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www/gnu/po thegnuproject.zh-tw.po


From: Cheng-Chia Tseng
Subject: www/gnu/po thegnuproject.zh-tw.po
Date: Tue, 5 Dec 2017 02:07:31 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Cheng-Chia Tseng <zerngjia>     17/12/05 02:07:31

Added files:
        gnu/po         : thegnuproject.zh-tw.po 

Log message:
        add the gnu project translation to zh-tw

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/thegnuproject.zh-tw.po?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: thegnuproject.zh-tw.po
===================================================================
RCS file: thegnuproject.zh-tw.po
diff -N thegnuproject.zh-tw.po
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ thegnuproject.zh-tw.po      5 Dec 2017 07:07:30 -0000       1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,1999 @@
+# Traditional Chinese translation of https://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html
+# Copyright (C) 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original article.
+# Cheng-Chia Tseng <address@hidden>, 2017.
+#
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: thegnuproject.html\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-06-25 13:26+0000\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-12-05 15:04+0800\n"
+"Language-Team: Chinese <address@hidden>\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0.3\n"
+"Last-Translator: Cheng-Chia Tseng <address@hidden>\n"
+"Plural-Forms: nplurals=1; plural=0;\n"
+"Language: zh_TW\n"
+
+#. type: Content of: <title>
+msgid "About the GNU Project - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "關於 GNU 專案 - GNU 專案 - 自由軟體基金會"
+
+#. type: Attribute 'content' of: <meta>
+msgid "GNU, GNU Project, FSF, Free Software, Free Software Foundation, History"
+msgstr ""
+"GNU, GNU Project, GNU 專案, FSF, Free Software, 自由軟體, Free Software 
"
+"Foundation, 自由軟體基金會, History, 歷史"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h2>
+msgid "The GNU Project"
+msgstr "GNU 專案"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"by <a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a>"
+msgstr ""
+"<a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a> 
著"
+"作"
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Originally published in the book <em>Open Sources</em>.  Richard Stallman "
+"was <a href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> never a "
+"supporter of &ldquo;open source&rdquo;</a>, but contributed this article so "
+"that the ideas of the free software movement would not be entirely absent "
+"from that book."
+msgstr ""
+"文章原載於 <em>Open Sources</em> 一書中。理查・史托曼先生 
(Richard "
+"Stallman)<a href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> 永遠
不是"
+"「開源」或「Open Source」的支持者
</a>,但基於不願讓自由軟體運動的想法在該書中"
+"完全缺席之故而寫下本文。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Why it is even more important than ever <a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-"
+"even-more-important.html\">to insist that the software we use be free</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"為何<a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\">堅
持我們使"
+"用的軟體應該自由</a>前所未有地重要。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The first software-sharing community"
+msgstr "最早的軟體共享社群"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When I started working at the <acronym title=\"Massachusetts Institute of "
+"Technology\">MIT</acronym> Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971, I became "
+"part of a software-sharing community that had existed for many years.  "
+"Sharing of software was not limited to our particular community; it is as "
+"old as computers, just as sharing of recipes is as old as cooking.  But we "
+"did it more than most."
+msgstr ""
+"1971年當我在 <acronym title=\"Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology\">MIT</"
+"acronym> 麻省理工學院的人工智慧實驗室(英文簡稱 AI 
Lab)工作時開始,我成了軟"
+"體å…
±äº«ç¤¾ç¾¤çš„一員,而這個社群已經存在好些年了。分享軟體的行為不限於我們這個社"
+"群;這種行為跟電腦的發展史一樣久遠
,好比分享食譜的歷史跟烹調食物的歷史同樣古"
+"老。但我們這個社群比起絕大多數人更常分享。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <acronym title="
+"\"Incompatible Timesharing System\">ITS</acronym> (the Incompatible "
+"Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers (1) had designed and "
+"written in assembler language for the Digital <acronym title=\"Programmed "
+"Data Processor\">PDP</acronym>-10, one of the large computers of the era.  "
+"As a member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to "
+"improve this system."
+msgstr ""
+"AI Lab 當時採用一種稱為 <acronym title=\"Incompatible Timesharing 
System"
+"\">ITS</acronym> (全名為 Incompatible Timesharing 
System,意思為「不相容分時"
+"系統」) 的分時作業系統,它由實驗室的黑客職員 (1) 
設計,並且以 Digital "
+"<acronym title=\"Programmed Data Processor\">PDP</acronym>-10 
的組合語言編"
+"寫。這種 PDP-10 電腦屬於那個世代的大型電è…
¦ä¹‹ä¸€ã€‚身為這個社群的一份子,也就是 "
+"AI Lab 的系統黑客職員,我的工作就是改善這套系統。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We did not call our software &ldquo;free software&rdquo;, because that term "
+"did not yet exist; but that is what it was.  Whenever people from another "
+"university or a company wanted to port and use a program, we gladly let "
+"them.  If you saw someone using an unfamiliar and interesting program, you "
+"could always ask to see the source code, so that you could read it, change "
+"it, or cannibalize parts of it to make a new program."
+msgstr ""
+"我們那時的軟體不叫「自由軟體」,因
為這個詞語還不存在,但這個概念就是從那時候"
+"的軟體延續而來。每當其他大學或å…
¬å¸çš„人想要移植某程式或使用某程式時,我們都很"
+"高興讓他們利用。而當你看到某人在用你
所不知道的程式,或是很有趣的程式,你都會"
+"向他們要源始程式碼,這樣你就能讀它、改它、甚至擷取你
想利用的部份來創造新程"
+"式……等等。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security breaker&rdquo; "
+"is a confusion on the part of the mass media.  We hackers refuse to "
+"recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who "
+"loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination "
+"of the two.  See my article, <a href=\"http://stallman.org/articles/on-";
+"hacking.html\">On Hacking</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 部份的大眾媒體常將「黑客 Hacker」和「安全壞客 Security 
Breaker」混為一"
+"談。我們黑客不承認那種意思的用法,而且會繼續使用黑客一詞來指那些熱愛寫程式的"
+"人、樂於發揮有趣的聰明想法的人,或是結合å…
©ç¨®ç‰¹è³ªçš„人。請讀我這篇《<a href="
+"\"http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html\";>論黑客</a>》文章。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The collapse of the community"
+msgstr "社群崩解"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The situation changed drastically in the early 1980s when Digital "
+"discontinued the PDP-10 series.  Its architecture, elegant and powerful in "
+"the 60s, could not extend naturally to the larger address spaces that were "
+"becoming feasible in the 80s.  This meant that nearly all of the programs "
+"composing ITS were obsolete."
+msgstr ""
+"1980年代早期,Digital 公司中止了 PDP-10 系列,這使得情
況劇烈改變。該系列機器"
+"在60年代期間優雅
又強大的架構,自然無法擴展成80年代開始使用的較大位址空間。這"
+"代表構成 ITS 的幾乎所有程式慘遭淘汰。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The AI Lab hacker community had already collapsed, not long before.  In "
+"1981, the spin-off company Symbolics had hired away nearly all of the "
+"hackers from the AI Lab, and the depopulated community was unable to "
+"maintain itself.  (The book Hackers, by Steve Levy, describes these events, "
+"as well as giving a clear picture of this community in its prime.)  When the "
+"AI Lab bought a new PDP-10 in 1982, its administrators decided to use "
+"Digital's nonfree timesharing system instead of ITS."
+msgstr ""
+"在短時間內,AI Lab 
的黑客社群儼然瓦解。1981年,從實驗室分出來的 Symbolics 公"
+"司幾乎挖走所有 AI Lab 
的黑客,殘餘的社群幾乎無以為繼。(Steve Levy 著作的"
+"《Hacker》,中譯本名為《黑客列傳》由 Jedi 與 Pluto 
翻譯,書中談論這些故事情"
+"節,同時也清楚描繪出此社群輝煌時期的樣貌。)當 AI Lab 
在1982年買下新的 "
+"DPD-10 機臺時,其管理員決定使用 Digital 
的非自由分時系統取代 ITS。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The modern computers of the era, such as the VAX or the 68020, had their own "
+"operating systems, but none of them were free software: you had to sign a "
+"nondisclosure agreement even to get an executable copy."
+msgstr ""
+"該世代的新電腦,例如 VAX 或 
68020,都有自己的作業系統,但是它們都不是自由軟"
+"體:你甚至必須簽署 NDA 
不揭露協議書,才能取得可執行副本。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This meant that the first step in using a computer was to promise not to "
+"help your neighbor.  A cooperating community was forbidden.  The rule made "
+"by the owners of proprietary software was, &ldquo;If you share with your "
+"neighbor, you are a pirate.  If you want any changes, beg us to make them."
+"&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"這代表使用電腦的第一步驟,就是要保證你
絕對不會拿軟體幫助朋友鄰居。互助合作的"
+"社群被禁止。專有軟體的所有人設下規則:「如果你
想要和朋友鄰居分享,那你就是偷"
+"盜。如果你想要有任何改變,請求我們實現。」"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The idea that the proprietary software social system&mdash;the system that "
+"says you are not allowed to share or change software&mdash;is antisocial, "
+"that it is unethical, that it is simply wrong, may come as a surprise to "
+"some readers.  But what else could we say about a system based on dividing "
+"the public and keeping users helpless? Readers who find the idea surprising "
+"may have taken the proprietary software social system as a given, or judged "
+"it on the terms suggested by proprietary software businesses.  Software "
+"publishers have worked long and hard to convince people that there is only "
+"one way to look at the issue."
+msgstr ""
+"專有軟體社會系統的概念——你
不能分享或更改軟體的社會——不僅反社會、不道德、根本"
+"就是個錯誤,或許有些讀者
看到這裡會覺得很驚訝也不一定。不過,我們對於這種劃分"
+"民眾身份,並且讓使用者
感到無助的系統還能說什麼?覺得我們想法令人訝異的讀者
或"
+"許以為專有軟體社會系統是個已知事實,或是æ 
¹æ“šå°ˆæœ‰è»Ÿé«”事業推動的規則做出了判"
+"斷。軟體發行商長久
以來一直想盡辦法說服民眾這個議題就只能有一種看法。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When software publishers talk about &ldquo;enforcing&rdquo; their &ldquo;"
+"rights&rdquo; or &ldquo;stopping <a href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid."
+"html#Piracy\">piracy</a>&rdquo;, what they actually <em>say</em> is "
+"secondary.  The real message of these statements is in the unstated "
+"assumptions they take for granted, which the public is asked to accept "
+"without examination.  Let's therefore examine them."
+msgstr ""
+"當軟體發行商論及「行使」其「權利」,或「停止<a 
href=\"/philosophy/words-to-"
+"avoid.html#Piracy\">盜版</a>」時,他們所講的這些話術是次要議題。以上論述的真"
+"正意涵是,在他們視為理所當然的未明說假設中,大眾只é 
ˆè¦æŽ¥å—但不必理解。所以,"
+"請讓我們幫忙理清這一切。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One assumption is that software companies have an unquestionable natural "
+"right to own software and thus have power over all its users.  (If this were "
+"a natural right, then no matter how much harm it does to the public, we "
+"could not object.)  Interestingly, the US Constitution and legal tradition "
+"reject this view; copyright is not a natural right, but an artificial "
+"government-imposed monopoly that limits the users' natural right to copy."
+msgstr ""
+"第一個假設是,軟體å…
¬å¸å°æ–¼è‡ªå®¶è»Ÿé«”有一種不可置疑的自然權利,他們因
而擁有支配"
+"所有軟體使用者
的權力。(如果這真有個什麼自然權利,那麼無論這個權利對於民眾會"
+"造
成多嚴重的傷害,我們都不能拒絕。)有趣的是,美國憲法與法律傳統觀點否認這種"
+"看法;著作權不是自然權利,而是政府賦予的人為壟斷權,可以限制使用è€
…的自然權利"
+"使其不得複製。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another unstated assumption is that the only important thing about software "
+"is what jobs it allows you to do&mdash;that we computer users should not "
+"care what kind of society we are allowed to have."
+msgstr ""
+"另一個未明說的假設是,對軟體來說最重要的事情
是它能讓你做些什麼——我們電腦使用"
+"者不應該在意我們能擁有什麼樣的社會型態。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A third assumption is that we would have no usable software (or would never "
+"have a program to do this or that particular job) if we did not offer a "
+"company power over the users of the program.  This assumption may have "
+"seemed plausible, before the free software movement demonstrated that we can "
+"make plenty of useful software without putting chains on it."
+msgstr ""
+"第三個假設是,如果我們不給這些公司支配程式使用者
的權力,那麼我們就不會有好用"
+"的軟體(或是永遠
不會有這種功能的程式,或是可以做到那些事的程式)。這個假設看"
+"起來說得好像跟真的一樣,但是早在自由軟體運動開始之前,我們社會中就已經有很多"
+"好用的軟體都沒有這些束縛的枷鎖。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If we decline to accept these assumptions, and judge these issues based on "
+"ordinary commonsense morality while placing the users first, we arrive at "
+"very different conclusions.  Computer users should be free to modify "
+"programs to fit their needs, and free to share software, because helping "
+"other people is the basis of society."
+msgstr ""
+"如果我們拒絕接受這些假設,並且æ 
¹æ“šåŽŸä¾†çš„常識性道德觀把這些使用者放在優先地位"
+"來判斷之時,我們發現結論大不相同。電腦使用者
應能自由修改程式以符合自身需求、"
+"並自由分享軟體,因為幫助他人是社會存在的基礎。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There is no room here for an extensive statement of the reasoning behind "
+"this conclusion, so I refer the reader to the web pages <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/why-free.html\"> http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-free.html</a> "
+"and <a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\"> http://";
+"www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"這裡如果詳細敘述結論背後的演繹過程會讓篇幅
過長,所以我在此請各位讀者前往 <a "
+"href=\"/philosophy/why-free.html\"> http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-free.";
+"html</a> and <a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\"> "
+"http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html</a> 網"
+"頁。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "A stark moral choice"
+msgstr "嚴酷的道德選擇"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"With my community gone, to continue as before was impossible.  Instead, I "
+"faced a stark moral choice."
+msgstr 
"隨著我的社群消失,想一如往常變得不再可能。所以,我面對嚴é
…·çš„道德選擇。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The easy choice was to join the proprietary software world, signing "
+"nondisclosure agreements and promising not to help my fellow hacker.  Most "
+"likely I would also be developing software that was released under "
+"nondisclosure agreements, thus adding to the pressure on other people to "
+"betray their fellows too."
+msgstr ""
+"最簡單的選擇,就是加å…
¥å°ˆæœ‰è»Ÿé«”世界,簽下不揭露協議並保證我不會幫助黑客同袍。"
+"這樣我大概也會開發必須保密不能揭露的軟體,然後對å…
¶ä»–人施加壓力讓他們也一起背"
+"叛同袍。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I could have made money this way, and perhaps amused myself writing code.  "
+"But I knew that at the end of my career, I would look back on years of "
+"building walls to divide people, and feel I had spent my life making the "
+"world a worse place."
+msgstr ""
+"我可以這樣賺錢,或許也可寫程式自娛。但是我知道,一旦我職業生涯結束後,再回過"
+"é 
­åŽ»çœ‹æˆ‘修築了高牆以便劃分人群的那些年,就會感受到我花了大把人生將世界變成一"
+"個更糟糕的地方。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I had already experienced being on the receiving end of a nondisclosure "
+"agreement, when someone refused to give me and the MIT AI Lab the source "
+"code for the control program for our printer.  (The lack of certain features "
+"in this program made use of the printer extremely frustrating.)  So I could "
+"not tell myself that nondisclosure agreements were innocent.  I was very "
+"angry when he refused to share with us; I could not turn around and do the "
+"same thing to everyone else."
+msgstr ""
+"我已體驗過身為不揭露條款終端接受者
的經歷,有人拒絕將我們實驗室印表機的控制程"
+"式源始碼交給我或 MIT AI 
Lab。(這個控制程式缺乏某些功能,導致我們使用這臺印表"
+"機時受到極大挫折。)所以我無法告訴我自己說保密條款是無辜的。我非常生氣他拒絕"
+"和我們分享;我無法就這樣轉身然後對å…
¶ä»–人做出一樣的事來。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another choice, straightforward but unpleasant, was to leave the computer "
+"field.  That way my skills would not be misused, but they would still be "
+"wasted.  I would not be culpable for dividing and restricting computer "
+"users, but it would happen nonetheless."
+msgstr ""
+"另一種選擇,很直截了當但令人不開心,就是離開電è…
¦ç•Œã€‚這樣做我的技術能力就不會"
+"被濫用,但這些才能就無端浪費掉了。我雖然不會因
為劃分和限制電腦使用者而感到罪"
+"惡,但是這些事卻不會因為我不做而就此停止。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"So I looked for a way that a programmer could do something for the good.  I "
+"asked myself, was there a program or programs that I could write, so as to "
+"make a community possible once again?"
+msgstr ""
+"所以我開始探尋程式設計師能對這個議題做些什麼好事。我問我自己,是不是有我能寫"
+"的程式,不管是一個還是很多個,如此讓社群有機會再次復興。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The answer was clear: what was needed first was an operating system.  That "
+"is the crucial software for starting to use a computer.  With an operating "
+"system, you can do many things; without one, you cannot run the computer at "
+"all.  With a free operating system, we could again have a community of "
+"cooperating hackers&mdash;and invite anyone to join.  And anyone would be "
+"able to use a computer without starting out by conspiring to deprive his or "
+"her friends."
+msgstr ""
+"答案很清楚:我們首å…
ˆéœ€è¦ä¸€å€‹ä½œæ¥­ç³»çµ±ã€‚作業系統是人們開始使用電è…
¦çš„重大軟體。"
+"有了作業系統,你可以做很多事;沒有作業系統,你
就幾乎無法操作電腦。有了自由的"
+"作業系統,我們可以再次形成互助合作的黑客社群——並邀請任何人åŠ
 å…¥ã€‚此外,任何人"
+"都可以使用電腦,不會因而暗中失去他或她的朋友。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job.  So "
+"even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was "
+"elected to do the job.  I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so "
+"that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to "
+"it.  The name GNU was chosen, following a hacker tradition, as a recursive "
+"acronym for &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix.&rdquo; It is pronounced as <a href=\"/gnu/"
+"pronunciation.html\">one syllable with a hard g</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"身為作業系統開發者,我對這項
工作有對應的技術能力。所以即便我無法將成功視為理"
+"所當然,我仍確知我適合出任這項工作。我選擇讓系統和 
Unix 相容以便具有可攜性,"
+"如此 Unix 使用者就能輕鬆轉換過來。GNU 
的命名遵循黑客傳統,遞迴式頭文字縮寫,"
+"代表「GNU's Not Unix」,意思是「GNU 並非 
Unix」;它的英語發音為實唸出 g 子音"
+"的單音節字,華語(漢語官話)發音類似「個怒」。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"An operating system does not mean just a kernel, barely enough to run other "
+"programs.  In the 1970s, every operating system worthy of the name included "
+"command processors, assemblers, compilers, interpreters, debuggers, text "
+"editors, mailers, and much more.  ITS had them, Multics had them, VMS had "
+"them, and Unix had them.  The GNU operating system would include them too."
+msgstr ""
+"一套作業系統可不只是一個內部æ 
¸å¿ƒè€Œå·²ï¼Œé‚£æ¨£å¹¾ä¹Žæ²’有什麼其他程式可以跑。1970å¹´"
+"代,每個值得一提的作業系統都有指令處理器(外部表殼)、組譯器、編譯器、直譯"
+"器、除錯器、文字編輯器、郵件程式…等等。ITS 有、Multics 
有、VMS 也有、Unix 也"
+"一樣都有。GNU 作業系統也會收錄這些軟體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel (1):"
+msgstr "後來我聽到希列爾長者 (Hillel) 所留下的這席話 (1):"
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If I am not for myself, who will be for me?"
+msgstr "如果我不為我,誰來為我?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If I am only for myself, what am I?"
+msgstr "如果我只為我,我又是誰?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If not now, when?"
+msgstr "如果不是現在,更待何時?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "The decision to start the GNU Project was based on a similar spirit."
+msgstr "發起 GNU 專案的決定基於類似的精神。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) As an Atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes "
+"find I admire something one of them has said."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 身為無神論者,我不跟隨任何宗教é 
˜è¢–,但我偶爾會欣賞他們之中所說的一些話。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free as in freedom"
+msgstr "如 Freedom 般自由"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; is sometimes misunderstood&mdash;it has "
+"nothing to do with price.  It is about freedom.  Here, therefore, is the "
+"definition of free software."
+msgstr ""
+"「自由軟體」有時候會被誤解——它跟價æ 
¼ä¸€é»žä¹Ÿæ²’有關係。自由軟體講求的是自由。所"
+"以,在此附上自由軟體的定義。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "A program is free software, for you, a particular user, if:"
+msgstr "對你,一位特定使用者
,程式只有在滿足下列條件時才是自由軟體:"
+
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid "You have the freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose."
+msgstr "你擁有依照你
想法執行該程式的自由,無論任何用途。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to modify the program to suit your needs.  (To make "
+"this freedom effective in practice, you must have access to the source code, "
+"since making changes in a program without having the source code is "
+"exceedingly difficult.)"
+msgstr ""
+"你擁有依據你需求修改該程式的自由。(要讓這項
自由實務上有效,你必須能取用源始"
+"碼,因為如果沒有源始碼要修改程式極為困難。)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to redistribute copies, either gratis or for a fee."
+msgstr "你擁有再次散布程式副本的自由,無論å…
è²»æˆ–是收費。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to distribute modified versions of the program, so that "
+"the community can benefit from your improvements."
+msgstr "你擁有散布修改後程式版本的自由,如此社群就能因
你的改善而受益。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Since &ldquo;free&rdquo; refers to freedom, not to price, there is no "
+"contradiction between selling copies and free software.  In fact, the "
+"freedom to sell copies is crucial: collections of free software sold on CD-"
+"ROMs are important for the community, and selling them is an important way "
+"to raise funds for free software development.  Therefore, a program which "
+"people are not free to include on these collections is not free software."
+msgstr ""
+"因為自由軟體英文 free software 
中的「free」指的是自由,不是價格免費,所以銷售"
+"軟體副本這件事和自由軟體之間沒有任何衝突。事實上,銷售軟體副本的自由至關重"
+"要:自由軟體集合的 CD å…
‰ç¢Ÿè²©è³£å°æ–¼ç¤¾ç¾¤å¾ˆé‡è¦ï¼Œè€ŒéŠ·å”®é€™äº›å…‰ç¢Ÿä¹Ÿæ˜¯å‹Ÿé›†è‡ªç”±è»Ÿé«”"
+"開發資金的重要方式。因此,那些人們無法自由納å…
¥é€™é¡žå¤§é›†åˆä¸­çš„程式就不是自由軟"
+"體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Because of the ambiguity of &ldquo;free&rdquo;, people have long looked for "
+"alternatives, but no one has found a better term.  The English language has "
+"more words and nuances than any other, but it lacks a simple, unambiguous, "
+"word that means &ldquo;free&rdquo;, as in freedom&mdash;&ldquo;"
+"unfettered&rdquo; being the word that comes closest in meaning.  Such "
+"alternatives as &ldquo;liberated&rdquo;, &ldquo;freedom&rdquo;, and &ldquo;"
+"open&rdquo; have either the wrong meaning or some other disadvantage."
+msgstr ""
+"由於「free」英文帶有歧義,有些人一直在尋找替代用詞,但都沒有找到更好的。英文"
+"這個語言比起他者
有更多單字和音調上的細微差別,但卻缺少只講述「freedom」自由意"
+"涵的簡單、不模糊單字——而「unfettered」無拘無束,則是最接近這個概念的單字。å
…¶"
+"他字詞如「liberated」、「freedom」和「open」這些,不是意義上有差別,就是有å
…¶"
+"他不足之處。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "GNU software and the GNU system"
+msgstr "GNU 軟體與 GNU 系統"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Developing a whole system is a very large project.  To bring it into reach, "
+"I decided to adapt and use existing pieces of free software wherever that "
+"was possible.  For example, I decided at the very beginning to use TeX as "
+"the principal text formatter; a few years later, I decided to use the X "
+"Window System rather than writing another window system for GNU."
+msgstr ""
+"要開發出一套完整的系統可說是非常大的專案。為了讓目標更為可行,我決定一旦有可"
+"用的對應自由軟體,就調整這些軟體並使用之。舉例來說,我一開始就決定採用
 TeX 作"
+"為主要的文書格式處理器;幾年過後,我決定採納 X 
視窗系統而非另外為 GNU 撰寫其"
+"他視窗系統。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Because of these decisions, and others like them, the GNU system is not the "
+"same as the collection of all GNU software.  The GNU system includes "
+"programs that are not GNU software, programs that were developed by other "
+"people and projects for their own purposes, but which we can use because "
+"they are free software."
+msgstr ""
+"基於前述這些決定,還有其他等等這類的決定,GNU 
系統不等同於所有 GNU 軟體的集合"
+"體。GNU 系統亦包含非 GNU 軟體,那些其他人或å…
¶ä»–專案為了自身目標而開發的程式,"
+"但因為它們是自由軟體,我們便得以採用。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Commencing the project"
+msgstr "展開專案"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In January 1984 I quit my job at MIT and began writing GNU software.  "
+"Leaving MIT was necessary so that MIT would not be able to interfere with "
+"distributing GNU as free software.  If I had remained on the staff, MIT "
+"could have claimed to own the work, and could have imposed their own "
+"distribution terms, or even turned the work into a proprietary software "
+"package.  I had no intention of doing a large amount of work only to see it "
+"become useless for its intended purpose: creating a new software-sharing "
+"community."
+msgstr ""
+"1984å¹´1月,我辭去 MIT 的工作並且開始寫 GNU 軟體。我必é 
ˆé›¢é–‹ MIT,這樣 MIT 才"
+"無法干預我將 GNU 以自由軟體形式散布出去。如果我還是 
MIT 的員工,那麼 MIT 可以"
+"宣稱擁有我的工作成果,並施加他們自己的散布條款,或者
甚至將成品轉為專有軟體也"
+"不一定。我不想要在做出大量勞力之後,看見成果在我期許的用途上變得一點用處也沒"
+"有,而這個期許就是:建立新的軟體分享社群。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"However, Professor Winston, then the head of the MIT AI Lab, kindly invited "
+"me to keep using the lab's facilities."
+msgstr ""
+"不過,後來擔任 MIT AI 實驗室主任的 Winston 
教授,仍親切地邀請我繼續使用實驗室"
+"的設備。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The first steps"
+msgstr "最早的路"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Shortly before beginning the GNU Project, I heard about the Free University "
+"Compiler Kit, also known as VUCK.  (The Dutch word for &ldquo;free&rdquo; is "
+"written with a <em>v</em>.)  This was a compiler designed to handle multiple "
+"languages, including C and Pascal, and to support multiple target machines.  "
+"I wrote to its author asking if GNU could use it."
+msgstr ""
+"在 GNU 專案開始不久後,我聽說自由大學 (Free University) 
有套編譯器工具組 "
+"(Compiller Kit),它也被稱為 VUCK。(「自由」的荷蘭語以 
<em>v</em> 開頭。)這"
+"套工具組的設計可以處理許多語言,包括 C 和 
Pascal,而且也支援多種目標機器。於"
+"是我寫了封信向作者詢問 GNU 是否能夠使用。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"He responded derisively, stating that the university was free but the "
+"compiler was not.  I therefore decided that my first program for the GNU "
+"Project would be a multilanguage, multiplatform compiler."
+msgstr ""
+"他嘲笑似地回覆說,雖然大學是自由的,但編譯器不是。我å›
 è€Œä¸‹å®šæ±ºå¿ƒï¼Œç¬¬ä¸€å€‹è¦ç‚º "
+"GNU 專案而寫的程式就是支援多語言、多平臺的編譯器。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Hoping to avoid the need to write the whole compiler myself, I obtained the "
+"source code for the Pastel compiler, which was a multiplatform compiler "
+"developed at Lawrence Livermore Lab.  It supported, and was written in, an "
+"extended version of Pascal, designed to be a system-programming language.  I "
+"added a C front end, and began porting it to the Motorola 68000 computer.  "
+"But I had to give that up when I discovered that the compiler needed many "
+"megabytes of stack space, and the available 68000 Unix system would only "
+"allow 64k."
+msgstr ""
+"我希望不必自己寫出整個編譯器,所以取得了 Pastel 
編譯器的源始碼。Pastel 編譯器"
+"是個多平臺的編譯器,由 Lawrence Livermore 
實驗室開發;它支援設計成系統型程式"
+"設計語言的擴充版 Pascal,並且也以該語言寫成。我加入了 
C 前端,並且開始移植到 "
+"Motorola 68000 電腦上。但我後來發現這個編譯器需要好幾 MB 
的堆疊空間時只能放"
+"棄,因為當年現有的 68000 Unix 系統只允許 64k 的空間而已。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I then realized that the Pastel compiler functioned by parsing the entire "
+"input file into a syntax tree, converting the whole syntax tree into a chain "
+"of &ldquo;instructions&rdquo;, and then generating the whole output file, "
+"without ever freeing any storage.  At this point, I concluded I would have "
+"to write a new compiler from scratch.  That new compiler is now known as "
+"<acronym title=\"GNU Compiler Collection\">GCC</acronym>; none of the Pastel "
+"compiler is used in it, but I managed to adapt and use the C front end that "
+"I had written.  But that was some years later; first, I worked on GNU Emacs."
+msgstr ""
+"我接著瞭解到 Pastel 編譯器的處理方式是將整分輸入檔å…
ˆè§£æžæˆèªžæ³•æ¨¹ï¼Œç„¶å¾Œå°‡æ•´å€‹"
+"語法樹轉換為「指令」鏈,接著生成整分輸出檔,整個過程從未釋放任何儲存空間。就"
+"這樣看來,結論是我必須從é 
­é–‹å§‹å¯«ä¸€å€‹æ–°çš„編譯器。這個新編譯器現在稱作 "
+"<acronym title=\"GNU Compiler Collection\">GCC</acronym>,裡面沒有用到 
"
+"Pastel 編譯器的任何部份,不過我設法修改之前為 Pastel 
編譯器所寫的 C 前端並拿"
+"過來用。但那是好幾年後發生的事了;在那之前,我å…
ˆåšäº† GNU Emacs。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "GNU Emacs"
+msgstr "GNU Emacs"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I began work on GNU Emacs in September 1984, and in early 1985 it was "
+"beginning to be usable.  This enabled me to begin using Unix systems to do "
+"editing; having no interest in learning to use vi or ed, I had done my "
+"editing on other kinds of machines until then."
+msgstr ""
+"在1984年9月之時我開始做 GNU 
Emacs,直到1985年初,程式終於開始能用。有了 "
+"Emacs 後,我就能開始使用 Unix 系統作編輯;因
為我對於學習怎麼使用 vi 或 ed 一"
+"點興趣也沒有,所以在這之前我都是用å…
¶ä»–機器作編輯的。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"At this point, people began wanting to use GNU Emacs, which raised the "
+"question of how to distribute it.  Of course, I put it on the anonymous ftp "
+"server on the MIT computer that I used.  (This computer, prep.ai.mit.edu, "
+"thus became the principal GNU ftp distribution site; when it was "
+"decommissioned a few years later, we transferred the name to our new ftp "
+"server.)  But at that time, many of the interested people were not on the "
+"Internet and could not get a copy by ftp.  So the question was, what would I "
+"say to them?"
+msgstr ""
+"此時,人們開始想要使用 GNU 
Emacs,所以問題來了,我要怎樣散布?當然,我把它放"
+"到我使用的 MIT 電腦的匿名 FTP 伺服器上。(這臺電è…
¦ï¼Œprep.ai.mit.edu,因而成"
+"為 GNU 的主要 ftp 散布站;電è…
¦å¹¾å¹´å¾Œé€€å½¹äº†ï¼Œæˆ‘們便將名稱轉到我們的新 ftp 伺服"
+"器上。)但是在當時,許多有興趣的人都無法連上網際網路,所以不能從
 FTP 取得軟體"
+"副本。所以問題是,我要對他們說些什麼?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I could have said, &ldquo;Find a friend who is on the net and who will make "
+"a copy for you.&rdquo; Or I could have done what I did with the original "
+"PDP-10 Emacs: tell them, &ldquo;Mail me a tape and a <acronym title=\"Self-"
+"addressed Stamped Envelope\">SASE</acronym>, and I will mail it back with "
+"Emacs on it.&rdquo; But I had no job, and I was looking for ways to make "
+"money from free software.  So I announced that I would mail a tape to "
+"whoever wanted one, for a fee of $150.  In this way, I started a free "
+"software distribution business, the precursor of the companies that today "
+"distribute entire GNU/Linux system distributions."
+msgstr ""
+"我可以這樣說:「去找個能上網的朋友,看他要不要幫你
拷貝個軟體副本。」或者,我"
+"可以用我之前對原來 PDP-10 Emacs 
所做的方法,告訴他們說:「寄給我一個磁帶並附"
+"上回郵信封,我會把 Emacs 
放進去然後寄回。」但我當時沒有工作,所以我也在找方法"
+"利用自由軟體賺錢。我宣布我會郵寄磁帶給想要軟體的人,一次收費150美金。就這樣,"
+"我開啟了自由軟體的散布業務,成為今日散布整套 GNU/Linux 
系統散布版的公司的始"
+"祖。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Is a program free for every user?"
+msgstr "是不是每個人拿到的程式都是自由軟體?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If a program is free software when it leaves the hands of its author, this "
+"does not necessarily mean it will be free software for everyone who has a "
+"copy of it.  For example, <a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+"html#PublicDomainSoftware\"> public domain software</a> (software that is "
+"not copyrighted) is free software; but anyone can make a proprietary "
+"modified version of it.  Likewise, many free programs are copyrighted but "
+"distributed under simple permissive licenses which allow proprietary "
+"modified versions."
+msgstr ""
+"如果有個程式是自由軟體,當它離開作者
手中之後,不代表它必須對任何擁有副本的人"
+"都是自由軟體。舉例而言,<a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+"html#PublicDomainSoftware\">å…
¬ç‰ˆè»Ÿé«”</a>(沒有受到著作權保護的軟體)是自由軟"
+"體,但是任何人都可以拿它修改成專有軟體。和這相似,許多自由軟體受到著作權保"
+"護,但是用簡單的寬容式授權條款散布,而這種散布條款å…
è¨±æ”¹ä½œç‰ˆæœ¬æ˜¯å°ˆæœ‰è»Ÿé«”。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The paradigmatic example of this problem is the X Window System.  Developed "
+"at MIT, and released as free software with a permissive license, it was soon "
+"adopted by various computer companies.  They added X to their proprietary "
+"Unix systems, in binary form only, and covered by the same nondisclosure "
+"agreement.  These copies of X were no more free software than Unix was."
+msgstr ""
+"這個問題的典型案例是 X 視窗系統。它是 MIT 
開發的,並且是用寬容式授權條款發行"
+"的自由軟體,它一下子就被各家電腦公司採用。他們把 X 加
到自家的專有 Unix 系統"
+"上,只提供二進位形式,並且用同樣不可揭露的授權條款保護起來。這些
 X 的副本就"
+"和 Unix 一樣不再是自由軟體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The developers of the X Window System did not consider this a problem&mdash;"
+"they expected and intended this to happen.  Their goal was not freedom, just "
+"&ldquo;success&rdquo;, defined as &ldquo;having many users.&rdquo; They did "
+"not care whether these users had freedom, only that they should be numerous."
+msgstr ""
+"X 視窗系統的開發者不認為這是個問題——他們é 
æœŸé€™é¡žäº‹æƒ…的發生,而且刻意這樣做。"
+"他們的目標不是自由,只是「成功」,定義為:「擁有很多使用è€
…」。他們不在意到底"
+"這群使用者有沒有自由,只在意使用者有沒有很多。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This led to a paradoxical situation where two different ways of counting the "
+"amount of freedom gave different answers to the question, &ldquo;Is this "
+"program free?&rdquo; If you judged based on the freedom provided by the "
+"distribution terms of the MIT release, you would say that X was free "
+"software.  But if you measured the freedom of the average user of X, you "
+"would have to say it was proprietary software.  Most X users were running "
+"the proprietary versions that came with Unix systems, not the free version."
+msgstr ""
+"這讓情
況變得很吊詭。當有人問說:「這個程式自由嗎?」,答案卻有所不同,å›
 ç‚ºæœ‰"
+"兩種不同的自由度計算法。如果你是根據 MIT 
發行的散布條款所提供的自由度來判斷,"
+"你會說 X 是自由軟體。但如果你是用一般 X 使用者
的角度來評量自由度的話,那麼你"
+"會說它是專有軟體。而大多數 X 使用者所運行的都是 Unix 
系統隨附的專有版本,不是"
+"自由版本。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Copyleft and the GNU GPL"
+msgstr "著作傳 (Copyleft) 和 GNU GPL"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular.  So we "
+"needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being "
+"turned into proprietary software.  The method we use is called &ldquo;"
+"copyleft&rdquo;.(1)"
+msgstr ""
+"GNU 的目標是要給予使用者
自由,不只是廣受歡迎而已。所以我們需要利用散布條款來"
+"防止 GNU 
軟體被轉為專有軟體。這個方法我們稱為「著作傳(唸ㄔㄨㄢˊ)」,英文為"
+"「Copyleft」。(1)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyleft uses copyright law, but flips it over to serve the opposite of its "
+"usual purpose: instead of a means for restricting a program, it becomes a "
+"means for keeping the program free."
+msgstr ""
+"著作傳使用著作權法,但是以相反於常見作法的方式使用:並非限制程式的利用,而是"
+"維持程式的自由。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The central idea of copyleft is that we give everyone permission to run the "
+"program, copy the program, modify the program, and distribute modified "
+"versions&mdash;but not permission to add restrictions of their own.  Thus, "
+"the crucial freedoms that define &ldquo;free software&rdquo; are guaranteed "
+"to everyone who has a copy; they become inalienable rights."
+msgstr ""
+"著作傳的中心思想是我們給予任何人執行程式、複製程式、修改程式、散布修改後版本"
+"的權利——但不允許自行對程式加å…
¥é™åˆ¶ã€‚所以,「自由軟體」定義的關鍵:自由,任何"
+"人只要取得軟體副本都能得到保障;自由成為軟體不可分割的權利。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For an effective copyleft, modified versions must also be free.  This "
+"ensures that work based on ours becomes available to our community if it is "
+"published.  When programmers who have jobs as programmers volunteer to "
+"improve GNU software, it is copyleft that prevents their employers from "
+"saying, &ldquo;You can't share those changes, because we are going to use "
+"them to make our proprietary version of the program.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+"一份有效的著作傳式授權條款,必é 
ˆç¶­æŒä¿®æ”¹å¾Œç‰ˆæœ¬ä»ä¿æœ‰è‡ªç”±ã€‚這樣就能確保那些根"
+"據我們作品改作而成的新作,在å…
¬é–‹ç™¼è¡¨ä¹‹å¾Œå¾—以讓我們社群取用。如果有工作的程式"
+"設計師願意以志工身分改善 GNU 
軟體時,著作傳也能防止他們的僱主說:「你不可以分"
+"享那些修改,因
為我們要把它作為我們自己專有的軟體版本」。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The requirement that changes must be free is essential if we want to ensure "
+"freedom for every user of the program.  The companies that privatized the X "
+"Window System usually made some changes to port it to their systems and "
+"hardware.  These changes were small compared with the great extent of X, but "
+"they were not trivial.  If making changes were an excuse to deny the users "
+"freedom, it would be easy for anyone to take advantage of the excuse."
+msgstr ""
+"如果我們希望確保程式的每個使用者
都能得到自由,那麼修改內容必須維持自由的要求"
+"是必須的。將 X 視窗系統私有化的å…
¬å¸ï¼Œé€šå¸¸æ˜¯åšå‡ºæ”¹å‹•ä»¥ä¾¿ç§»æ¤åˆ°ä»–們家的系統與硬"
+"體上。這些更改之處和 X 
源始碼的廣大範圍相比之下很少量,但不是瑣碎不重要。如果"
+"做出更動是拒絕給予使用者
自由的藉口,那麼任何人都能輕鬆利用這個藉口。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A related issue concerns combining a free program with nonfree code.  Such a "
+"combination would inevitably be nonfree; whichever freedoms are lacking for "
+"the nonfree part would be lacking for the whole as well.  To permit such "
+"combinations would open a hole big enough to sink a ship.  Therefore, a "
+"crucial requirement for copyleft is to plug this hole: anything added to or "
+"combined with a copylefted program must be such that the larger combined "
+"version is also free and copylefted."
+msgstr ""
+"另一個相關議題是,自由軟體和非自由軟體源始碼間的結合。這樣的結合無可避å
…æœƒä¸"
+"自由;非自由的部份所缺少的自由,就整體觀點來看依然缺失自由。如果授權條款å
…è¨±"
+"這類結合,那麼無疑是在船上開個足以沉船的大洞。所以,著作傳的關鍵要求就是要塞"
+"住這個洞:任何附加
到著作傳保護程式上、或是和著作傳保護程式相結合的任何東西,"
+"都必é 
ˆå¾—讓較大的結合後版本依然維持自由、受著作傳保護。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is "
+"the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short.  We have other kinds "
+"of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances.  GNU manuals are "
+"copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the "
+"complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals.(2)"
+msgstr ""
+"我們為大多數 GNU 軟體使用的特定著作傳式授權實作,是 
GNU 通用公眾授權 (GNU "
+"General Public License),或簡稱 GNU GPL。我們也有用於å…
¶ä»–特定情況的不同類型著"
+"作傳式授權。GNU 
手冊也一樣受到著作傳保護,但用的是更為簡單的著作傳式授權,å›
 "
+"為 GNU GPL 很複雜這對於手冊這類著作來說沒有必要。(2)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a "
+"letter.  On the envelope he had written several amusing sayings, including "
+"this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I used the word "
+"&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I was developing at "
+"the time."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 在1984年或1985年的時候,Don 
Hopkins(一位很有想像力的同袍)曾寄給我一封"
+"信。在信封上他寫下好幾句有趣的話,å…
¶ä¸­ä¸€å¥æ˜¯ï¼šã€Œè‘—作傳——保留所有權利。」(原"
+"文為 &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights 
reversed.)。我便採用「著作傳」命名我當"
+"時發展的散布概念。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(2) We now use the <a href=\"/licenses/fdl.html\">GNU Free Documentation "
+"License</a> for documentation."
+msgstr ""
+"(2) 我們的文件現在使用 <a href=\"/licenses/fdl.html\">GNU 
自由文件授權 (Free "
+"Documentation License)</a>。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "自由軟體基金會"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the "
+"GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again.  So "
+"in 1985 we created the <a href=\"http://www.fsf.org/\";>Free Software "
+"Foundation</a> (FSF), a tax-exempt charity for free software development.  "
+"The <acronym title=\"Free Software Foundation\">FSF</acronym> also took over "
+"the Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other "
+"free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free "
+"manuals as well."
+msgstr ""
+"隨著有興趣使用 Emacs 的人逐漸增加,其他人也開始參與 GNU 
專案,而我們決定是時"
+"候再次尋求資助了。所以在1985年我們成立了<a 
href=\"http://www.fsf.org/\";>自由"
+"軟體基金會 (Free Software Foundation,簡稱 
FSF)</a>,作自由軟體開發的免稅慈善"
+"機構。<acronym title=\"Free Software Foundation\">FSF</acronym> 
也接手了 "
+"Emacs 磁帶的散布事業;後來更為擴展將其他自由軟體(包
括 GNU 和非 GNU)加到磁帶"
+"業務中,也一併銷售手冊。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free software "
+"and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with "
+"binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to redistribute and "
+"modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for which we built the "
+"whole collection of software for the customer's choice of platform).  Today "
+"the FSF still <a href=\"http://shop.fsf.org/\";> sells manuals and other "
+"gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from members' dues.  You can "
+"join the FSF at <a href=\"http://fsf.org/join\";>fsf.org</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"當年 FSF 的大多數收å…
¥ä¾†è‡ªè‡ªç”±è»Ÿé«”副本的銷售和相關服務(源始碼 CD、二進位檔 
"
+"CD、印刷精美的手冊等,å…
¨éƒ½å¯ä»¥è‡ªç”±åœ°å†æ¬¡æ•£å¸ƒå’Œä¿®æ”¹ï¼‰ï¼Œé‚„有豪華散布版(我們為"
+"顧客所選平臺組建的全軟體集合散布版)。今日 FSF 仍然<a 
href=\"http://shop.fsf.";
+"org/\">銷售手冊和å…
¶ä»–物品</a>,但主要資金來源是會員的會費。你可以前往 <a "
+"href=\"http://fsf.org/join\";>fsf.org</a> 加å…
¥è‡ªç”±è»Ÿé«”基金會的會員。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of "
+"GNU software packages.  Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.  "
+"The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses "
+"to communicate with Linux.  It was developed by a member of the Free "
+"Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath.  The shell used on most GNU/Linux "
+"systems is <acronym title=\"Bourne Again Shell\">BASH</acronym>, the Bourne "
+"Again Shell(1), which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox."
+msgstr ""
+"自由軟體基金會的僱員撰寫和維護許多 GNU 軟體包。å…
¶ä¸­æœ€è‘—名的兩個分別是 C 函式"
+"庫和外部表殼。GNU/Linux 系統上運行的每個程式透過 GNU C 
函式庫和 Linux 溝通,"
+"它是由自由軟體基金會員工之一的 Roland McGrath 
所開發。而大多數 GNU/Linux 系統"
+"所使用的外部表殼是 <acronym title=\"Bourne Again 
Shell\">BASH</acronym>,全"
+"名 Bourne Again Shell(1),則是由基金會員工 Brian Fox 所開發。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We funded development of these programs because the GNU Project was not just "
+"about tools or a development environment.  Our goal was a complete operating "
+"system, and these programs were needed for that goal."
+msgstr ""
+"我們資助這些程式的開發,因為 GNU 專案可不只是提供工å…
·æˆ–開發環境而已。我們的目"
+"標是打造
出完整的作業系統,而我們需要這些程式才能完成這個目標。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) &ldquo;Bourne Again Shell&rdquo; is a play on the name &ldquo;Bourne "
+"Shell&rdquo;, which was the usual shell on Unix."
+msgstr ""
+"(1)「Bourne Again Shell」是對「Bourne 
Shell」作的文字遊戲,Bourne Shell 是 "
+"Unix 上常見的外部表殼。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free software support"
+msgstr "自由軟體支援服務"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The free software philosophy rejects a specific widespread business "
+"practice, but it is not against business.  When businesses respect the "
+"users' freedom, we wish them success."
+msgstr ""
+"自由軟體理念思想反對特定的廣泛商業作法,但不是反對商業。只要商業å
…¬å¸èƒ½å°Šé‡ä½¿"
+"用者的自由,我們便祝福他們成功。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Selling copies of Emacs demonstrates one kind of free software business.  "
+"When the FSF took over that business, I needed another way to make a "
+"living.  I found it in selling services relating to the free software I had "
+"developed.  This included teaching, for subjects such as how to program GNU "
+"Emacs and how to customize GCC, and software development, mostly porting GCC "
+"to new platforms."
+msgstr ""
+"銷售 Emacs 副本是自由軟體事業的作法之一。當 FSF 接手這項
業務之後,我得找出其"
+"他討生活的方法。我發現可以銷售之前我開發自由軟體的相關服務。這類業務åŒ
…括教"
+"學,例如 GNU Emacs 程式是怎樣設計的、怎樣客製 GCC 
等主題,還有軟體開發等,大"
+"多則是希望將 GCC 移植到新平臺上。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Today each of these kinds of free software business is practiced by a number "
+"of corporations.  Some distribute free software collections on CD-ROM; "
+"others sell support at levels ranging from answering user questions, to "
+"fixing bugs, to adding major new features.  We are even beginning to see "
+"free software companies based on launching new free software products."
+msgstr ""
+"今日有許多企業行號採用這些自由軟體的各種業務作法。有的透過
 CD 散布自由軟體集"
+"合;也有的銷售支援服務,範圍包括回答使用者
問題、修正臭蟲、添加重大新功能等。"
+"我們甚至開始看到有些自由軟體公司是因
為要發展新的自由軟體產品而成立。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Watch out, though&mdash;a number of companies that associate themselves with "
+"the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; actually base their business on nonfree "
+"software that works with free software.  These are not free software "
+"companies, they are proprietary software companies whose products tempt "
+"users away from freedom.  They call these programs &ldquo;value-added "
+"packages&rdquo;, which shows the values they would like us to adopt: "
+"convenience above freedom.  If we value freedom more, we should call them "
+"&ldquo;freedom-subtracted&rdquo; packages."
+msgstr ""
+"不過,要小心——有許多å…
¬å¸å°‡è‡ªå·±å’Œã€Œé–‹æºã€é€™å€‹è©žå½™é—œè¯åœ¨ä¸€èµ·ï¼Œä½†å¯¦éš›ä¸Šä»–們的業"
+"務著重於能配合自由軟體運作的非自由軟體。這些å…
¬å¸ä¸æ˜¯è‡ªç”±è»Ÿé«”公司,他們是專有"
+"軟體公司,他們的產品是要引誘使用者
離開自由。他們稱呼這些程式為「加值軟體"
+"包
」,表達他們希望大家採納的價值觀:方便比起自由更重要。如果我們更注重自由,"
+"我們應該稱呼這些程式為「刪減自由」軟體包。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Technical goals"
+msgstr "技術目標"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The principal goal of GNU is to be free software.  Even if GNU had no "
+"technical advantage over Unix, it would have a social advantage, allowing "
+"users to cooperate, and an ethical advantage, respecting the user's freedom."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU 的主要目標是自由軟體。就算 GNU 比起 Unix 
而言沒有任何技術上的優勢,也會有"
+"社會上的優勢:能讓使用者
之間互助合作,還有道德上的優勢:尊重使用者的自由。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But it was natural to apply the known standards of good practice to the "
+"work&mdash;for example, dynamically allocating data structures to avoid "
+"arbitrary fixed size limits, and handling all the possible 8-bit codes "
+"wherever that made sense."
+msgstr ""
+"但是將眾所皆知的良好實務標準套用到我們的工作上也是很自然的事——舉例而言,採用"
+"動態配置資料結構避å…
æ­¦æ–·å›ºå®šå¤§å°çš„限制,以及只要合理之處就盡可能處理所有的
 8 "
+"位元代碼等。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In addition, we rejected the Unix focus on small memory size, by deciding "
+"not to support 16-bit machines (it was clear that 32-bit machines would be "
+"the norm by the time the GNU system was finished), and to make no effort to "
+"reduce memory usage unless it exceeded a megabyte.  In programs for which "
+"handling very large files was not crucial, we encouraged programmers to read "
+"an entire input file into core, then scan its contents without having to "
+"worry about I/O."
+msgstr ""
+"此外,我們放棄了 Unix 
專注於小型記憶體大小的作法,決定不要支援 16 位元的機器"
+"(當時很清楚 32 位元在 GNU 系統完成之時將會是常æ…
‹ï¼‰ï¼Œä¸¦åªæœ‰åœ¨è¨˜æ†¶é«”用量超過 "
+"MB 
時才會不遺餘力降低它。在那些處理極大型檔案並非很重要的程式中,我們仍鼓勵程"
+"式設計師讀取整分輸入檔到核心中,接著掃描å…
§å®¹ä¸è¦æ“”心 I/O 問題。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"These decisions enabled many GNU programs to surpass their Unix counterparts "
+"in reliability and speed."
+msgstr ""
+"這些決定使得許多 GNU 程式在可靠性和速度上勝過它們在 
Unix 上的競爭對手。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Donated computers"
+msgstr "捐贈的電腦"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As the GNU Project's reputation grew, people began offering to donate "
+"machines running Unix to the project.  These were very useful, because the "
+"easiest way to develop components of GNU was to do it on a Unix system, and "
+"replace the components of that system one by one.  But they raised an "
+"ethical issue: whether it was right for us to have a copy of Unix at all."
+msgstr ""
+"隨著 GNU 專案的名聲慢慢大起來,人們開始將跑著 Unix 
的電腦捐贈給專案使用。這些"
+"捐贈非常有用,因為開發 GNU 組件的最簡單方法就是在 Unix 
上開發,接著一個一個替"
+"換掉系統上的組件。但是這引發一項
道德議題:我們到底應不應該擁有 Unix 系統的副"
+"本。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Unix was (and is) proprietary software, and the GNU Project's philosophy "
+"said that we should not use proprietary software.  But, applying the same "
+"reasoning that leads to the conclusion that violence in self defense is "
+"justified, I concluded that it was legitimate to use a proprietary package "
+"when that was crucial for developing a free replacement that would help "
+"others stop using the proprietary package."
+msgstr ""
+"Unix 是專有軟體,而 GNU 
專案的哲學理念說過我們不應使用專有軟體。但是,當我們"
+"套用「自我防衛而使用暴力合乎正義」的演繹推理過程,我的結論是:å›
 ç‚ºè¦é–‹ç™¼è‡ªç”±"
+"版替代品以協助他人停止使用專有軟體,所以必é 
ˆä½¿ç”¨å°ˆæœ‰è»Ÿé«”的情況合乎情理。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But, even if this was a justifiable evil, it was still an evil.  Today we no "
+"longer have any copies of Unix, because we have replaced them with free "
+"operating systems.  If we could not replace a machine's operating system "
+"with a free one, we replaced the machine instead."
+msgstr ""
+"但是,即便這是合乎正義的邪惡,它依然是種邪惡。今日我們不再保有任何
 Unix 系統"
+"副本,因
為我們已經能用自由的作業系統取代。如果我們無法以自由的作業系統取代機"
+"器上的作業系統,那我們會改為撤換那臺機器。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Task List"
+msgstr "GNU 工作列表"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As the GNU Project proceeded, and increasing numbers of system components "
+"were found or developed, eventually it became useful to make a list of the "
+"remaining gaps.  We used it to recruit developers to write the missing "
+"pieces.  This list became known as the GNU Task List.  In addition to "
+"missing Unix components, we listed various other useful software and "
+"documentation projects that, we thought, a truly complete system ought to "
+"have."
+msgstr ""
+"隨著 GNU 
專案繼續發展,可用的和有人開發的系統組件數量逐漸增加
,如果能有一份清"
+"單列出欠缺的組件名單會很有用。我們用這份清
單募集開發者撰寫缺失的拼圖一角。這"
+"份清單後來被熟知為「GNU 工作列表」。除了缺少的 Unix 
組件之外,我們也在清單中"
+"列出å…
¶ä»–各種好用的軟體和文件專案,我們認為真正完善的系統應該要有的一切。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Today (1), hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;"
+"those jobs had been done, aside from a few inessential ones.  But the list "
+"is full of projects that some might call &ldquo;applications&rdquo;.  Any "
+"program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful "
+"thing to add to an operating system."
+msgstr ""
+"今日 (1),GNU 工作列表中已經幾乎沒有什麼 Unix 
組件——那部份的工作已經完成,只"
+"剩下幾個不見得必要的組件。但是這份清單充
滿許多有些人稱為「應用程式」的專案。"
+"只要能吸引到小族群使用者人數以上的程式都是加å…
¥ä½œæ¥­ç³»çµ±ä¸­çš„好東西。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Even games are included in the task list&mdash;and have been since the "
+"beginning.  Unix included games, so naturally GNU should too.  But "
+"compatibility was not an issue for games, so we did not follow the list of "
+"games that Unix had.  Instead, we listed a spectrum of different kinds of "
+"games that users might like."
+msgstr ""
+"甚至遊戲都列在工作列表之中——從列表創立之初就列在å…
¶ä¸­ã€‚Unix 包含遊戲,所以自然"
+"而然 GNU 應該也要有。但是對遊戲來說,能不能在 GNU 
上也有得玩不是個議題,所以"
+"我們沒有遵循 Unix 
上有的遊戲列表。反之,我們列出許多使用者
可能會喜歡的不同種"
+"類遊戲名單。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) That was written in 1998.  In 2009 we no longer maintain a long task "
+"list.  The community develops free software so fast that we can't even keep "
+"track of it all.  Instead, we have a list of High Priority Projects, a much "
+"shorter list of projects we really want to encourage people to write."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 
時間點為1998年。到了2009年,我們已不再維護這樣一份冗長的工作列表。社群開"
+"發自由軟體的速度之快以至於我們無法跟得上記錄的è…
³æ­¥ã€‚我們改為維護「高優先專"
+"案」列表,一份我們非常想要鼓勵人們撰寫的專案名單,長度較短。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Library GPL"
+msgstr "GNU 函式庫 GPL"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Library "
+"General Public License(1), which gives permission to link proprietary "
+"software with the library.  Why make this exception?"
+msgstr ""
+"GNU C 函式庫使用一種特殊的著作傳式授權,稱為 GNU 
函式庫通用公眾授權(1),允許"
+"專有軟體和函式庫連結。為什麼要有這條例外條款?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It is not a matter of principle; there is no principle that says proprietary "
+"software products are entitled to include our code.  (Why contribute to a "
+"project predicated on refusing to share with us?)  Using the LGPL for the C "
+"library, or for any library, is a matter of strategy."
+msgstr ""
+"這無關原則;我們沒有原則說要賦予專有軟體產品收納我們程式碼的資æ
 ¼ã€‚(那為什麼"
+"要貢獻那些預期會拒絕和我們分享的專案?)讓 C 
函式庫使用 LGPL,或是讓任何函式"
+"庫使用 LGPL,是個策略問題。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The C library does a generic job; every proprietary system or compiler comes "
+"with a C library.  Therefore, to make our C library available only to free "
+"software would not have given free software any advantage&mdash;it would "
+"only have discouraged use of our library."
+msgstr ""
+"C 函式庫的用途很廣;每套專有系統或編譯器都隨附 C 
函式庫。因此,只給自由軟體使"
+"用我們的 C 函式庫,並不會對自由軟體生æ…
‹å¸¶ä¾†ä»»ä½•å¥½è™•â€”—只會讓人更不願意使用我們"
+"的函式庫。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One system is an exception to this: on the GNU system (and this includes GNU/"
+"Linux), the GNU C library is the only C library.  So the distribution terms "
+"of the GNU C library determine whether it is possible to compile a "
+"proprietary program for the GNU system.  There is no ethical reason to allow "
+"proprietary applications on the GNU system, but strategically it seems that "
+"disallowing them would do more to discourage use of the GNU system than to "
+"encourage development of free applications.  That is why using the Library "
+"GPL is a good strategy for the C library."
+msgstr ""
+"唯有一套系統是個例外:GNU 系統(包括 GNU/Linux),而 GNU C 
函式庫是它唯一的 "
+"C 函式庫。所以 GNU C 函式庫的散布條款能決定是否可以在 
GNU 系統上編譯專有軟"
+"體。允許 GNU 
系統上有專有軟體不合道德,但是就策略面而言禁止專有軟體似乎反而阻"
+"礙人們使用 GNU 
系統,鼓勵不到自由軟體的開發。那就是為什麼使用 LGPL 
對於 C 函"
+"式庫而言是個好策略。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For other libraries, the strategic decision needs to be considered on a case-"
+"by-case basis.  When a library does a special job that can help write "
+"certain kinds of programs, then releasing it under the GPL, limiting it to "
+"free programs only, is a way of helping other free software developers, "
+"giving them an advantage against proprietary software."
+msgstr ""
+"至於其他函式庫,決策需要根據各個案例的不同加以考æ…
®ã€‚當某個函式庫對於協助撰寫"
+"某類程式有特殊作用時,那麼可以將它以 GPL 
發行,限制只能讓自由軟體取用,如此就"
+"能協助其他自由軟體開發者
,讓他們有優勢對抗專有軟體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Consider GNU Readline, a library that was developed to provide command-line "
+"editing for BASH.  Readline is released under the ordinary GNU GPL, not the "
+"Library GPL.  This probably does reduce the amount Readline is used, but "
+"that is no loss for us.  Meanwhile, at least one useful application has been "
+"made free software specifically so it could use Readline, and that is a real "
+"gain for the community."
+msgstr ""
+"說到 GNU Readline,那是一套開發來提供 BASH 
作指令列編輯的函式庫。Readline 是"
+"以原本的 GNU GPL 授權發行,而非函式庫 
GPL。這樣可能確實減少 Readline 被使用的"
+"次數,但對我們來說沒有什麼損失。此時此刻,至少有個好用的應用程式å›
 ç‚ºè¦åˆ©ç”¨ "
+"Readline 而特地做成自由軟體,那真是社群的一大收穫。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Proprietary software developers have the advantages money provides; free "
+"software developers need to make advantages for each other.  I hope some day "
+"we will have a large collection of GPL-covered libraries that have no "
+"parallel available to proprietary software, providing useful modules to "
+"serve as building blocks in new free software, and adding up to a major "
+"advantage for further free software development."
+msgstr ""
+"專有軟體的開發者有金錢給予的優勢;而自由軟體開發者
需要相互創造優勢。我希望有"
+"一天我們會有許許多多受 GPL 
保護、無法和專有軟體平行運作的函式庫,能一同提供好"
+"用的模組作為建構新自由軟體的磚塊,全部加
總起來成為更巨大的優勢以利自由軟體向"
+"前發展。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) This license is now called the GNU Lesser General Public License, to "
+"avoid giving the idea that all libraries ought to use it.  See <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html\">Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your "
+"next library</a> for more information."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 這個授權條款目前已經改稱為 GNU 寬鬆通用公眾授權 
(Lesser General Public "
+"License),避免造
成所有函式庫都該使用這個授權條款的想法。請參閱<a 
href=\"/"
+"philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html\">為何你不應該讓你下個函式庫使用 
LGPL</a> 深入瞭"
+"解更多資訊。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Scratching an itch?"
+msgstr "搔個癢?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Eric Raymond says that &ldquo;Every good work of software starts by "
+"scratching a developer's personal itch.&rdquo; Maybe that happens sometimes, "
+"but many essential pieces of GNU software were developed in order to have a "
+"complete free operating system.  They come from a vision and a plan, not "
+"from impulse."
+msgstr ""
+"艾力克・雷蒙 (Eric Raymond) 
曾說:「每個軟體佳作都是從搔開發者自身的癢處開"
+"始」。或許那種事情偶爾會發生,但是許多 GNU 
軟體的重要組件都是基於希望打造出完"
+"整的自由作業系統而開發的。它們的創造出自遠
見和計畫,而不是衝動。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For example, we developed the GNU C library because a Unix-like system needs "
+"a C library, BASH because a Unix-like system needs a shell, and GNU tar "
+"because a Unix-like system needs a tar program.  The same is true for my own "
+"programs&mdash;the GNU C compiler, GNU Emacs, GDB and GNU Make."
+msgstr ""
+"舉例來說,我們開發了 GNU C 函式庫,是因為 Unix 
風系統要有 C 函式庫;還有 "
+"BASH,因為 Unix 風系統要有外部表殼 (Shell);以及 GNU tar,因
為 Unix 風系統要"
+"有個 tar 程式。對於我所撰寫的程式亦是如此——GNU C 
編譯器、GNU Emacs、GDB 和 "
+"GNU Make 等。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some GNU programs were developed to cope with specific threats to our "
+"freedom.  Thus, we developed gzip to replace the Compress program, which had "
+"been lost to the community because of the <acronym title=\"Lempel-Ziv-Welch"
+"\">LZW</acronym> patents.  We found people to develop LessTif, and more "
+"recently started <acronym title=\"GNU Network Object Model Environment"
+"\">GNOME</acronym> and Harmony, to address the problems caused by certain "
+"proprietary libraries (see below).  We are developing the GNU Privacy Guard "
+"to replace popular nonfree encryption software, because users should not "
+"have to choose between privacy and freedom."
+msgstr ""
+"有些 GNU 程式的開發是為了處理我們自由所面臨的威脅
。所以,我們開發了 gzip 取"
+"代 Compress 程式,這是因為 <acronym 
title=\"Lempel-Ziv-Welch\">LZW</acronym> "
+"專利讓社群失落了一塊。我們也資助一些人開發 
LessTif,還有最近剛啟動的 "
+"<acronym title=\"GNU Network Object Model Environment\">GNOME</acronym> 和 "
+"Harmony 專案,都是為了處理特定專有函式庫所造
成的問題(請見後面描述)。我們同"
+"時也在開發 GNU Privacy Guard 來取代受歡迎的非自由加
密軟體,因為使用者不應限制"
+"在隱私與自由兩者之間做抉擇。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Of course, the people writing these programs became interested in the work, "
+"and many features were added to them by various people for the sake of their "
+"own needs and interests.  But that is not why the programs exist."
+msgstr ""
+"當然,撰寫這些程式的人也會開始對這類工作感到有趣,而各式各樣的人基於自身需求"
+"和興趣而逐步加入許多功能。但那些都不是程式誕生的主因
。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Unexpected developments"
+msgstr "未預期的開發"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"At the beginning of the GNU Project, I imagined that we would develop the "
+"whole GNU system, then release it as a whole.  That is not how it happened."
+msgstr ""
+"在 GNU 專案創立之初,我想像著我們會先開發出整個 GNU 
系統,然後再整套一起發"
+"行。不過現實並非如此。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Since each component of the GNU system was implemented on a Unix system, "
+"each component could run on Unix systems long before a complete GNU system "
+"existed.  Some of these programs became popular, and users began extending "
+"them and porting them&mdash;to the various incompatible versions of Unix, "
+"and sometimes to other systems as well."
+msgstr ""
+"只要隨著各個 GNU 系統的組件能在 Unix 
系統上實作出來,各個組件就能在完整的 "
+"GNU 系統出現以前先在 Unix 
系統上替換運行。這些程式中有的很受歡迎,使用者開始"
+"擴充這些軟體並移植——移植到各種不相容的 Unix 
版本中,也有時候被移植到其他系統"
+"去。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The process made these programs much more powerful, and attracted both funds "
+"and contributors to the GNU Project.  But it probably also delayed "
+"completion of a minimal working system by several years, as GNU developers' "
+"time was put into maintaining these ports and adding features to the "
+"existing components, rather than moving on to write one missing component "
+"after another."
+msgstr ""
+"這套流程讓這些程式變得更強大,並且為 GNU 
專案吸引到資金和貢獻者。但這也可能是"
+"導致最低限度可運作系統延後許多年才完成的原因,因為 
GNU 開發者得投入時間維護這"
+"些移植版,並且為既有的組件增添新功能,所以較少接續撰寫另一é
 … GNU 還未有的組"
+"件。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Hurd"
+msgstr "GNU Hurd"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"By 1990, the GNU system was almost complete; the only major missing "
+"component was the kernel.  We had decided to implement our kernel as a "
+"collection of server processes running on top of Mach.  Mach is a "
+"microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the "
+"University of Utah; the GNU Hurd is a collection of servers (i.e., a herd of "
+"GNUs) that run on top of Mach, and do the various jobs of the Unix kernel.  "
+"The start of development was delayed as we waited for Mach to be released as "
+"free software, as had been promised."
+msgstr ""
+"到了1990年,GNU 系統幾近完成;唯一缺少的重要組件是å…
§éƒ¨æ ¸å¿ƒã€‚我們決定要將我們"
+"的內部核心以跑在 Mach 上的伺服器程序集合實作。Mach 是å…
ˆåœ¨å¡å…§åŸºæ¢…隆大學 "
+"(Carnegie Mellon University) 開發,後來在猶他大學 (University of 
Utah) 開發的"
+"微核心;而 GNU Hurd 是跑在 Mach 
上的一群伺服器(解釋:如果要說一群 GNU 的話,"
+"因為 gnu 是牛羚,所以英文要講 a herd of GNUs,而 Hurd 和 herd 
同音),能執行 "
+"Unix 內部核心的許多工作。開發的啟動有所延遲,因
為我們在等 Mach 採自由軟體授權"
+"發行,這件事他們先前有承諾過。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One reason for choosing this design was to avoid what seemed to be the "
+"hardest part of the job: debugging a kernel program without a source-level "
+"debugger to do it with.  This part of the job had been done already, in "
+"Mach, and we expected to debug the Hurd servers as user programs, with GDB.  "
+"But it took a long time to make that possible, and the multithreaded servers "
+"that send messages to each other have turned out to be very hard to debug.  "
+"Making the Hurd work solidly has stretched on for many years."
+msgstr ""
+"選擇這樣設計的其中一個原因
,是希望避開工作中看起來最艱難的部份:在沒有來源階"
+"段除錯器 (source-level debugger) 的幫助下為æ 
¸å¿ƒç¨‹å¼é™¤éŒ¯ã€‚這部份的工作在 Mach "
+"中已經完成,所以我們打算以使用者層級程式的方法對 Hurd 
伺服器用 GDB 除錯。但這"
+"卻花上很長一段時間才逐漸行得通,多執行序的伺服器彼此間傳送訊息反而讓除錯變得"
+"極為困難。我們耗費很多年的時間才讓 Hurd 
能穩固地運作。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Alix"
+msgstr "Alix"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU kernel was not originally supposed to be called the Hurd.  Its "
+"original name was Alix&mdash;named after the woman who was my sweetheart at "
+"the time.  She, a Unix system administrator, had pointed out how her name "
+"would fit a common naming pattern for Unix system versions; as a joke, she "
+"told her friends, &ldquo;Someone should name a kernel after me.&rdquo; I "
+"said nothing, but decided to surprise her with a kernel named Alix."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU 的內部核心起初沒有打算叫作 Hurd。最早的名字是 
Alix——當時我最心愛的女人。"
+"Alix 是一位 Unix 系統管理員,她曾提過自己的名字剛好很合 
Unix 系統版本的常見命"
+"名規則;她以說笑話的方式向朋友們說:「真該有人用我的名字幫å
…§éƒ¨æ ¸å¿ƒå‘½åçš„。」"
+"我什麼話也沒說,只是下定決心要做一個名為 Alix 的æ 
¸å¿ƒä¾†çµ¦å¥¹é©šå–œã€‚"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It did not stay that way.  Michael (now Thomas) Bushnell, the main developer "
+"of the kernel, preferred the name Hurd, and redefined Alix to refer to a "
+"certain part of the kernel&mdash;the part that would trap system calls and "
+"handle them by sending messages to Hurd servers."
+msgstr ""
+"好景不常。Michael Bushnell(現在改名 Thomas),內部æ 
¸å¿ƒçš„主要開發者,更偏好 "
+"Hurd 這個名稱,然後把 Alix 重新定義為核心的å…
¶ä¸­ä¸€éƒ¨åˆ†â€”—捕捉系統呼叫並傳送訊息"
+"給 Hurd 伺服器來處理它們的這部分。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Later, Alix and I broke up, and she changed her name; independently, the "
+"Hurd design was changed so that the C library would send messages directly "
+"to servers, and this made the Alix component disappear from the design."
+msgstr ""
+"後來,Alix 和我分手,她還改了名字;另外,Hurd 
設計也改了,C 函式庫會直接傳訊"
+"息給伺服器,所以 Alix 組件也從設計中消失了。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But before these things happened, a friend of hers came across the name Alix "
+"in the Hurd source code, and mentioned it to her.  So she did have the "
+"chance to find a kernel named after her."
+msgstr ""
+"而在這些事發生之前,Alix 的其中一位朋友曾偶然發現 Hurd 
源始碼中有個 Alix,所"
+"以跟她提過這件事。因此,她確實因緣際會知道曾有個æ 
¸å¿ƒæ˜¯ç”¨å¥¹çš„名字命名的。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Linux and GNU/Linux"
+msgstr "Linux 和 GNU/Linux"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU Hurd is not suitable for production use, and we don't know if it "
+"ever will be.  The capability-based design has problems that result directly "
+"from the flexibility of the design, and it is not clear whether solutions "
+"exist."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU Hurd 
不適合一般工作生產使用,我們也不知道它到底能不能走到那步。以能力為基"
+"礎的設計反而因為設計的彈性而造成直接問題,我們也不清
楚到底有沒有個解決方案。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Fortunately, another kernel is available.  In 1991, Linus Torvalds developed "
+"a Unix-compatible kernel and called it Linux.  It was proprietary at first, "
+"but in 1992, he made it free software; combining Linux with the not-quite-"
+"complete GNU system resulted in a complete free operating system.  "
+"(Combining them was a substantial job in itself, of course.)  It is due to "
+"Linux that we can actually run a version of the GNU system today."
+msgstr ""
+"幸好,還有另一個內核。1991年林納思・托瓦茲 (Linux 
Torvalds) 開發了一個 Unix "
+"相容核心,並稱之為 
Linux。一開始它是專有軟體,不過在1992年時,他將它改為自由"
+"軟體;如果我們將 Linux 和沒那麼完整的 GNU 
系統結合在一起,就成了一套完整的自"
+"由作業系統。(當然,把它們搭在一起本身也是個很重要的工作。)å›
 ç‚ºæœ‰äº† Linux,"
+"我們今日才得以真正運行一套 GNU 系統。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We call this system version <a href=\"/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html\"> GNU/Linux</"
+"a>, to express its composition as a combination of the GNU system with Linux "
+"as the kernel.  Please don't fall into the practice of calling the whole "
+"system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, since that means attributing our work to someone "
+"else.  Please <a href=\"/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html\"> give us equal mention</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"我們將這樣的系統版本稱為 <a 
href=\"/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html\">GNU/Linux</a>,"
+"表達這是個 GNU 系統和 Linux 內部æ 
¸å¿ƒçš„結合成果。請不要與世推移跟著把整套系統"
+"稱為「Linux」,因為這種稱呼方式代表把我們的工作成果å…
¨éƒ½æ­¸åŠŸåœ¨åˆ¥äººåä¸‹ã€‚è«‹<a "
+"href=\"/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html\">平等提及我們的貢獻</a>。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Challenges in our future"
+msgstr "我們未來的挑戰"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We have proved our ability to develop a broad spectrum of free software.  "
+"This does not mean we are invincible and unstoppable.  Several challenges "
+"make the future of free software uncertain; meeting them will require "
+"steadfast effort and endurance, sometimes lasting for years.  It will "
+"require the kind of determination that people display when they value their "
+"freedom and will not let anyone take it away."
+msgstr ""
+"我們已經證明我們有能力開發廣泛的自由軟體。這不表示我們無人能敵而且勢不可擋。"
+"還有許多挑戰讓自由軟體的未來不明朗;要達成這些挑戰é 
ˆè¦æ†å¿ƒå’Œæ¯…力,有時得持續"
+"很多年。這需要大家展現出那種珍重自由、且不願讓任何人奪走的決心。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "The following four sections discuss these challenges."
+msgstr "下面四個小節討論將分別探討這些挑戰。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Secret hardware"
+msgstr "祕密硬體"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Hardware manufacturers increasingly tend to keep hardware specifications "
+"secret.  This makes it difficult to write free drivers so that Linux and "
+"XFree86 can support new hardware.  We have complete free systems today, but "
+"we will not have them tomorrow if we cannot support tomorrow's computers."
+msgstr ""
+"硬體製造商越來越傾向讓硬體規æ 
¼æˆç‚ºæ©Ÿå¯†ã€‚這使得要撰寫出自由驅動程式好讓 Linux "
+"和 XFree86 
能支援新硬體變得更為困難。雖然我們今日已經有完整的自由系統,但只要"
+"我們無法支援明日的電è…
¦ï¼Œæˆ‘們明日就無法擁有完整的自由系統。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There are two ways to cope with this problem.  Programmers can do reverse "
+"engineering to figure out how to support the hardware.  The rest of us can "
+"choose the hardware that is supported by free software; as our numbers "
+"increase, secrecy of specifications will become a self-defeating policy."
+msgstr ""
+"有å…
©ç¨®è™•ç†é€™é¡žå•é¡Œçš„辦法。程式設計師可以做逆向工程以理解該如何支援這個硬體。"
+"剩下的我們,可以選擇自由軟體可支援的硬體;只要我們的人數增åŠ
 ï¼Œç¥•å¯†è¦æ ¼å°±æˆäº†"
+"自我毀滅的策略。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient "
+"determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong "
+"feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers are "
+"intolerable.  And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a "
+"little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to "
+"have freedom is widespread."
+msgstr ""
+"逆向工程可是個大工程;我們有決心堅
定的程式設計師要來承擔這些事嗎?有的——只要"
+"我們能建設出自由軟體是行事準則、非自由的驅
動程式無法容許的強烈感受。那麼我們"
+"之中會有許多人願意多花一些錢,或甚至多花一點時間,來讓我們可以使用自由的é©
…å‹•"
+"程式嗎?會的,只要保有自由的決心能夠廣泛傳播。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well.  There is a free BIOS, "
+"<a href=\"http://www.libreboot.org/\";>LibreBoot</a> (a distribution of "
+"coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can "
+"support them without nonfree &ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.)"
+msgstr ""
+"(2008年註:這個議題也延伸到 BIOS。有個自由的 BIOS,<a 
href=\"http://www.";
+"libreboot.org/\">LibreBoot</a>(coreboot 
的散布版);問題在於取得機器的規格,"
+"如此 LibreBoot 才得以支援這些設備而不必用到非自由的 
&ldquo;Blob&rdquo;)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Nonfree libraries"
+msgstr "非自由函式庫"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A nonfree library that runs on free operating systems acts as a trap for "
+"free software developers.  The library's attractive features are the bait; "
+"if you use the library, you fall into the trap, because your program cannot "
+"usefully be part of a free operating system.  (Strictly speaking, we could "
+"include your program, but it won't <em>run</em> with the library missing.)  "
+"Even worse, if a program that uses the proprietary library becomes popular, "
+"it can lure other unsuspecting programmers into the trap."
+msgstr ""
+"在自由作業系統上運行的非自由函式庫是個為自由軟體開發è€
…設計的圈套。函式庫的迷"
+"人特性是誘餌;如果你用了這套函式庫,你
就掉進圈套裡,因為你的程式無法有用地成"
+"為自由作業系統中的一部分。(嚴格來說,我們可以收錄你
的程式,但它卻因為缺少函"
+"式庫而無法<em>執行</em>。)更糟的是,如果有個採用專有函式庫的程式變得廣受歡"
+"迎,還會誘使其他沒料想到問題的程式設計師一起落å…
¥åœˆå¥—中。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The first instance of this problem was the Motif toolkit, back in the 80s.  "
+"Although there were as yet no free operating systems, it was clear what "
+"problem Motif would cause for them later on.  The GNU Project responded in "
+"two ways: by asking individual free software projects to support the free X "
+"Toolkit widgets as well as Motif, and by asking for someone to write a free "
+"replacement for Motif.  The job took many years; LessTif, developed by the "
+"Hungry Programmers, became powerful enough to support most Motif "
+"applications only in 1997."
+msgstr ""
+"這問題的第一個實例是1980年代的 Motif å·¥å…
·çµ„。雖然那時還沒有自由的作業系統,但"
+"很明顯 Motif 會衍生後續問題。GNU 專案以å…
©å€‹ä½œæ³•å›žæ‡‰ï¼šé‚€è«‹å„自由軟體專案像支"
+"持 Motif 一樣地支持自由的 X Toolkit widget å…
ƒä»¶ï¼Œä»¥åŠå››è™•è©¢å•æ˜¯å¦æœ‰äººå¯ä»¥æ’°"
+"寫 Motif 的自由替代品。這項工作花了許多年;由 Hungry 
Programmers 開發的 "
+"LessTif,只在1997年就足以成熟支援絕大多數的 Motif 
應用程式。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Between 1996 and 1998, another nonfree <acronym title=\"Graphical User "
+"Interface\">GUI</acronym> toolkit library, called Qt, was used in a "
+"substantial collection of free software, the desktop <acronym title=\"K "
+"Desktop Environment\">KDE</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+"在1996年到1998年之間,另一個叫作 Qt 的非自由 <acronym 
title=\"Graphical User "
+"Interface\">GUI</acronym> 圖形介面工具組函式庫,則被用於 
<acronym title=\"K "
+"Desktop Environment\">KDE</acronym> 
桌面這套實用的自由軟體集合中。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free GNU/Linux systems were unable to use KDE, because we could not use the "
+"library.  However, some commercial distributors of GNU/Linux systems who "
+"were not strict about sticking with free software added KDE to their "
+"systems&mdash;producing a system with more capabilities, but less freedom.  "
+"The KDE group was actively encouraging more programmers to use Qt, and "
+"millions of new &ldquo;Linux users&rdquo; had never been exposed to the idea "
+"that there was a problem in this.  The situation appeared grim."
+msgstr ""
+"自由的 GNU/Linux 系統無法使用 KDE,因
為我們無法利用這些函式庫。但是,有些商業"
+"型 GNU/Linux 系統的散布商對忠守自由軟體沒那麼嚴謹,便將 
KDE 加到他們的系統中"
+"——更多功能、但較少自由的系統於焉誕生。KDE 
那群人很積極鼓勵程式設計師採用 Qt,"
+"而這數百萬個新手「Linux 使用者
」也從沒接觸過這樣做會有問題的想法。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The free software community responded to the problem in two ways: GNOME and "
+"Harmony."
+msgstr "自由軟體社群以兩項專案回應:GNOME 與 Harmony。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNOME, the GNU Network Object Model Environment, is GNU's desktop project.  "
+"Started in 1997 by Miguel de Icaza, and developed with the support of Red "
+"Hat Software, GNOME set out to provide similar desktop facilities, but using "
+"free software exclusively.  It has technical advantages as well, such as "
+"supporting a variety of languages, not just C++.  But its main purpose was "
+"freedom: not to require the use of any nonfree software."
+msgstr ""
+"GNOME,全名為 GNU 網路物件模型環境 (GNU Network Object Model 
Environment),"
+"是 GNU 的桌面專案。該專案由 Miguel de Icaza 於1997年創立,在 
Red Hat 公司的支"
+"持之下開發。GNOME 專案試圖提供類似的桌面功能,但是完å…
¨æŽ¡ç”¨è‡ªç”±è»Ÿé«”。此外,它"
+"還有一些技術上的優點,例如廣泛支援許多語言,不單只有
 C++ 而已。不過它的主要重"
+"點還是自由:不須要用到任何非自由軟體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Harmony is a compatible replacement library, designed to make it possible to "
+"run KDE software without using Qt."
+msgstr ""
+"Harmony 是個相容的替代函式庫,設計希望能在不使用 Qt 的情
況下執行 KDE 軟體。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, "
+"when carried out, should make Qt free software.  There is no way to be sure, "
+"but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the "
+"problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree.  (The new license is inconvenient "
+"and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt.)"
+msgstr ""
+"1998年11月時,Qt 的開發者
宣布更動授權條款,實現之後應該能讓 Qt 變成自由軟體。"
+"雖然我們沒有辦法確定,不過我相信這件事有部份受到社群對
 Qt 非自由的問題做出堅"
+"強回應的影響。(新授權條款不方便而且不平等,所以能避å
…ä½¿ç”¨ Qt 的話還是比較"
+"好。)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"[Subsequent note: in September 2000, Qt was rereleased under the GNU GPL, "
+"which essentially solved this problem.]"
+msgstr ""
+"[後記:2000年9月,Qt 以 GNU GPL 
授權重新發行,明確解決了前述這些問題。]"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"How will we respond to the next tempting nonfree library? Will the whole "
+"community understand the need to stay out of the trap? Or will many of us "
+"give up freedom for convenience, and produce a major problem? Our future "
+"depends on our philosophy."
+msgstr ""
+"如果下個誘人的非自由函式庫出現時我們該如何因
應?整個社群會明瞭跳脫圈套的必要"
+"性嗎?或是我們之中有許多人捨棄自由將就方便,產生更遠
大的問題?我們的未來取決"
+"於我們的思想理念。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Software patents"
+msgstr "軟體專利"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put "
+"algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years.  "
+"The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, and we still "
+"cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <acronym title="
+"\"Graphics Interchange Format\">GIF</acronym>s.  [As of 2009 they have "
+"expired.] In 1998, a free program to produce <acronym title=\"MPEG-1 Audio "
+"Layer 3\">MP3</acronym> compressed audio was removed from distribution under "
+"threat of a patent suit."
+msgstr ""
+"我們所面對的最可怕威脅
來自軟體專利。軟體專利能限制自由軟體不能實作某些演算法"
+"和功能,時間長達 20 年之久。LZW 
壓縮演算法於1983年申請到專利,但我們仍然不能"
+"發行可製作適當壓縮後 <acronym title=\"Graphics Interchange 
Format\">GIF</"
+"acronym> 圖片檔的自由軟體。[直到2009年所有相關專利才å…
¨æ•¸éŽæœŸã€‚] 在1998年時,"
+"有個能製作 <acronym title=\"MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3\">MP3</acronym> 
壓縮音訊的自"
+"由程式因為受到專利訴訟威脅而從散布版中移除。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There are ways to cope with patents: we can search for evidence that a "
+"patent is invalid, and we can look for alternative ways to do a job.  But "
+"each of these methods works only sometimes; when both fail, a patent may "
+"force all free software to lack some feature that users want.  After a long "
+"wait, the patents expire (the MP3 patents are expected to have expired by "
+"2018), but what will we do until then?"
+msgstr ""
+"有一些辦法可以處理專利:我們可以搜尋專利無效的證據,我們也可以改尋求å
…¶ä»–方式"
+"來完成同件事情
。但是這些方法不見得每次都管用;有時候這å…
©ç¨®æ–¹æ³•éƒ½è¾¦ä¸åˆ°ï¼Œå°ˆåˆ©"
+"可迫使所有自由軟體都欠缺某些使用者
想要的功能。在長時間等待後,專利終於過期"
+"(MP3 專利群預計在2018年時å…
¨æ•¸éŽæœŸï¼‰ï¼Œä½†é‚£æ™‚候我們能做些什麼?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Those of us who value free software for freedom's sake will stay with free "
+"software anyway.  We will manage to get work done without the patented "
+"features.  But those who value free software because they expect it to be "
+"technically superior are likely to call it a failure when a patent holds it "
+"back.  Thus, while it is useful to talk about the practical effectiveness of "
+"the &ldquo;bazaar&rdquo; model of development, and the reliability and power "
+"of some free software, we must not stop there.  We must talk about freedom "
+"and principle."
+msgstr ""
+"我們之中因
為自由的價值而重視自由軟體的人,無論如何都會願意留下來和自由軟體å¾
…"
+"在一起;我們會努力設法在缺少專利功能的情況下完成事情
。但那些認為自由軟體在技"
+"術上較進步而偏好自由軟體的人,在專利拖住自由軟體發展之時卻會說這是自由軟體的"
+"失敗。所以,雖然談論「市集」開發模型在實務上很有效,以及說有些自由軟體很穩定"
+"很有力等觀點,對於推動自由軟體很有用處,但我們不該就停在那裡。我們å¿
…須進一步"
+"談論自由和原則問題。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free documentation"
+msgstr "自由文件"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The biggest deficiency in our free operating systems is not in the "
+"software&mdash;it is the lack of good free manuals that we can include in "
+"our systems.  Documentation is an essential part of any software package; "
+"when an important free software package does not come with a good free "
+"manual, that is a major gap.  We have many such gaps today."
+msgstr ""
+"我們的自由作業系統最缺乏的一部分不是軟體——真正缺乏的是能收錄到我們系統中的優"
+"質自由手冊。文件是任何軟體包必
要的一部分;當重要的自由軟體包沒有隨附良好的自"
+"由手冊時,那是一塊大缺陷。我們今日還有許多這樣子的缺陷。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free documentation, like free software, is a matter of freedom, not price.  "
+"The criterion for a free manual is pretty much the same as for free "
+"software: it is a matter of giving all users certain freedoms.  "
+"Redistribution (including commercial sale) must be permitted, online and on "
+"paper, so that the manual can accompany every copy of the program."
+msgstr ""
+"自由文件,好比自由軟體,同樣關乎自由,而非價æ 
¼ã€‚自由文件的判斷準則約略與自由"
+"軟體相同:給予所有使用者特定的自由。必須å…
è¨±å†æ¬¡æ•£å¸ƒï¼ˆåŒ…含商業銷售),無論媒"
+"體採用線上或紙本,如此手冊便得以伴隨程式副本。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Permission for modification is crucial too.  As a general rule, I don't "
+"believe that it is essential for people to have permission to modify all "
+"sorts of articles and books.  For example, I don't think you or I are "
+"obliged to give permission to modify articles like this one, which describe "
+"our actions and our views."
+msgstr ""
+"å…
è¨±ä¿®æ”¹ä¹Ÿå¾ˆé—œéµã€‚至於常理,我認為人們不一定得以有權修改所有種類的文ç«
 å’Œæ›¸"
+"籍。例如,我認為你
或我都不應當有權利修改和本文相同類型的文章,因
為本篇文章描"
+"述的是我們的動作行為和我們的想法觀點。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But there is a particular reason why the freedom to modify is crucial for "
+"documentation for free software.  When people exercise their right to modify "
+"the software, and add or change its features, if they are conscientious they "
+"will change the manual, too&mdash;so they can provide accurate and usable "
+"documentation with the modified program.  A nonfree manual, which does not "
+"allow programmers to be conscientious and finish the job, does not fill our "
+"community's needs."
+msgstr ""
+"但自由軟體的文件必須可以自由修改有個特別原因
。當人們行使其權利修改軟體,加入"
+"或更動軟體功能,如果他們一併對手冊的刪改ç…
žè²»è‹¦å¿ƒâ€”—就能為修改後的程式提供準確"
+"且有用的文件。若是非自由的手冊,便不å…
è¨±ç¨‹å¼è¨­è¨ˆå¸«è²»æ­¤ç”¨å¿ƒå®Œæˆä½œæ¥­ï¼Œä¹Ÿå°±ç„¡æ³•"
+"滿足我們社群所需。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some kinds of limits on how modifications are done pose no problem.  For "
+"example, requirements to preserve the original author's copyright notice, "
+"the distribution terms, or the list of authors, are OK.  It is also no "
+"problem to require modified versions to include notice that they were "
+"modified, even to have entire sections that may not be deleted or changed, "
+"as long as these sections deal with nontechnical topics.  These kinds of "
+"restrictions are not a problem because they don't stop the conscientious "
+"programmer from adapting the manual to fit the modified program.  In other "
+"words, they don't block the free software community from making full use of "
+"the manual."
+msgstr ""
+"有些禁止修改的限制不會造
成什麼問題。例如,要求保留原始作者的著作權聲明、散布"
+"條款、或是作者名單,這些都合理。要求修改後版本納å…
¥è²æ˜Žè¡¨ç¤ºè©²ä½œå“æœ‰ç¶“過修改一"
+"樣沒有問題,甚至是要求不可以刪除或修改某整個段落也相同,只要這些段落講的是非"
+"技術相關主題就行。這些限制不成問題,因
為它們無法阻止用心的程式設計師把手冊編"
+"修得更符合修改後的程式版本。換句話說,這些限制無法阻止自由軟體社群完å
…¨åˆ©ç”¨é€™"
+"份手冊。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"However, it must be possible to modify all the <em>technical</em> content of "
+"the manual, and then distribute the result in all the usual media, through "
+"all the usual channels; otherwise, the restrictions do obstruct the "
+"community, the manual is not free, and we need another manual."
+msgstr ""
+"然而,必須要可以修改手冊中所有 <em>關於技術</em> 的å…
§å®¹ï¼Œä¸¦ä¸”能接著將成果載於"
+"所有常見媒體、透過所有尋常管道散布;否則,這類限制確實會阻礙社群,這樣一來這"
+"份手冊就不自由,我們需要撰寫其他手冊。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Will free software developers have the awareness and determination to "
+"produce a full spectrum of free manuals? Once again, our future depends on "
+"philosophy."
+msgstr ""
+"自由軟體開發者是否能覺知到自由手冊,並有決心製作出å…
¨é¢çš„自由手冊呢?再一次,"
+"我們的未來取決於我們的思想理念。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "We must talk about freedom"
+msgstr "我們必須談論自由"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Estimates today are that there are ten million users of GNU/Linux systems "
+"such as Debian GNU/Linux and Red Hat &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  Free software has "
+"developed such practical advantages that users are flocking to it for purely "
+"practical reasons."
+msgstr ""
+"今日估計約有上千萬人使用 GNU/Linux 系統,例如 Debian 
GNU/Linux 和 Red "
+"Hat「Linux」。自由軟體已發展出實務上的優勢,讓使用者
們純粹基於實務因素群集至"
+"此。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The good consequences of this are evident: more interest in developing free "
+"software, more customers for free software businesses, and more ability to "
+"encourage companies to develop commercial free software instead of "
+"proprietary software products."
+msgstr ""
+"這件事帶來的好處很明顯:有越多人對開發自由軟體有興趣,就有越多顧客會尋求自由"
+"軟體業務,也更能鼓勵å…
¬å¸é–‹ç™¼å•†æ¥­çš„自由軟體而非專有軟體產品。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But interest in the software is growing faster than awareness of the "
+"philosophy it is based on, and this leads to trouble.  Our ability to meet "
+"the challenges and threats described above depends on the will to stand firm "
+"for freedom.  To make sure our community has this will, we need to spread "
+"the idea to the new users as they come into the community."
+msgstr ""
+"但是對自由軟體產生興趣的速度,遠
比體認到自由軟體的理念思想還快,而這會招致禍"
+"害。我們達成上述挑戰與威脅
的能力,取決於我們願為自由挺身而出的堅定意志。要確"
+"使我們的社群能有這樣的意志,我們需要將理念散播給新來到社群中的使用è€
…知道。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But we are failing to do so: the efforts to attract new users into our "
+"community are far outstripping the efforts to teach them the civics of our "
+"community.  We need to do both, and we need to keep the two efforts in "
+"balance."
+msgstr ""
+"但是我們越來越難辦到:吸引新使用者進å…
¥æˆ‘們社群所下的功夫,遠勝於向他們教導我"
+"們社群的公民學所費的苦工。我們需要兩者å…
¼ç‚ºï¼Œè€Œä¸”我們要在兩者所做的努力間維持"
+"平衡。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Open Source&rdquo;"
+msgstr "「開源」"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Teaching new users about freedom became more difficult in 1998, when a part "
+"of the community decided to stop using the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; "
+"and say &ldquo;open source software&rdquo; instead."
+msgstr ""
+"1998年,要教育新使用者有關自由之事變得更為困難,因
為社群有一部分決定停止使用"
+"「自由軟體」這個詞語,並且改說成「開源軟體」。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some who favored this term aimed to avoid the confusion of &ldquo;"
+"free&rdquo; with &ldquo;gratis&rdquo;&mdash;a valid goal.  Others, however, "
+"aimed to set aside the spirit of principle that had motivated the free "
+"software movement and the GNU Project, and to appeal instead to executives "
+"and business users, many of whom hold an ideology that places profit above "
+"freedom, above community, above principle.  Thus, the rhetoric of &ldquo;"
+"open source&rdquo; focuses on the potential to make high-quality, powerful "
+"software, but shuns the ideas of freedom, community, and principle."
+msgstr ""
+"有些人喜歡用這個詞,主要是因為英文中的「free」也有「å…
è²»ã€çš„含意,所以想避免"
+"混淆——很有道理。其他人,不一樣,他們希望把驅
使自由軟體和 GNU 專案發展的原則精"
+"神丟在一旁,然後用這個詞語去吸引執行長、企業用戶等,而這群人大多有:利益高於"
+"自由、高於社群、高於原則的想法。所以,「開源」這個巧辯詞聚焦在產出高品質、強"
+"大軟體的可能性上,但是迴避自由、社群、原則這些概念。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; magazines are a clear example of this&mdash;they are "
+"filled with advertisements for proprietary software that works with GNU/"
+"Linux.  When the next Motif or Qt appears, will these magazines warn "
+"programmers to stay away from it, or will they run ads for it?"
+msgstr ""
+"各種「Linux」雜誌就是明確的範例——書中充斥著能在 
GNU/Linux 上運作的專有軟體廣"
+"告。如果有下一個 Motif 或是 Qt 
出現,這些雜誌難道會警告程式設計師該遠離它嗎?"
+"還是會幫它打廣告?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The support of business can contribute to the community in many ways; all "
+"else being equal, it is useful.  But winning their support by speaking even "
+"less about freedom and principle can be disastrous; it makes the previous "
+"imbalance between outreach and civics education even worse."
+msgstr ""
+"商業支持確實對社群有各種貢獻;商業以外的å…
¶é¤˜è²¢ç»ä¹Ÿç›¸åŒï¼Œéƒ½å¾ˆæœ‰ç”¨ã€‚但如果要讓"
+"我們減少談論自由與原則來贏得商業支持會是個災難;這使得å
…ˆå‰çš„拓展與公民學教育"
+"之間的不平衡變得更為傾斜。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;open source&rdquo; describe the same "
+"category of software, more or less, but say different things about the "
+"software, and about values.  The GNU Project continues to use the term "
+"&ldquo;free software&rdquo;, to express the idea that freedom, not just "
+"technology, is important."
+msgstr ""
+"「自由軟體」和「開源軟體」描述的是差不多相同類別的軟體,但講的是軟體的不同特"
+"點、和不同的價值觀。GNU 
專案持續使用「自由軟體」一詞來傳達自由的概念,不只是"
+"技術上的作法,這很重要。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Try!"
+msgstr "嘗試!"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Yoda's aphorism (&ldquo;There is no &lsquo;try&rsquo;&rdquo;) sounds neat, "
+"but it doesn't work for me.  I have done most of my work while anxious about "
+"whether I could do the job, and unsure that it would be enough to achieve "
+"the goal if I did.  But I tried anyway, because there was no one but me "
+"between the enemy and my city.  Surprising myself, I have sometimes "
+"succeeded."
+msgstr ""
+"尤達大師的æ 
¼è¨€ï¼ˆã€Œæ²’有所謂『嘗試』」)聽起來乾淨俐落,但對我來說不太管用。我"
+"大部分在做事的時候都還對我到底能不能完成這項
工作而焦慮,而且也不確定是否由我"
+"來做的話成果足不足以達成目標。但不管怎樣我都還是嘗試了,å›
 ç‚ºæ²’有人站在敵人和"
+"我的城市之間,å…
¶ä¸­å°±åªæœ‰æˆ‘而已。我自己也很驚訝,有的時候我成功了。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes I failed; some of my cities have fallen.  Then I found another "
+"threatened city, and got ready for another battle.  Over time, I've learned "
+"to look for threats and put myself between them and my city, calling on "
+"other hackers to come and join me."
+msgstr ""
+"而有時候我失敗了,我有的城市淪陷了。接著我發現另一座城市遭受威è„
…,所以得趕快"
+"準備下一場戰鬥。隨著時間過去,我學會尋找威脅
,並挺身走到敵人與我的城市之間,"
+"呼叫其他黑客前來和我一起聯手。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Nowadays, often I'm not the only one.  It is a relief and a joy when I see a "
+"regiment of hackers digging in to hold the line, and I realize, this city "
+"may survive&mdash;for now.  But the dangers are greater each year, and now "
+"Microsoft has explicitly targeted our community.  We can't take the future "
+"of freedom for granted.  Don't take it for granted! If you want to keep your "
+"freedom, you must be prepared to defend it."
+msgstr ""
+"時至今日,我常不是唯一的那一位。每當我看見一群黑客挖掘壕溝嚴守陣線之時,我便"
+"鬆了一口氣並有股喜悅油然而生,我於是é 
˜æ‚Ÿï¼Œé€™åº§åŸŽå¸‚保得住——此時此刻。但一年一"
+"年過去危險也越來越大,現在微軟已明確鎖定我們社群。我們不能將未來的自由視為理"
+"所當然。別視為理所當然!如果你想要保住你的自由,你必
須準備抵抗。"
+
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
+#. type: Content of: <div>
+msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S NOTES*"
+msgstr " "
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a 
href=\"mailto:address@hidden";
+"\">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are also <a href=\"/contact/\">other 
ways "
+"to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions "
+"can be sent to <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden"
+"org&gt;</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"請來信到 <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> 
詢問有關自由"
+"軟體基金會 (FSF) 和 GNU 的一般問題;或者<a 
href=\"/contact/\">以其他方式</a>"
+"聯絡自由軟體基金會。至於損毀的連結及å…
¶ä»–修正和建議,可以將之寄給 <a href="
+"\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>。"
+
+#
+#
+#
+#. TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+#. replace it with the translation of these two:
+#. We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+#. translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+#. Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+#. to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+#. &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+#. <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+#. our web pages, see <a
+#. href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+#. README</a>.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html"
+"\">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting "
+"translations of this article."
+msgstr ""
+"我們努力盡所能提供貼切、品質良善的翻譯。然而,我們無法十å
…¨åç¾Žï¼Œé‚„請將你的意"
+"見評述與一般建議寄給 <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;web-"
+"address@hidden&gt;</a></p><p>請參照 <a href=\"/server/standards/README."
+"translations.html\">翻譯讀我 README</a> 
來瞭解協調和提交我們的網頁翻譯相關事"
+"宜。"
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015, "
+"2017 Richard Stallman"
+msgstr ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015, "
+"2017 Richard Stallman"
+
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"This page is licensed under a <a rel=\"license\" href=\"http://";
+"creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-"
+"NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"本頁面採用<a rel=\"license\" 
href=\"https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-";
+"nd/4.0/deed.zh_TW\">創用 CC 姓名標示-禁止改作 4.0 
國際</a>條款給予授權。"
+
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div>
+msgid "*GNUN-SLOT: TRANSLATOR'S CREDITS*"
+msgstr ""
+"<b>翻譯</b>:曾政嘉 <a href=\"mailto:zerngjia (at) member (dot) fsf 
(dot) org"
+"\">zerngjia (at) member (dot) fsf (dot) org</a>, 2017."
+
+#. timestamp start
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Updated:"
+msgstr "更新時間︰"



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