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www/gnu linux-and-gnu.sr.html po/linux-and-gnu....

From: GNUN
Subject: www/gnu linux-and-gnu.sr.html po/linux-and-gnu....
Date: Sun, 17 Sep 2017 07:01:01 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     17/09/17 07:01:01

Modified files:
        gnu            : linux-and-gnu.sr.html 
Added files:
        gnu/po         : linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.


Index: linux-and-gnu.sr.html
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/linux-and-gnu.sr.html,v
retrieving revision 1.39
retrieving revision 1.40
diff -u -b -r1.39 -r1.40
--- linux-and-gnu.sr.html       17 Sep 2017 10:30:22 -0000      1.39
+++ linux-and-gnu.sr.html       17 Sep 2017 11:01:00 -0000      1.40
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
  value='<a href="/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.sr.po">
  --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html"
- --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value=""
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html"
  --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2010-09-23" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.sr.html" -->
@@ -328,7 +328,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2017/09/17 10:30:22 $
+$Date: 2017/09/17 11:01:00 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->

Index: po/linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html
RCS file: po/linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html
diff -N po/linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/linux-and-gnu.sr-diff.html       17 Sep 2017 11:01:01 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,324 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.84 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Linux and GNU
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, Emacs, GCC, Unix, Free Software, Operating System, GNU Kernel, HURD, GNU 
HURD, Hurd" /&gt;
+&lt;meta http-equiv="Description" content="Since 1983, developing the free 
Unix style operating system GNU, so that computer users can have the freedom to 
share and improve the software they use." /&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Linux and the GNU System&lt;/h2&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;by &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;Richard 
+&lt;div class="announcement"&gt;
+  &lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;For more information see also
+the &lt;a href="/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html"&gt;GNU/Linux FAQ&lt;/a&gt;,
+and &lt;a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html"&gt;Why GNU/Linux?&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
+Many computer users run a modified version of
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#TheGNUsystem"&gt;the GNU 
+every day, without realizing it.  Through a peculiar turn of events,
+the version of GNU which is widely used today is often called
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, and many of its users
+are &lt;a href="/gnu/gnu-users-never-heard-of-gnu.html"&gt; not aware&lt;/a&gt;
+that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the
+&lt;a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html"&gt;GNU Project&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+There really is a Linux, and these people are using it, but it is just
+a part of the system they use.  Linux is the kernel: the program in
+the system that allocates the machine's resources to the other
+programs that you run.  The kernel is an essential part of an
+operating system, but useless by itself; it can only function in the
+context of a complete operating system.  Linux is normally used in
+combination with the GNU operating system: the whole system is
+basically GNU with Linux added, or GNU/Linux.  All the so-called
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo; distributions are really distributions of
+Many users do not understand the difference between the kernel, which
+is Linux, and the whole system, which they also call
+&ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  The ambiguous use of the name doesn't help
+people understand.  These users often think that Linus Torvalds
+developed the whole operating system in 1991, with a bit of help.&lt;/p&gt;
+Programmers generally know that Linux is a kernel.  But since they
+have generally heard the whole system called &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; as well, they
+often envisage a history that would justify naming the whole system
+after the kernel.  For example, many believe that once Linus Torvalds
+finished writing Linux, the kernel, its users looked around for other
+free software to go with it, and found that (for no particular reason)
+most everything necessary to make a Unix-like system was already
+What they found was no accident&mdash;it was the not-quite-complete GNU
+system.  The available &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free
+software&lt;/a&gt; added up to a complete system because the GNU Project
+had been working since 1984 to make one.  In
+the &lt;a href="/gnu/manifesto.html"&gt; GNU Manifesto&lt;/a&gt; we set forth
+the goal of developing a free Unix-like
+system, called GNU.  The &lt;a href="/gnu/initial-announcement.html"&gt;
+Initial Announcement&lt;/a&gt; of the GNU Project also outlines some of the
+original plans for the GNU system. By the time Linux was started, GNU
+was almost finished.&lt;/p&gt;
+Most free software projects have the goal of developing a particular
+program for a particular job.  For example, Linus Torvalds set out to
+write a Unix-like kernel (Linux); Donald Knuth set out to write a text
+formatter (TeX); Bob Scheifler set out to develop a window system (the
+X Window System). It's natural to measure the contribution of this
+kind of project by specific programs that came from the project.&lt;/p&gt;
+If we tried to measure the GNU Project's contribution in this way,
+what would we conclude?  One CD-ROM vendor found that in their &ldquo;Linux
+distribution&rdquo;, &lt;a 
+software&lt;/a&gt; was the largest single contingent, around 28% of the
+total source code, and this included some of the essential major
+components without which there could be no system.  Linux itself was
+about 3%.  (The proportions in 2008 are similar: in the &ldquo;main&rdquo;
+repository of gNewSense, Linux is 1.5% and GNU packages are 15%.)
+So if you were going to pick a name for the system based on
+who wrote the programs in the system, the most appropriate single
+choice would be &ldquo;GNU&rdquo;.&lt;/p&gt;
+But that is not the deepest way to consider the question.  The GNU
+Project was not, is not, a project to develop specific software
+packages.  It was not a project &lt;a href="/software/gcc/"&gt; to
+develop a C compiler&lt;/a&gt;, although we did that.  It was not a project
+to develop a text editor, although we developed one.  The GNU Project
+set out to develop &lt;em&gt;a complete free Unix-like system&lt;/em&gt;: 
+Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the
+system, and they all deserve credit for their software.  But the
+reason it is &lt;em&gt;an integrated system&lt;/em&gt;&mdash;and not just a
+collection of useful programs&mdash;is because the GNU Project set out
+to make it one.  We made a list of the programs needed to make
+a &lt;em&gt;complete&lt;/em&gt; free system, and we systematically found, 
+or found people to write everything on the list.  We wrote essential
+but unexciting
+&lt;a href="#unexciting"&gt;(1)&lt;/a&gt; components because you can't have a 
+without them.  Some of our system components, the programming tools,
+became popular on their own among programmers, but we wrote many
+components that are not tools  &lt;a href="#nottools"&gt;(2)&lt;/a&gt;.  We 
+developed a chess game, GNU Chess, because a complete system needs
+games too.&lt;/p&gt;
+By the early 90s we had put together the whole system aside from the
+kernel.  We had also started a kernel, the
+&lt;a href="/software/hurd/hurd.html"&gt;GNU Hurd&lt;/a&gt;, which runs on top 
+Mach.  Developing this kernel has been a lot harder than we expected;
+&lt;a href="/software/hurd/hurd-and-linux.html"&gt;the
+GNU Hurd started working reliably in 2001&lt;/a&gt;, but it is a long way
+from being ready for people to use in general.&lt;/p&gt;
+Fortunately, we didn't have to wait for the Hurd, because of Linux.
+Once Torvalds freed Linux in 1992, it fit into the last major gap in
+the GNU system.  People could
+then &lt;a 
+combine Linux with the GNU system&lt;/a&gt; to make a complete free system
+&mdash; a version of the GNU system which also contained Linux.  The
+GNU/Linux system, in other words.&lt;/p&gt;
+Making them work well together was not a trivial job.  Some GNU
+components&lt;a href="#somecomponents"&gt;(3)&lt;/a&gt; needed substantial 
+to work with Linux.  Integrating a complete system as a distribution
+that would work &ldquo;out of the box&rdquo; was a big job, too.  It
+required addressing the issue of how to install and boot the
+system&mdash;a problem we had not tackled, because we hadn't yet
+reached that point.  Thus, the people who developed the various system
+distributions did a lot of essential work.  But it was work that, in
+the nature of things, was surely going to be done by someone.&lt;/p&gt;
+The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as &lt;em&gt;the&lt;/em&gt; 
+system.  The &lt;a href="http://fsf.org/"&gt;FSF&lt;/a&gt; funded the 
rewriting of
+the Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they
+are well integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current
+library release with no changes.  The FSF also funded an early stage
+of the development of Debian GNU/Linux.&lt;/p&gt;
+Today there are many different variants of the GNU/Linux system (often
+called &ldquo;distros&rdquo;).  Most of them include non-free
+software&mdash;their developers follow the philosophy associated with
+Linux rather than that of GNU.  But there are also
+&lt;a href="/distros/distros.html"&gt;completely free GNU/Linux 
distros&lt;/a&gt;.  The FSF
+supports computer facilities
+for &lt;a href="http://gnewsense.org/"&gt;gNewSense&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Making a free GNU/Linux distribution is not just a matter of
+eliminating various non-free programs.  Nowadays, the usual version of
+Linux contains non-free programs too.  These programs are intended to
+be loaded into I/O devices when the system starts, and they are
+included, as long series of numbers, in the "source code" of Linux.
+Thus, maintaining free GNU/Linux distributions now entails maintaining
+a &lt;a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/linux"&gt; free version of
+Linux&lt;/a&gt; too.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Whether you use GNU/Linux or not, please don't confuse the public
+by using the name &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; ambiguously.  Linux is the
+kernel, one of the essential major components of the system.  The
+system as a whole is basically the GNU system, with Linux added.  When
+you're talking about this combination, please call it
+If you want to make a link on &ldquo;GNU/Linux&rdquo; for further
+reference, this page and &lt;a href="/gnu/the-gnu-project.html"&gt;
+http://www.gnu.org/gnu/the-gnu-project.html&lt;/a&gt; are good choices.  If
+you mention Linux, the kernel, and want to add a link for further
+reference, &lt;a 
+is a good URL to use.&lt;/p&gt;
+Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced
+a free Unix-like operating system.  This system is known as BSD, and
+it was developed at UC Berkeley.  It was non-free in the 80s, but
+became free in the early 90s.  A free operating system that exists
+today&lt;a href="#newersystems"&gt;(4)&lt;/a&gt; is almost certainly either a
+variant of the GNU system, or a kind of BSD system.&lt;/p&gt;
+People sometimes ask whether BSD too is a version of GNU, like
+GNU/Linux.  The BSD developers were inspired to make their code free
+software by the example of the GNU Project, and explicit appeals from
+GNU activists helped persuade them, but the code had little overlap
+with GNU.  BSD systems today use some GNU programs, just as the GNU
+system and its variants use some BSD programs; however, taken as
+wholes, they are two different systems that evolved separately.  The
+BSD developers did not write a kernel and add it to the GNU system,
+and a name like GNU/BSD would not fit the situation.&lt;a
+&lt;a id="unexciting"&gt;&lt;/a&gt;These unexciting but essential components
+include the GNU assembler (GAS) and the linker (GLD), both
+are now part of the &lt;a href="/software/binutils/"&gt;GNU Binutils&lt;/a&gt;
+package, &lt;a href="/software/tar/"&gt;GNU tar&lt;/a&gt;, and many 
+&lt;a id="nottools"&gt;&lt;/a&gt;For instance, The Bourne Again SHell (BASH),
+the PostScript interpreter
+&lt;a href="/software/ghostscript/ghostscript.html"&gt;Ghostscript&lt;/a&gt;, 
and the
+&lt;a href="/software/libc/libc.html"&gt;GNU C library&lt;/a&gt; are not
+programming tools.  Neither are GNUCash, GNOME, and GNU Chess.&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;a id="somecomponents"&gt;&lt;/a&gt;For instance, the
+&lt;a href="/software/libc/libc.html"&gt;GNU C library&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;a id="newersystems"&gt;&lt;/a&gt;Since that was written, a nearly-all-free
+Windows-like system has been developed, but technically it is not at
+all like GNU or Unix, so it doesn't really affect this issue.  Most of
+the kernel of Solaris has been made free, but if you wanted to make a
+free system out of that, aside from replacing the missing parts of the
+kernel, you would also need to put it into GNU or BSD.&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;a id="gnubsd"&gt;&lt;/a&gt;On the other hand, in the years since this 
+was written, the GNU C Library has been ported to several versions of
+the BSD kernel, which made it straightforward to combine the GNU system
+with that kernel.  Just as with GNU/Linux, these are indeed variants of
+GNU, and are therefore called, for instance, GNU/kFreeBSD and
+GNU/kNetBSD depending on the kernel of the system.  Ordinary users on
+typical desktops can hardly distinguish between GNU/Linux and
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
+2007, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Richard M. Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/09/17 11:01:01 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;

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