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www/gnu/po linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po

From: Wensheng XIE
Subject: www/gnu/po linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po
Date: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 05:31:43 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Wensheng XIE <wxie>     17/12/26 05:31:43

Added files:
        gnu/po         : linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po 

Log message:
        zh-cn: new translation


Index: linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po
RCS file: linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po
diff -N linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ linux-and-gnu.zh-cn.po      26 Dec 2017 10:31:42 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,507 @@
+# Simplified Chinese translation of https://www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html
+# Copyright (C) 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original article.
+# 白若玉
+# Wensheng Xie <address@hidden>, 2017.
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: linux-and-gnu.html\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-09-04 10:56+0000\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-12-26 12:10+0800\n"
+"Last-Translator: Wensheng Xie <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language-Team: Chinese <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language: zh_CN\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+#. type: Content of: <title>
+msgid "Linux and GNU - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "Linux和GNU - GNU工程 - 自由软件基金会"
+#. type: Attribute 'content' of: <meta>
+msgid ""
+"GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, Linux, Emacs, GCC, Unix, Free Software, "
+"Operating System, GNU Kernel, HURD, GNU HURD, Hurd"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Attribute 'content' of: <meta>
+msgid ""
+"Since 1983, developing the free Unix style operating system GNU, so that "
+"computer users can have the freedom to share and improve the software they "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h2>
+msgid "Linux and the GNU System"
+msgstr "Linux和GNU系统"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"<strong>by <a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";>Richard Stallman</a></strong>"
+msgstr ""
+"<strong><a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";>Richard Stallman</a></strong> 
+#. type: Content of: <div><blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"For more information see also the <a href=\"/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html\">GNU/"
+"Linux FAQ</a>, and <a href=\"/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html\">Why GNU/Linux?</a>"
+msgstr ""
+"和<a href=\"/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html\">为什么是GNU/Linux?</a>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Many computer users run a modified version of <a href=\"/philosophy/"
+"categories.html#TheGNUsystem\">the GNU system</a> every day, without "
+"realizing it.  Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which "
+"is widely used today is often called &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, and many of its "
+"users are <a href=\"/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html\"> not aware</a> "
+"that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the <a href=\"/gnu/gnu-"
+"history.html\">GNU Project</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"<a href=\"/gnu/gnu-history.html\">GNU工程</a>开发的。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There really is a Linux, and these people are using it, but it is just a "
+"part of the system they use.  Linux is the kernel: the program in the system "
+"that allocates the machine's resources to the other programs that you run.  "
+"The kernel is an essential part of an operating system, but useless by "
+"itself; it can only function in the context of a complete operating system.  "
+"Linux is normally used in combination with the GNU operating system: the "
+"whole system is basically GNU with Linux added, or GNU/Linux.  All the so-"
+"called &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; distributions are really distributions of GNU/"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Many users do not understand the difference between the kernel, which is "
+"Linux, and the whole system, which they also call &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  The "
+"ambiguous use of the name doesn't help people understand.  These users often "
+"think that Linus Torvalds developed the whole operating system in 1991, with "
+"a bit of help."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Programmers generally know that Linux is a kernel.  But since they have "
+"generally heard the whole system called &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; as well, they "
+"often envisage a history that would justify naming the whole system after "
+"the kernel.  For example, many believe that once Linus Torvalds finished "
+"writing Linux, the kernel, its users looked around for other free software "
+"to go with it, and found that (for no particular reason)  most everything "
+"necessary to make a Unix-like system was already available."
+msgstr ""
+"旦Linus Torvalds完成了Linux内核,å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"What they found was no accident&mdash;it was the not-quite-complete GNU "
+"system.  The available <a href=\"/philosophy/free-sw.html\">free software</"
+"a> added up to a complete system because the GNU Project had been working "
+"since 1984 to make one.  In the <a href=\"/gnu/manifesto.html\"> GNU "
+"Manifesto</a> we set forth the goal of developing a free Unix-like system, "
+"called GNU.  The <a href=\"/gnu/initial-announcement.html\"> Initial "
+"Announcement</a> of the GNU Project also outlines some of the original plans "
+"for the GNU system. By the time Linux was started, GNU was almost finished."
+msgstr ""
¨éƒ¨å®Œæˆçš„GNU系统。这些已经完成的<a "
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Most free software projects have the goal of developing a particular program "
+"for a particular job.  For example, Linus Torvalds set out to write a Unix-"
+"like kernel (Linux); Donald Knuth set out to write a text formatter (TeX); "
+"Bob Scheifler set out to develop a window system (the X Window System). It's "
+"natural to measure the contribution of this kind of project by specific "
+"programs that came from the project."
+msgstr ""
‡ã€‚例如,Linus Torvalds编写一个类似"
Knuth编写一个文本排版软件(TeX);Bob Scheifler开"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If we tried to measure the GNU Project's contribution in this way, what "
+"would we conclude? One CD-ROM vendor found that in their &ldquo;Linux "
+"distribution&rdquo;, <a href=\"/philosophy/categories.html#GNUsoftware\">GNU "
+"software</a> was the largest single contingent, around 28% of the total "
+"source code, and this included some of the essential major components "
+"without which there could be no system.  Linux itself was about 3%.  (The "
+"proportions in 2008 are similar: in the &ldquo;main&rdquo; repository of "
+"gNewSense, Linux is 1.5% and GNU packages are 15%.)  So if you were going to "
+"pick a name for the system based on who wrote the programs in the system, "
+"the most appropriate single choice would be &ldquo;GNU&rdquo;."
+msgstr ""
+"的&ldquo;Linux发行版&rdquo;中,<a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But that is not the deepest way to consider the question.  The GNU Project "
+"was not, is not, a project to develop specific software packages.  It was "
+"not a project <a href=\"/software/gcc/\"> to develop a C compiler</a>, "
+"although we did that.  It was not a project to develop a text editor, "
+"although we developed one.  The GNU Project set out to develop <em>a "
+"complete free Unix-like system</em>: GNU."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the "
+"system, and they all deserve credit for their software.  But the reason it "
+"is <em>an integrated system</em>&mdash;and not just a collection of useful "
+"programs&mdash;is because the GNU Project set out to make it one.  We made a "
+"list of the programs needed to make a <em>complete</em> free system, and we "
+"systematically found, wrote, or found people to write everything on the "
+"list.  We wrote essential but unexciting <a href=\"#unexciting\">(1)</a> "
+"components because you can't have a system without them.  Some of our system "
+"components, the programming tools, became popular on their own among "
+"programmers, but we wrote many components that are not tools <a href="
+"\"#nottools\">(2)</a>.  We even developed a chess game, GNU Chess, because a "
+"complete system needs games too."
+msgstr ""
+"际象棋游戏,叫GNU Chess,因
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"By the early 90s we had put together the whole system aside from the "
+"kernel.  We had also started a kernel, the <a href=\"/software/hurd/hurd.html"
+"\">GNU Hurd</a>, which runs on top of Mach.  Developing this kernel has been "
+"a lot harder than we expected; <a href=\"/software/hurd/hurd-and-linux.html"
+"\">the GNU Hurd started working reliably in 2001</a>, but it is a long way "
+"from being ready for people to use in general."
+msgstr ""
+"开始开发一个内核,称为<a href=\"/software/hurd/hurd.html\">GNU 
+"在Mach<sup><a href=\"#TransNote1\">1</a></sup>之上。开发这个内æ 
+"要难得多;<a href=\"/software/hurd/hurd-and-linux.html\">GNU 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Fortunately, we didn't have to wait for the Hurd, because of Linux.  Once "
+"Torvalds freed Linux in 1992, it fit into the last major gap in the GNU "
+"system.  People could then <a href=\"http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/linux/";
+"historical/kernel/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.01\"> combine Linux with the GNU "
+"system</a> to make a complete free system &mdash; a version of the GNU "
+"system which also contained Linux.  The GNU/Linux system, in other words."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Making them work well together was not a trivial job.  Some GNU components<a "
+"href=\"#somecomponents\">(3)</a> needed substantial change to work with "
+"Linux.  Integrating a complete system as a distribution that would work "
+"&ldquo;out of the box&rdquo; was a big job, too.  It required addressing the "
+"issue of how to install and boot the system&mdash;a problem we had not "
+"tackled, because we hadn't yet reached that point.  Thus, the people who "
+"developed the various system distributions did a lot of essential work.  But "
+"it was work that, in the nature of things, was surely going to be done by "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as <em>the</em> GNU "
+"system.  The <a href=\"http://fsf.org/\";>FSF</a> funded the rewriting of the "
+"Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they are well "
+"integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current library release "
+"with no changes.  The FSF also funded an early stage of the development of "
+"Debian GNU/Linux."
+msgstr ""
需修改。FSF也为早期Debian "
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Today there are many different variants of the GNU/Linux system (often "
+"called &ldquo;distros&rdquo;).  Most of them include non-free software&mdash;"
+"their developers follow the philosophy associated with Linux rather than "
+"that of GNU.  But there are also <a href=\"/distros/distros.html"
+"\">completely free GNU/Linux distros</a>.  The FSF supports computer "
+"facilities for <a href=\"http://gnewsense.org/\";>gNewSense</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"而,也有<a href=\"/distros/distros.html\">完å…
+"支持和<a href=\"http://gnewsense.org/\";>gNewSense</a>发行版相å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Making a free GNU/Linux distribution is not just a matter of eliminating "
+"various non-free programs.  Nowadays, the usual version of Linux contains "
+"non-free programs too.  These programs are intended to be loaded into I/O "
+"devices when the system starts, and they are included, as long series of "
+"numbers, in the \"source code\" of Linux.  Thus, maintaining free GNU/Linux "
+"distributions now entails maintaining a <a href=\"http://directory.fsf.org/";
+"project/linux\"> free version of Linux</a> too."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Whether you use GNU/Linux or not, please don't confuse the public by using "
+"the name &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; ambiguously.  Linux is the kernel, one of the "
+"essential major components of the system.  The system as a whole is "
+"basically the GNU system, with Linux added.  When you're talking about this "
+"combination, please call it &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo;."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If you want to make a link on &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; for further reference, "
+"this page and <a href=\"/gnu/the-gnu-project.html\"> http://www.gnu.org/gnu/";
+"the-gnu-project.html</a> are good choices.  If you mention Linux, the "
+"kernel, and want to add a link for further reference, <a href=\"http://";
+"foldoc.org/linux\">http://foldoc.org/linux</a> is a good URL to use."
+msgstr ""
¸çš„Linux,要为它提供参考链接,<a href=\"http://foldoc.";
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Postscripts"
+msgstr "后记"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced a free Unix-"
+"like operating system.  This system is known as BSD, and it was developed at "
+"UC Berkeley.  It was non-free in the 80s, but became free in the early 90s.  "
+"A free operating system that exists today<a href=\"#newersystems\">(4)</a> "
+"is almost certainly either a variant of the GNU system, or a kind of BSD "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"People sometimes ask whether BSD too is a version of GNU, like GNU/Linux.  "
+"The BSD developers were inspired to make their code free software by the "
+"example of the GNU Project, and explicit appeals from GNU activists helped "
+"persuade them, but the code had little overlap with GNU.  BSD systems today "
+"use some GNU programs, just as the GNU system and its variants use some BSD "
+"programs; however, taken as wholes, they are two different systems that "
+"evolved separately.  The BSD developers did not write a kernel and add it to "
+"the GNU system, and a name like GNU/BSD would not fit the situation.<a href="
+msgstr ""
+"字,并不是这个情况。<a href=\"#gnubsd\">(5)</a>"
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Notes:"
+msgstr "注:"
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a id=\"unexciting\"></a>These unexciting but essential components include "
+"the GNU assembler (GAS) and the linker (GLD), both are now part of the <a "
+"href=\"/software/binutils/\">GNU Binutils</a> package, <a href=\"/software/"
+"tar/\">GNU tar</a>, and many more."
+msgstr ""
+"<a id=\"unexciting\"></a>这些关键但枯燥的部件包
+"(GLD),他们现在都是<a href=\"/software/binutils/\">GNU 
+"一部分,以及<a href=\"/software/tar/\">GNU tar</a>,还有å…
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a id=\"nottools\"></a>For instance, The Bourne Again SHell (BASH), the "
+"PostScript interpreter <a href=\"/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html"
+"\">Ghostscript</a>, and the <a href=\"/software/libc/libc.html\">GNU C "
+"library</a> are not programming tools.  Neither are GNUCash, GNOME, and GNU "
+msgstr ""
+"<a id=\"nottools\"></a>比如,Bourne Again 
SHell(BASH),PostScript解释器<a "
+"href=\"/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html\">Ghostscript</a>,和<a href="
+"\"/software/libc/libc.html\">GNU C库</a>都不是编程工å…
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a id=\"somecomponents\"></a>For instance, the <a href=\"/software/libc/libc."
+"html\">GNU C library</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"<a id=\"somecomponents\"></a>例如,<a 
href=\"/software/libc/libc.html\">GNU C"
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a id=\"newersystems\"></a>Since that was written, a nearly-all-free Windows-"
+"like system has been developed, but technically it is not at all like GNU or "
+"Unix, so it doesn't really affect this issue.  Most of the kernel of Solaris "
+"has been made free, but if you wanted to make a free system out of that, "
+"aside from replacing the missing parts of the kernel, you would also need to "
+"put it into GNU or BSD."
+msgstr ""
+"<a id=\"newersystems\"></a>自从本文出版以来,有一个几乎完å…
+#. type: Content of: <ol><li>
+msgid ""
+"<a id=\"gnubsd\"></a>On the other hand, in the years since this article was "
+"written, the GNU C Library has been ported to several versions of the BSD "
+"kernel, which made it straightforward to combine the GNU system with that "
+"kernel.  Just as with GNU/Linux, these are indeed variants of GNU, and are "
+"therefore called, for instance, GNU/kFreeBSD and GNU/kNetBSD depending on "
+"the kernel of the system.  Ordinary users on typical desktops can hardly "
+"distinguish between GNU/Linux and GNU/*BSD."
+msgstr ""
+"<a id=\"gnubsd\"></a>另一方面,自从本文发表之后,GNU 
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
+#. type: Content of: <div>
+msgstr ""
+"<li id=\"TransNote1\">Mach,一个由卡内基.梅隆大学开发的微内æ 
+"生版本成为GNU Hurd的内核。</li>\n"
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a 
+"\">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are also <a href=\"/contact/\">other 
ways "
+"to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions "
+"can be sent to <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden"
+msgstr ""
+"请将有关自由软件基金会(FSF) &amp; GNU 的一般性 &amp; 
问题发送到<a href="
+"\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>。也可以通过 <a 
+"contact/\">其他联系方法</a> 联系自由软件基金会(FSF)。请将无
+"建议发送给<a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</"
+#.  TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+#.         replace it with the translation of these two:
+#.         We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+#.         translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+#.         Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+#.         to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+#.         &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+#.         <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+#.         our web pages, see <a
+#.         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+#.         README</a>. 
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html"
+"\">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting "
+"translations of this article."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2014, 2015, 2016, "
+"2017 Richard M. Stallman"
+msgstr ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2014, 2015, 2016, "
+"2017 Richard M. Stallman"
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"This page is licensed under a <a rel=\"license\" href=\"http://";
+"creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-"
+"NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"本页面使用<a rel=\"license\" 
+"nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International "
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div>
+msgstr ""
+"<b>翻译</b>: 白若玉<br></br>\n"
+"<b>审校</b>: 刘昭宏<br></br>\n"
+"<b>翻译团队</b>:<a rel=\"team\" 
+#.  timestamp start 
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Updated:"
+msgstr "最后更新:"

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