profit "
+"as secondary.  That attitude applied to a software project is objectionable "
+"because it would lead the developers to make the program proprietary, if "
+"they conclude that making it free/libre isn't sufficiently profitable."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A productive and ethical business can make money, but if it subordinates all "
+"else to profit, it is not likely to remain ethical."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;MP3 Player&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#.  The MP3 patents will reportedly expire by 2018.  
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In the late 1990s it became feasible to make portable, solid-state digital "
+"audio players.  Most players supported the patented MP3 codec, and that is "
+"still the case.  Some players also supported the patent-free audio codecs "
+"Ogg Vorbis and FLAC, and a few couldn't play MP3-encoded files at all "
+"because their developers needed to protect themselves from the patents on "
+"MP3 format."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Using the term &ldquo;MP3 players&rdquo; for audio players in general has "
+"the effect of promoting the MP3 format and discouraging the other formats "
+"(some of which are technically superior as well).  Even though the MP3 "
+"patents have expired, it is still undesirable to do that."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We suggest the term &ldquo;digital audio player,&rdquo; or simply &ldquo;"
+"audio player&rdquo; when that's clear enough, instead of &ldquo;MP3 player."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Open&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please avoid using the term &ldquo;open&rdquo; or &ldquo;open source&rdquo; "
+"as a substitute for &ldquo;free software.&rdquo; Those terms refer to a <a "
+"href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> different set of "
+"views</a> based on different values.  The free software movement campaigns "
+"for your freedom in your computing, as a matter of justice.  The open source "
+"non-movement does not campaign for anything in this way."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When referring to the open source views, it's correct to use that name, but "
+"please do not use that term when talking about us, our software, or our "
+"views&mdash;that leads people to suppose our views are similar to theirs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Instead of <b>open source</b>, we say, <b>free software</b> or <b>free "
+"(libre) software</b>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;PC&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It's OK to use the abbreviation &ldquo;PC&rdquo; to refer to a certain kind "
+"of computer hardware, but please don't use it with the implication that the "
+"computer is running Microsoft Windows.  If you install GNU/Linux on the same "
+"computer, it is still a PC."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;WC&rdquo; has been suggested for a computer running Windows."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Photoshop&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please avoid using the term &ldquo;photoshop&rdquo; as a verb, meaning any "
+"kind of photo manipulation or image editing in general.  Photoshop is just "
+"the name of one particular image editing program, which should be avoided "
+"since it is proprietary.  There are plenty of free programs for editing "
+"images, such as the <a href=\"/software/gimp\">GIMP</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Piracy&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Piractwo&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | Publishers often refer to [-prohibited-] copying {+they don't approve of+}
+# | as &ldquo;piracy.&rdquo; In this way, they imply that [-illegal copying-]
+# | {+it+} is ethically equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas,
+# | kidnap{+p+}ing and murdering the people on them.  {+Based on such
+# | propaganda, they have procured laws in most of the world to forbid copying
+# | in most (or sometimes all) circumstances.  (They are still pressuring to
+# | make these prohibitions more complete.)+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Publishers often refer to prohibited copying as &ldquo;piracy.&rdquo; In "
+#| "this way, they imply that illegal copying is ethically equivalent to "
+#| "attacking ships on the high seas, kidnaping and murdering the people on "
+#| "them."
+msgid ""
+"Publishers often refer to copying they don't approve of as &ldquo;piracy."
+"&rdquo; In this way, they imply that it is ethically equivalent to attacking "
+"ships on the high seas, kidnapping and murdering the people on them.  Based "
+"on such propaganda, they have procured laws in most of the world to forbid "
+"copying in most (or sometimes all) circumstances.  (They are still "
+"pressuring to make these prohibitions more complete.)"
+msgstr ""
+"Wydawcy często nazywają zabronione kopiowanie &bdquo;piractwem&rdquo;. Tym "
+"samym insynuują, że&nbsp;nielegalne kopiowanie jest etycznie równoważne "
+"atakowaniu statków na&nbsp;morzach, porywaniu i&nbsp;mordowaniu ludzi nimi "
+"płynących."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | If you don't believe that [-illegal-] copying {+not approved by the
+# | publisher+} is just like kidnap{+p+}ing and murder, you might prefer not
+# | to use the word &ldquo;piracy&rdquo; to describe it.  Neutral terms such
+# | as [-&ldquo;prohibited copying&rdquo; or-] &ldquo;unauthorized
+# | copying&rdquo; {+(or &ldquo;prohibited copying&rdquo; for the situation
+# | where it is illegal)+} are available for use instead.  Some of us might
+# | even prefer to use a positive term such as &ldquo;sharing information with
+# | your neighbor.&rdquo;
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "If you don't believe that illegal copying is just like kidnaping and "
+#| "murder, you might prefer not to use the word &ldquo;piracy&rdquo; to "
+#| "describe it.  Neutral terms such as &ldquo;prohibited copying&rdquo; or "
+#| "&ldquo;unauthorized copying&rdquo; are available for use instead.  Some "
+#| "of us might even prefer to use a positive term such as &ldquo;sharing "
+#| "information with your neighbor.&rdquo;"
+msgid ""
+"If you don't believe that copying not approved by the publisher is just like "
+"kidnapping and murder, you might prefer not to use the word &ldquo;"
+"piracy&rdquo; to describe it.  Neutral terms such as &ldquo;unauthorized "
+"copying&rdquo; (or &ldquo;prohibited copying&rdquo; for the situation where "
+"it is illegal) are available for use instead.  Some of us might even prefer "
+"to use a positive term such as &ldquo;sharing information with your neighbor."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Jeśli nie uważacie nielegalnego kopiowania za to samo, co porwanie 
czy&nbsp;"
+"morderstwo, zapewne wolelibyście nie używać do&nbsp;jego opisania słowa "
+"&bdquo;piractwo&rdquo;, by je opisać. Istnieją zamiast niego określenia "
+"neutralne, jak &bdquo;zabronione kopiowanie&rdquo; (&bdquo;prohibited "
+"copying&rdquo;) czy&nbsp;&bdquo;bezprawne kopiowanie&rdquo; (&bdquo;"
+"unauthorized copying&rdquo;). Niektórzy z&nbsp;nas może wolą nawet "
+"skorzystać z&nbsp;pozytywnie nacechowanego określenia, jak 
na&nbsp;przykład "
+"&bdquo;podzielić się informacją z&nbsp;sąsiadem&rdquo;."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement, recognized "
+"that <a href=\"http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-";
+"theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/\">&ldquo;piracy&rdquo; and &ldquo;"
+"theft&rdquo; are smear words.</a>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please avoid using the term &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; to mean any kind of "
+"slide presentation.  &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; is just the name of one "
+"particular proprietary program to make presentations.  For your freedom's "
+"sake, you should use only free software to make your presentations&mdash;"
+"which means, <em>not PowerPoint</em>.  Recommended options include TeX's "
+"<tt>beamer</tt> class and LibreOffice.org's Impress."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Product&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If you're talking about a product, by all means call it that.  However, when "
+"referring to a service, please do not call it a &ldquo;product.&rdquo; If a "
+"service provider calls the service a &ldquo;product,&rdquo; please firmly "
+"insist on calling it a &ldquo;service.&rdquo; If a service provider calls a "
+"package deal a &ldquo;product,&rdquo; please firmly insist on calling it a "
+"&ldquo;deal.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Protection&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Ochrona&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Publishers' lawyers love to use the term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; to "
+"describe copyright.  This word carries the implication of preventing "
+"destruction or suffering; therefore, it encourages people to identify with "
+"the owner and publisher who benefit from copyright, rather than with the "
+"users who are restricted by it."
+msgstr ""
+"Prawnicy wydawców opisując prawa autorskie uwielbiają używać terminu 
&bdquo;"
+"ochrona&rdquo;. To słowo przywodzi na&nbsp;myśl zapobieganie zniszczeniu "
+"lub&nbsp;cierpieniom, a&nbsp;tym samym zachęca ludzi do&nbsp;identyfikowania 
"
+"się z&nbsp;właścicielem i&nbsp;wydawcą, którzy czerpią korzyści 
z&nbsp;praw "
+"autorskich, nie zaś z&nbsp;użytkownikami, którzy są przez nie 
ograniczani."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | It is easy to avoid &ldquo;protection&rdquo; and use neutral terms
+# | instead.  For example, instead of {+saying,+} &ldquo;Copyright protection
+# | lasts a very long time,&rdquo; you can say, &ldquo;Copyright lasts a very
+# | long time.&rdquo;
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "It is easy to avoid &ldquo;protection&rdquo; and use neutral terms "
+#| "instead.  For example, instead of &ldquo;Copyright protection lasts a "
+#| "very long time,&rdquo; you can say, &ldquo;Copyright lasts a very long "
+#| "time.&rdquo;"
+msgid ""
+"It is easy to avoid &ldquo;protection&rdquo; and use neutral terms instead.  "
+"For example, instead of saying, &ldquo;Copyright protection lasts a very "
+"long time,&rdquo; you can say, &ldquo;Copyright lasts a very long time."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Łatwo uniknąć &bdquo;ochrony&rdquo; i&nbsp;korzystać w zamian z 
neutralnych "
+"określeń. Na&nbsp;przykład, zamiast &bdquo;ochrona praw autorskich działa 
"
+"bardzo długo&rdquo; (&bdquo;copyright protection lasts a very long "
+"time&rdquo;), można powiedzieć &bdquo;prawa autorskie działają bardzo "
+"długo&rdquo; (&bdquo;copyright lasts a very long time&rdquo;)."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Likewise, instead of saying, &ldquo;protected by copyright,&rdquo; you can "
+"say, &ldquo;covered by copyright&rdquo; or just &ldquo;copyrighted.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | If you want to criticize copyright [-instead of supporting it,-] {+rather
+# | than be neutral,+} you can use the term &ldquo;copyright
+# | restrictions.&rdquo; {+Thus, you can say, &ldquo;Copyright restrictions
+# | last a very long time.&rdquo;+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "If you want to criticize copyright instead of supporting it, you can use "
+#| "the term &ldquo;copyright restrictions.&rdquo;"
+msgid ""
+"If you want to criticize copyright rather than be neutral, you can use the "
+"term &ldquo;copyright restrictions.&rdquo; Thus, you can say, &ldquo;"
+"Copyright restrictions last a very long time.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Jeśli zamierzacie skrytykować prawa autorskie, a&nbsp;nie je popierać, "
+"możecie użyć sformułowania &bdquo;ograniczenia wynikające z [systemu] 
praw "
+"autorskich&rdquo; (&bdquo;copyright restrictions&rdquo;)."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; is also used to describe malicious "
+"features.  For instance, &ldquo;copy protection&rdquo; is a feature that "
+"interferes with copying.  From the user's point of view, this is "
+"obstruction.  So we could call that malicious feature &ldquo;copy "
+"obstruction.&rdquo; More often it is called Digital Restrictions Management "
+"(DRM)&mdash;see the <a href=\"http://DefectiveByDesign.org\";> Defective by "
+"Design</a> campaign."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;RAND (Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory)&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Standards bodies that promulgate patent-restricted standards that prohibit "
+"free software typically have a policy of obtaining patent licenses that "
+"require a fixed fee per copy of a conforming program.  They often refer to "
+"such licenses by the term &ldquo;RAND,&rdquo; which stands for &ldquo;"
+"reasonable and non-discriminatory.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"That term whitewashes a class of patent licenses that are normally neither "
+"reasonable nor nondiscriminatory.  It is true that these licenses do not "
+"discriminate against any specific person, but they do discriminate against "
+"the free software community, and that makes them unreasonable.  Thus, half "
+"of the term &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; is deceptive and the other half is prejudiced."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Standards bodies should recognize that these licenses are discriminatory, "
+"and drop the use of the term &ldquo;reasonable and non-discriminatory&rdquo; "
+"or &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; to describe them.  Until they do so, writers who do "
+"not wish to join in the whitewashing would do well to reject that term.  To "
+"accept and use it merely because patent-wielding companies have made it "
+"widespread is to let those companies dictate the views you express."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We suggest the term &ldquo;uniform fee only,&rdquo; or &ldquo;UFO&rdquo; for "
+"short, as a replacement.  It is accurate because the only condition in these "
+"licenses is a uniform royalty fee."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;SaaS&rdquo; or &ldquo;Software as a Service&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We used to say that SaaS (short for &ldquo;Software as a Service&rdquo;) is "
+"an injustice, but then we found that there was a lot of variation in "
+"people's understanding of which activities count as SaaS.  So we switched to "
+"a new term, &ldquo;Service as a Software Substitute&rdquo; or &ldquo;SaaSS."
+"&rdquo; This term has two advantages: it wasn't used before, so our "
+"definition is the only one, and it explains what the injustice consists of."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"See <a href=\"/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html\">Who Does "
+"That Server Really Serve?</a> for discussion of this issue."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In Spanish we continue to use the term &ldquo;software como servicio&rdquo; "
+"because the joke of &ldquo;software como ser vicio&rdquo; (&ldquo;software, "
+"as being pernicious&rdquo;) is too good to give up."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Sell software&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Sprzedawać programy (sell software)&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | The term &ldquo;sell software&rdquo; is ambiguous.  Strictly speaking,
+# | exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money is [-&ldquo;<a-]
+# | {+<a+} href=\"/philosophy/selling.html\"> [-selling</a>&rdquo;; but-]
+# | {+selling the program</a>, and there is nothing wrong with doing that. 
+# | However,+} people usually associate the term [-&ldquo;sell&rdquo;-]
+# | {+&ldquo;selling software&rdquo;+} with proprietary restrictions on the
+# | subsequent use of the software.  You can be [-more precise,-] {+clear,+}
+# | and prevent confusion, by saying either &ldquo;distributing copies of a
+# | program for a fee&rdquo; or &ldquo;imposing proprietary restrictions on
+# | the use of a [-program&bdquo;&rdquo; depending on what you mean.-]
+# | {+program.&rdquo;+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "The term &ldquo;sell software&rdquo; is ambiguous.  Strictly speaking, "
+#| "exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money is &ldquo;<a href="
+#| "\"/philosophy/selling.html\"> selling</a>&rdquo;; but people usually "
+#| "associate the term &ldquo;sell&rdquo; with proprietary restrictions on "
+#| "the subsequent use of the software.  You can be more precise, and prevent "
+#| "confusion, by saying either &ldquo;distributing copies of a program for a "
+#| "fee&rdquo; or &ldquo;imposing proprietary restrictions on the use of a "
+#| "program&bdquo;&rdquo; depending on what you mean."
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;sell software&rdquo; is ambiguous.  Strictly speaking, "
+"exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money is <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/selling.html\"> selling the program</a>, and there is nothing "
+"wrong with doing that.  However, people usually associate the term &ldquo;"
+"selling software&rdquo; with proprietary restrictions on the subsequent use "
+"of the software.  You can be clear, and prevent confusion, by saying either "
+"&ldquo;distributing copies of a program for a fee&rdquo; or &ldquo;imposing "
+"proprietary restrictions on the use of a program.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"Termin &bdquo;sprzedawać oprogramowanie&rdquo; jest niejednoznaczny. 
Ściśle "
+"mówiąc, wymiana kopii wolnego programu na&nbsp;pewną sumę pieniędzy jest 
"
+"&bdquo;<a href=\"/philosophy/selling.html\">sprzedażą</a>&rdquo;. Jednak "
+"ludzie zwykle kojarzą pojęcie &bdquo;sprzedaży&rdquo; z&nbsp;nakładanymi "
+"zastrzeżeniem praw ograniczeniami w&nbsp;dalszym użytkowaniu programu. "
+"Możecie być precyzyjniejsi, i&nbsp;zapobiegać nieporozumieniom, mówiąc 
albo "
+"o &bdquo;rozpowszechnianiu kopii programu za opłatą&rdquo; (&bdquo;"
+"distributing copies of a program for a fee&rdquo;) albo o &bdquo;wymaganiu "
+"opłaty za nałożone zastrzeżeniem praw ograniczenia w&nbsp;korzystaniu 
z&nbsp;"
+"programu&rdquo; (&bdquo;imposing proprietary restrictions on the use of a "
+"program&rdquo;), zależnie od&nbsp;tego, co macie na&nbsp;myśli."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"See <a href=\"/philosophy/selling.html\">Selling Free Software</a> for "
+"further discussion of this issue."
+msgstr ""
+"Dokładniej omówiono to zagadnienie w&nbsp;artykule &bdquo;<a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/selling.html\">Sprzedaż wolnego oprogramowania</a>&rdquo;."
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Sharing (personal data)&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When companies manipulate or lure people into revealing personal data and "
+"thus ceding their privacy, please don't refer to this as &ldquo;sharing."
+"&rdquo; We use the term &ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to refer to noncommercial "
+"cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of exact copies of "
+"published works, and we say this is <em>good</em>.  Please don't apply that "
+"word to a practice which is harmful and dangerous."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Sharing economy&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;sharing economy&rdquo; is not a good way to refer to "
+"services such as Uber and Airbnb that arrange business transactions between "
+"people.  We use the term &ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to refer to noncommercial "
+"cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of exact copies of "
+"published works.  Stretching the word &ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to include these "
+"transactions undermines its meaning, so we don't use it in this context."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A more suitable term for businesses like Uber is the &ldquo;piecework "
+"service economy.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Skype&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please avoid using the term &ldquo;skype&rdquo; as a verb, meaning any kind "
+"of video communication or telephony over the Internet in general.  &ldquo;"
+"Skype&rdquo; is just the name of one particular proprietary program, one "
+"that <a href=\"/philosophy/proprietary/proprietary-surveillance."
+"html#SpywareInSkype\"> spies on its users</a>. If you want to make video and "
+"voice calls over the Internet in a way that respects both your freedom and "
+"your privacy, try one of the <a href=\"https://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group:";
+"Skype_Replacement\"> numerous free Skype replacements</a>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Software Industry&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;software industry&rdquo; encourages people to imagine that "
+"software is always developed by a sort of factory and then delivered to "
+"&ldquo;consumers.&rdquo; The free software community shows this is not the "
+"case.  Software businesses exist, and various businesses develop free and/or "
+"nonfree software, but those that develop free software are not run like "
+"factories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;industry&rdquo; is being used as propaganda by advocates of "
+"software patents.  They call software development &ldquo;industry&rdquo; and "
+"then try to argue that this means it should be subject to patent "
+"monopolies.  <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20071215073111/http://";
+"eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/\" title=\"archived version of http://";
+"eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/\">The European Parliament, rejecting "
+"software patents in 2003, voted to define &ldquo;industry&rdquo; as &ldquo;"
+"automated production of material goods.&rdquo;</a>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Source model&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Wikipedia uses the term &ldquo;source model&rdquo; in a confused and "
+"ambiguous way.  Ostensibly it refers to how a program's source is "
+"distributed, but the text confuses this with the development methodology.  "
+"It distinguishes &ldquo;open source&rdquo; and &rdquo;shared source&rdquo; "
+"as answers, but they overlap &mdash; Microsoft uses the latter as a "
+"marketing term to cover a range of practices, some of which are &ldquo;open "
+"source&rdquo;.  Thus, this term really conveys no coherent information, but "
+"it provides an opportunity to say &ldquo;open source&rdquo; in pages "
+"describing free software programs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Terminal&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Mobile phones and tablets are computers, and people should be able to do "
+"their computing on them using free software.  To call them &ldquo;"
+"terminals&rdquo; supposes that all they are good for is to connect to "
+"servers, which is a bad way to do your own computing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Theft&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&bdquo;Kradzież&rdquo;"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-Copyright apologists-]{+The supporters of a too-strict, repressive form
+# | of copyright+} often use words like &ldquo;stolen&rdquo; and
+# | &ldquo;theft&rdquo; to [-describe-] {+refer to+} copyright infringement. 
+# | [-At the same time,-]  {+This is spin, but+} they [-ask us-] {+would like
+# | you+} to [-treat the legal system as an authority on ethics: if copying is
+# | forbidden,-] {+take+} it [-must be wrong.-] {+for objective truth.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Copyright apologists often use words like &ldquo;stolen&rdquo; and &ldquo;"
+#| "theft&rdquo; to describe copyright infringement.  At the same time, they "
+#| "ask us to treat the legal system as an authority on ethics: if copying is "
+#| "forbidden, it must be wrong."
+msgid ""
+"The supporters of a too-strict, repressive form of copyright often use words "
+"like &ldquo;stolen&rdquo; and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; to refer to copyright "
+"infringement.  This is spin, but they would like you to take it for "
+"objective truth."
+msgstr ""
+"Apologeci praw autorskich do&nbsp;opisania naruszenia praw autorskich często 
"
+"używają słów takich jak &bdquo;ukradziony&rdquo; czy&nbsp;&bdquo;"
+"kradzież&rdquo;. Równocześnie chcą, żebyśmy uważali system prawny za "
+"autorytet etyczny: jeśli kopiowanie jest zakazane, to musi być złe."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-So it is pertinent to mention that-]{+Under+} the {+US+} legal
+# | [-system&mdash;at least in the US&mdash;<a
+# | 
href=\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207\";>rejects
+# | the idea that-] {+system,+} copyright infringement is
+# | [-&ldquo;theft&rdquo;</a>. Copyright apologists-] {+not theft.  <a
+# | 
href=\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207\";>
+# | Laws about theft are not applicable to copyright infringement.</a> The
+# | supporters of repressive copyright+} are making an appeal to
+# | [-authority...and-] {+authority&mdash;and+} misrepresenting what [-the-]
+# | authority says.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "So it is pertinent to mention that the legal system&mdash;at least in the "
+#| "US&mdash;<a href=\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?";
+#| "court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207\">rejects the idea that copyright "
+#| "infringement is &ldquo;theft&rdquo;</a>. Copyright apologists are making "
+#| "an appeal to authority...and misrepresenting what the authority says."
+msgid ""
+"Under the US legal system, copyright infringement is not theft.  <a href="
+"\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;";
+"invol=207\"> Laws about theft are not applicable to copyright infringement.</"
+"a> The supporters of repressive copyright are making an appeal to "
+"authority&mdash;and misrepresenting what authority says."
+msgstr ""
+"W&nbsp;związku z&nbsp;tym należy zauważyć, że&nbsp;system prawny (co "
+"najmniej w&nbsp;USA) <a href=\"http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.";
+"pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207\">odrzuca ideę, jakoby złamanie praw "
+"autorskich było &bdquo;kradzieżą&rdquo;</a>. Obrońcy praw autorskich "
+"używający terminów w&nbsp;rodzaju &bdquo;skradziony&rdquo; powołują się 
"
+"na&nbsp;autorytet&hellip; i&nbsp;fałszywie przedstawiają jego zdanie."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"To refute them, you can point to this <a href=\"http://www.guardian.co.uk/";
+"books/2013/may/04/harper-lee-kill-mockingbird-copyright\"> real case</a> "
+"which shows what can properly be described as &ldquo;copyright theft.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+# | [-The idea that laws decide what is right or wrong-]{+Unauthorized
+# | copying+} is [-mistaken-] {+forbidden by copyright law+} in [-general. 
+# | Laws are,-] {+many circumstances (not all!), but being forbidden doesn't
+# | make it wrong.  In general, laws don't define right and wrong.  Laws,+} at
+# | their best, [-an-] attempt to [-achieve justice; to say that-] {+implement
+# | justice.  If the+} laws [-define justice or ethical conduct is turning
+# | things upside down.-] {+(the implementation) don't fit our ideas of right
+# | and wrong (the spec), the laws are what should change.+}
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "The idea that laws decide what is right or wrong is mistaken in general.  "
+#| "Laws are, at their best, an attempt to achieve justice; to say that laws "
+#| "define justice or ethical conduct is turning things upside down."
+msgid ""
+"Unauthorized copying is forbidden by copyright law in many circumstances "
+"(not all!), but being forbidden doesn't make it wrong.  In general, laws "
+"don't define right and wrong.  Laws, at their best, attempt to implement "
+"justice.  If the laws (the implementation) don't fit our ideas of right and "
+"wrong (the spec), the laws are what should change."
+msgstr ""
+"Pogląd, że&nbsp;prawo decyduje o tym, co dobre, a&nbsp;co złe, jest 
z&nbsp;"
+"gruntu błędny. Prawa są, w&nbsp;najlepszym razie, próbą osiągnięcia "
+"sprawiedliwości. Mówienie, że&nbsp;prawa wyznaczają sprawiedliwość 
czy&nbsp;"
+"normy etyczne jest stawianiem rzeczy na&nbsp;głowie."
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement, recognized "
+"that <a href=\"http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-";
+"theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/\">&ldquo;piracy&rdquo; and &ldquo;"
+"theft&rdquo; are smear-words.</a>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Trusted Computing&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<a href=\"/philosophy/can-you-trust.html\">&ldquo;Trusted computing&rdquo;</"
+"a> is the proponents' name for a scheme to redesign computers so that "
+"application developers can trust your computer to obey them instead of you.  "
+"From their point of view, it is &ldquo;trusted&rdquo;; from your point of "
+"view, it is &ldquo;treacherous.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Vendor&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Please don't use the term &ldquo;vendor&rdquo; to refer generally to anyone "
+"that develops or packages software.  Many programs are developed in order to "
+"sell copies, and their developers are therefore their vendors; this even "
+"includes some free software packages.  However, many programs are developed "
+"by volunteers or organizations which do not intend to sell copies.  These "
+"developers are not vendors.  Likewise, only some of the packagers of GNU/"
+"Linux distributions are vendors.  We recommend the general term &ldquo;"
+"supplier&rdquo; instead."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"This essay is published in <a href=\"http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-";
+"software-free-society/\"><cite>Free Software, Free Society: The Selected "
+"Essays of Richard M. Stallman</cite></a>."
+msgstr ""
+"Ten esej jest opublikowany w&nbsp;<a href=\"http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-";
+"software-free-society/\"><cite>Free Software, Free Society: The Selected "
+"Essays of Richard M. Stallman</cite></a>."
+
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
+#. type: Content of: <div>
+msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S NOTES*"
+msgstr ""
+"<hr /><b>Przypis tłumacza</b>\n"
+"<ol><li><a id=\"TransNote1\" href=\"#revTransNote1\" class=\"nounderline"
+"\">&#8593;</a>&nbsp;\n"
+"Opisany niżej problem nie występuje w&nbsp;języku polskim, gdyż słowa 
&bdquo;"
+"wolny&rdquo;, &bdquo;swobodny&rdquo; nigdy nie oznaczają &bdquo;"
+"bezpłatny&rdquo;, &bdquo;darmowy&rdquo;. Niemniej, w&nbsp;związku z&nbsp;"
+"nagminnym nazywaniem wolnego oprogramowania programami darmowymi i&nbsp;"
+"pojawiającymi się stąd oskarżeniami, że&nbsp;programistów chce się 
pozbawić "
+"pieniędzy na&nbsp;chleb, warto przeczytać.</li>\n"
+"</ol>"
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a 
href=\"mailto:address@hidden";
+"\">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are also <a href=\"/contact/\">other 
ways "
+"to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions "
+"can be sent to <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden\";>&lt;webmasters@gnu."
+"org&gt;</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"Wszelkie pytania dotyczące GNU i&nbsp;FSF prosimy kierować na&nbsp;adres <a 
"
+"href=\"mailto:address@hidden\";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>. Inne metody 
kontaktu "
+"z&nbsp;FSF można znaleźć na&nbsp;stronie <a href=\"/contact/contact.html"
+"\">kontakt</a> <br /> Informacje o niedziałających odnośnikach oraz&nbsp;"
+"inne poprawki (lub propozycje) prosimy wysyłać na&nbsp;adres <a href="
+"\"mailto:address@hidden\";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>."
+
+#.  TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+#.         replace it with the translation of these two:
+#.         We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+#.         translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+#.         Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+#.         to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+#.         &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+#.         <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+#.         our web pages, see <a
+#.         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+#.         README</a>. 
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html"
+"\">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting "
+"translations of this article."
+msgstr ""
+"Staramy się, aby&nbsp;tłumaczenia były wierne i&nbsp;wysokiej jakości, "
+"ale&nbsp;nie jesteśmy zwolnieni z&nbsp;niedoskonałości. Komentarze 
odnośnie "
+"tłumaczenia polskiego oraz&nbsp;zgłoszenia dotyczące chęci współpracy 
w&nbsp;"
+"tłumaczeniu prosimy kierować na&nbsp;adres <a 
href=\"mailto:www-pl-trans@gnu.";
+"org\">address@hidden</a>. <br /> Więcej informacji na&nbsp;temat "
+"koordynacji oraz&nbsp;zgłaszania propozycji tłumaczeń artykułów 
znajdziecie "
+"na&nbsp;<a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html\">stronie "
+"tłumaczeń</a>."
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+# | Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, [-2002-] {+2002, 2003,
+# | 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018+} Free
+# | Software Foundation, Inc.
+#, fuzzy
+#| msgid ""
+#| "Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 Free Software "
+#| "Foundation, Inc."
+msgid ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, "
+"2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 Free Software "
+"Foundation, Inc."
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"This page is licensed under a <a rel=\"license\" href=\"http://";
+"creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-"
+"NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"Ta strona jest dostępna na&nbsp;<a rel=\"license\" href=\"http://";
+"creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/deed.pl\">licencji Creative Commons "
+"Uznanie autorstwa&nbsp;&ndash; Bez&nbsp;utworów zależnych 4.0 "
+"Międzynarodowe</a>."
+
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div>
+msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S CREDITS*"
+msgstr "Tłumaczenie: Wojciech Kotwica 2001, 2002."
+
+#.  timestamp start 
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Updated:"
+msgstr "Aktualizowane:"
+
+#~ msgid "Some Confusing or Loaded Words and Phrases that are Worth Avoiding"
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Mylące lub&nbsp;nacechowane słowa i&nbsp;sformułowania, których lepiej 
"
+#~ "unikać"
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "&ldquo;<a href=\"#BSD-style\">BSD-style</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#Commercial\">Commercial</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#Creator"
+#~ "\">Creator</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#DigitalRightsManagement"
+#~ "\">Digital Rights Management</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#ForFree\">For "
+#~ "free</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#Freeware\">Freeware</a>&rdquo; | "
+#~ "&ldquo;<a href=\"#GiveAwaySoftware\">Give away software</a>&rdquo; | "
+#~ "&ldquo;<a href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">Intellectual property</a>&rdquo; "
+#~ "| &ldquo;<a href=\"#Piracy\">Piracy</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#Protection\">Protection</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#SellSoftware"
+#~ "\">Sell software</a>&rdquo; | &ldquo;<a href=\"#Theft\">Theft</a>&rdquo;"
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "&bdquo;<a href=\"#BSD-style\">Typu BSD</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#Commercial\">Komercyjny</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href=\"#Creator"
+#~ "\">Twórca</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href=\"#DigitalRightsManagement"
+#~ "\">Administrowanie prawami do&nbsp;dokumentów cyfrowych</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| 
"
+#~ "&bdquo;<a href=\"#ForFree\">Za darmo</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#Freeware\">Freeware</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#GiveAwaySoftware\">Rozdawać&bnsp;programy</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a "
+#~ "href=\"#IntellectualProperty\">Własność&bnsp;intelektualna</a>&rdquo;"
+#~ "&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href=\"#Piracy\">Piractwo</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a "
+#~ "href=\"#Protection\">Ochrona</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a href="
+#~ "\"#SellSoftware\">Sprzedawać&bnsp;programy</a>&rdquo;&bnsp;| &bdquo;<a "
+#~ "href=\"#Theft\">Kradzież</a>&rdquo;"
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "Even the US legal system does not entirely accept this analogy, since it "
+#~ "does not treat copyrights like physical object property rights."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Nawet system prawny USA nie akceptuje w&nbsp;pełni tej analogii, gdyż 
nie "
+#~ "traktuje praw autorskich tak samo, jak praw własności do&nbsp;obiektów "
+#~ "materialnych."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "If you don't want to limit yourself to this way of thinking, it is best "
+#~ "to avoid using the term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; in your words "
+#~ "and thoughts."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Jeśli nie chcecie ograniczać się do&nbsp;tego sposobu myślenia, 
najlepiej "
+#~ "unikać stosowania określenia &bdquo;własność intelektualna&rdquo; 
zarówno "
+#~ "w&nbsp;słowach, jak i&nbsp;w&nbsp;myślach."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "There is another problem with &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;: it is "
+#~ "a catch-all that lumps together several disparate legal systems, "
+#~ "including copyright, patents, trademarks, and others, which have very "
+#~ "little in common.  These systems of law originated separately, cover "
+#~ "different activities, operate in different ways, and raise different "
+#~ "public policy issues.  For instance, if you learn a fact about copyright "
+#~ "law, you would do&nbsp;well to assume it is <em>not</em> true for patent "
+#~ "law, since that is almost always true."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Z&nbsp;&bdquo;własnością intelektualną&rdquo; jest jeszcze jeden 
kłopot: "
+#~ "jest to wrzucanie do&nbsp;jednego worka kilku odrębnych systemów "
+#~ "prawnych, między innymi praw autorskich, patentów, znaków handlowych, "
+#~ "które mają ze sobą bardzo mało wspólnego. Te systemy praw powstały "
+#~ "osobno, odnoszą się do&nbsp;odmiennych rodzajów ludzkich działań, "
+#~ "działają w&nbsp;odmienny sposób i&nbsp;pociągają za sobą odmienne "
+#~ "problemy społeczne. Na&nbsp;przykład, kiedy dowiecie się czegoś o 
prawie "
+#~ "autorskim, lepiej przyjąć, że&nbsp;to samo <em>nie</em> jest prawdą "
+#~ "w&nbsp;przypadku prawa patentowego, bo prawie zawsze tak jest."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "Since these laws are so different, the term &ldquo;intellectual "
+#~ "property&rdquo; is an invitation to simplistic overgeneralization.  Any "
+#~ "opinion about &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; is almost surely "
+#~ "foolish.  At that broad level, you can't even see the specific public "
+#~ "policy issues raised by copyright law, or the different issues raised by "
+#~ "patent law, or any of the others."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Ponieważ te przepisy są tak różne od&nbsp;siebie, termin 
&bdquo;własność "
+#~ "intelektualna&rdquo; stanowi zachętę do&nbsp;upraszczających 
uogólnień. "
+#~ "Każda opinia na&nbsp;temat &bdquo;własności intelektualnej&rdquo; jest "
+#~ "niemal na&nbsp;pewno pochopna. Przy tak wysokim stopniu ogólności nie "
+#~ "można nawet dostrzec specyficznych kwestii społecznych wynikających "
+#~ "z&nbsp;praw autorskich, odmiennych problemów wynikających z&nbsp;prawa "
+#~ "patentowego, czy&nbsp;któregokolwiek z&nbsp;pozostałych."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; leads people to focus on the "
+#~ "meager common aspect of these disparate laws, which is that they "
+#~ "establish various abstractions that can be bought and sold, and ignore "
+#~ "the important aspect, which is the restrictions they place on the public "
+#~ "and what good or harm those restrictions cause."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Termin &bdquo;własność intelektualna&rdquo; skłania ludzi do&nbsp;"
+#~ "koncentrowania się na&nbsp;wspólnym aspekcie tych nieporównywalnych ze "
+#~ "sobą przepisów, tym, że&nbsp;ustanawiają one rozmaite abstrakcyjne 
byty, "
+#~ "które można kupować i&nbsp;sprzedawać, zaś ignorują inny ważny 
aspekt, "
+#~ "dotyczący ograniczeń nakładanych przez nie na&nbsp;społeczeństwo oraz 
"
+#~ "pożytków i&nbsp;szkód, jakie przynoszą."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "If you want to think clearly about the issues raised by patents, "
+#~ "copyrights and trademarks, or even learn what these laws require, the "
+#~ "first step is to forget that you ever heard the term &ldquo;intellectual "
+#~ "property&rdquo; and treat them as unrelated subjects.  To give clear "
+#~ "information and encourage clear thinking, never speak or write about "
+#~ "&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;; instead, present the topic as "
+#~ "copyright, patents, or whichever specific law you are discussing."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Jeśli chcecie w&nbsp;klarowny sposób rozważać kwestie wypływające 
z&nbsp;"
+#~ "funkcjonowania patentów, prawa autorskiego czy&nbsp;znaków towarowych, "
+#~ "lub&nbsp;choćby poznać ich wymogi, pierwszym krokiem do&nbsp;tego jest "
+#~ "zapomnieć, że&nbsp;kiedykolwiek słyszeliście o &bdquo;własności "
+#~ "intelektualnej&rdquo; i&nbsp;traktować je jako niezwiązane ze sobą "
+#~ "tematy. Jeżeli zależy wam na&nbsp;przekazaniu jasnej informacji i&nbsp;"
+#~ "zachęcaniu innych do&nbsp;klarownego myślenia, nigdy nie mówcie ani nie 
"
+#~ "piszcie o &bdquo;własności intelektualnej&rdquo;, lecz jako temat "
+#~ "dyskusji wskazujcie: prawo autorskie, patenty, czy&nbsp;inne konkretne "
+#~ "przepisy."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "According to Professor Mark Lemley of the University of Texas Law School, "
+#~ "the widespread use of term \"intellectual property\" is a recent fad, "
+#~ "arising from the 1967 founding of the World Intellectual Property "
+#~ "Organization.  (See footnote 123 in his March 1997 book review, in the "
+#~ "Texas Law Review, of <em>Romantic Authorship and the Rhetoric of "
+#~ "Property</em> by James Boyle.)  WIPO represents the interests of the "
+#~ "holders of copyrights, patents and trademarks, and lobbies governments to "
+#~ "increase their power.  One WIPO treaty follows the lines of the Digital "
+#~ "Millennium Copyright Act, which has been used to censor useful free "
+#~ "software packages in the US.  See <a href=\"http://www.ekosweb.com/wipout/";
+#~ "\"> http://www.ekosweb.com/wipout/</a> for a counter-WIPO campaign."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Według profesora Marka Lemleya z&nbsp;Wydziału Prawa Uniwersytetu 
w&nbsp;"
+#~ "Teksasie rozpowszechnione stosowanie terminu &bdquo;własność "
+#~ "intelektualna&rdquo; jest niedawnym dziwactwem, wynikającym z&nbsp;"
+#~ "założenia w&nbsp;1967 roku Światowej Organizacji Własności 
Intelektualnej "
+#~ "(World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO). (Zob. przypis 123 jego "
+#~ "recenzji książek w&nbsp;Teksańskim Przeglądzie Prawniczym z&nbsp;marca 
"
+#~ "1997 roku, dotyczący pozycji Romantic Authorship and the Rhetoric of "
+#~ "Property autorstwa Jamesa Boyle'a.) WIPO reprezentuje interesy posiadaczy "
+#~ "praw autorskich, patentów i&nbsp;znaków towarowych, i&nbsp;aby 
zwiększyć "
+#~ "ich władzę prowadzi działania lobbystyczne wobec rządów. Jeden 
z&nbsp;"
+#~ "traktatów WIPO idzie w&nbsp;ślady ustawy Digital Millenium Copyright 
Act, "
+#~ "której użyto do&nbsp;cenzurowania użytecznych pakietów wolnego "
+#~ "oprogramowania w&nbsp;USA. Z&nbsp;kampanią prowadzoną przeciw WIPO 
można "
+#~ "zapoznać się na&nbsp;stronie <a href=\"http://www.ekosweb.com/wipout/";
+#~ "\">http://www.ekosweb.com/wipout/</a>."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "So it is pertinent to mention that the legal system&mdash;at least in the "
+#~ "US&mdash;rejects the idea that copyright infringement is &ldquo;theft."
+#~ "&rdquo; Copyright apologists are making an appeal to authority...and "
+#~ "misrepresenting what the authority says."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "W&nbsp;związku z&nbsp;tym należy zauważyć, że&nbsp;system prawny (co "
+#~ "najmniej w&nbsp;USA) odrzuca ideę, jakoby złamanie praw autorskich było 
"
+#~ "&bdquo;kradzieżą&rdquo;. Obrońcy praw autorskich używający terminów "
+#~ "w&nbsp;rodzaju &bdquo;skradziony&rdquo; powołują się na&nbsp;"
+#~ "autorytet&hellip; i&nbsp;fałszywie przedstawiają jego zdanie."
+
+#~ msgid ""
+#~ "The idea that laws decide what is right or wrong is mistaken in general.  "
+#~ "Laws are, at their best, an attempt to achieve justice; to say that laws "
+#~ "define justice or ethical conduct is turning things upside down."
+#~ msgstr ""
+#~ "Pogląd, że&nbsp;prawo decyduje o tym, co dobre, a&nbsp;co złe, jest "
+#~ "z&nbsp;gruntu błędny. Prawa są, w&nbsp;najlepszym razie, próbą "
+#~ "osiągnięcia sprawiedliwości. Mówienie, że&nbsp;prawa wyznaczają "
+#~ "sprawiedliwość czy&nbsp;normy etyczne jest stawianiem rzeczy na&nbsp;"
+#~ "głowie."



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