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www/philosophy javascript-trap.ja.html javascri...


From: GNUN
Subject: www/philosophy javascript-trap.ja.html javascri...
Date: Fri, 19 May 2017 10:29:09 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     17/05/19 10:29:09

Modified files:
        philosophy     : javascript-trap.ja.html javascript-trap.nl.html 
                         javascript-trap.uk.html selling.ca.html 
                         selling.ja.html selling.lt.html selling.nl.html 
                         selling.pl.html selling.uk.html 
                         words-to-avoid.ja.html words-to-avoid.sq.html 
        philosophy/po  : javascript-trap.nl-diff.html 
                         selling.ca-diff.html selling.nl-diff.html 
                         selling.pl-diff.html 
Added files:
        philosophy/po  : javascript-trap.ja-diff.html 
                         javascript-trap.uk-diff.html 
                         selling.ja-diff.html selling.lt-diff.html 
                         selling.uk-diff.html 
                         words-to-avoid.ja-diff.html 
                         words-to-avoid.sq-diff.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.ja.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.17&r2=1.18
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.nl.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.uk.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.9&r2=1.10
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.ca.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.35&r2=1.36
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.ja.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.35&r2=1.36
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.lt.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.nl.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.16&r2=1.17
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.pl.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.47&r2=1.48
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/selling.uk.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.8&r2=1.9
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/words-to-avoid.ja.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.68&r2=1.69
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/words-to-avoid.sq.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.4&r2=1.5
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.ca-diff.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.2&r2=1.3
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.nl-diff.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.7&r2=1.8
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.pl-diff.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.ja-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.uk-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.ja-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.lt-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/selling.uk-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.ja-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.sq-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: javascript-trap.ja.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.ja.html,v
retrieving revision 1.17
retrieving revision 1.18
diff -u -b -r1.17 -r1.18
--- javascript-trap.ja.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:45 -0000      1.17
+++ javascript-trap.ja.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.18
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.ja.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.ja.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.ja-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ja.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ja.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ja.html" -->
 <h2>JavaScriptの罠</h2>
 
 <p><a 
href="http://www.stallman.org/";>リチャード・ストールマン</a>著</p>
@@ -211,7 +217,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 最終更新:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:45 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: javascript-trap.nl.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.nl.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- javascript-trap.nl.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:45 -0000      1.4
+++ javascript-trap.nl.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.5
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.nl.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.nl.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.nl.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.nl.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.nl.html" -->
 <h2>De JavaScript-valstrik</h2>
 
 <p>door <a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Richard Stallman</a></p>
@@ -348,7 +354,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Bijgewerkt:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:45 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: javascript-trap.uk.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/javascript-trap.uk.html,v
retrieving revision 1.9
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -b -r1.9 -r1.10
--- javascript-trap.uk.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:45 -0000      1.9
+++ javascript-trap.uk.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.10
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.uk.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.uk.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.uk-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/javascript-trap.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.uk.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.uk.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.uk.html" -->
 <h2>Пастка JavaScript</h2>
 
 <p><a href="http://www.stallman.org/";>Річард Столмен</a></p>
@@ -337,7 +343,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Оновлено:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:45 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.ca.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.ca.html,v
retrieving revision 1.35
retrieving revision 1.36
diff -u -b -r1.35 -r1.36
--- selling.ca.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:47 -0000      1.35
+++ selling.ca.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.36
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.ca.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.ca.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.ca-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ca.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ca.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ca.html" -->
 <h2>Vendre programari lliure</h2>
 
 <p><em>També podeu conèixer <a
@@ -255,7 +261,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Updated:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:47 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.ja.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.ja.html,v
retrieving revision 1.35
retrieving revision 1.36
diff -u -b -r1.35 -r1.36
--- selling.ja.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:47 -0000      1.35
+++ selling.ja.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.36
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.ja.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.ja.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.ja-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ja.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ja.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ja.html" -->
 <h2>自由ソフトウェアの販売</h2>
 
 <p><em><a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">自由ソフトウェア・ライセンス(GNU
 GPL
@@ -177,7 +183,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 最終更新:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:47 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.lt.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.lt.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- selling.lt.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:47 -0000      1.2
+++ selling.lt.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.3
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.lt.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.lt.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.lt-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.lt.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -9,6 +14,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.lt.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.lt.html" -->
 <h2>Laisvos programinės įrangos pardavimas</h2>
 
 <p><em><a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">Kai kurie požiūriai apie
@@ -262,7 +268,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Atnaujinta:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:47 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.nl.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.nl.html,v
retrieving revision 1.16
retrieving revision 1.17
diff -u -b -r1.16 -r1.17
--- selling.nl.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:48 -0000      1.16
+++ selling.nl.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.17
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.nl.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.nl.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.nl-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.nl.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.nl.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.nl.html" -->
 <h2>Het verkopen van vrije software</h2>
 
 <p><em><a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">Er zijn ook idee&euml;n
@@ -252,7 +258,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Bijgewerkt:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:48 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.pl.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.pl.html,v
retrieving revision 1.47
retrieving revision 1.48
diff -u -b -r1.47 -r1.48
--- selling.pl.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:48 -0000      1.47
+++ selling.pl.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.48
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.pl.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.pl.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.pl-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.pl.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.pl.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.pl.html" -->
 <h2>Sprzedaż Wolnego Oprogramowania</h2>
 
 <p><em>Są również dostępne <a 
href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">opinie
@@ -278,7 +284,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Aktualizowane:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:48 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: selling.uk.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/selling.uk.html,v
retrieving revision 1.8
retrieving revision 1.9
diff -u -b -r1.8 -r1.9
--- selling.uk.html     18 Nov 2016 07:32:48 -0000      1.8
+++ selling.uk.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.9
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/selling.uk.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/selling.uk.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/selling.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/selling.uk-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/selling.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.uk.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.uk.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.uk.html" -->
 <h2>Продаж вільних програм</h2>
 
 <p><em>У нас є <a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html">деякі 
міркування і
@@ -254,7 +260,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Оновлено:
 
-$Date: 2016/11/18 07:32:48 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: words-to-avoid.ja.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/words-to-avoid.ja.html,v
retrieving revision 1.68
retrieving revision 1.69
diff -u -b -r1.68 -r1.69
--- words-to-avoid.ja.html      17 Jan 2017 06:31:01 -0000      1.68
+++ words-to-avoid.ja.html      19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.69
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.ja.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.ja.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.ja-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ja.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -8,6 +13,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ja.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ja.html" -->
 <h2>避けるべき言葉 
(あるいは注意深く使う)、含みがあるかまぎらわしいので</h2>
 
 <p>
@@ -836,7 +842,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 最終更新:
 
-$Date: 2017/01/17 06:31:01 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: words-to-avoid.sq.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/words-to-avoid.sq.html,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.5
diff -u -b -r1.4 -r1.5
--- words-to-avoid.sq.html      13 Feb 2017 16:58:38 -0000      1.4
+++ words-to-avoid.sq.html      19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.5
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.sq.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.sq.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.sq-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2017-03-20" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.sq.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -9,6 +14,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.sq.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.sq.html" -->
 <h2>Fjalë Që Duhen Shmangur (ose Përdorur me Kujdes) Ngaqë Janë Me Spec 
ose
 Ngatërruese</h2>
 
@@ -1359,7 +1365,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 U përditësua më:
 
-$Date: 2017/02/13 16:58:38 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html     26 May 2016 22:28:56 -0000      1.1
+++ po/javascript-trap.nl-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.2
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 </style></head>
 <body><pre>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;The JavaScript Trap&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
@@ -23,23 +23,37 @@
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;You may be running nonfree programs on your computer 
every
 day without realizing it&mdash;through your web 
browser.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
 
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;
+to indicate the license of JavaScript programs in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
 &lt;p&gt;In the free software community, the idea that nonfree programs
-mistreat their users is familiar.  Some of us refuse entirely to
-install proprietary software, and many others consider nonfreedom a
-strike against the program.  Many users are aware that this issue
-applies to the plug-ins that browsers offer to install, since they can
-be free or nonfree.&lt;/p&gt;
-
-&lt;p&gt;But browsers run other nonfree programs which they don't ask you
-about or even tell you about&mdash;programs that web pages contain or
-link to.  These programs are most often written in JavaScript, though
-other languages are also used.&lt;/p&gt;
-
-&lt;p&gt;JavaScript (officially called ECMAScript, but few use that name) was
-once used for minor frills in web pages, such as cute but inessential
-navigation and display features.  It was acceptable to consider these
-as mere extensions of HTML markup, rather than as true software; they
-did not constitute a significant issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+mistreat their users is familiar.  Some of us <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>refuse entirely to
+install</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>defend our 
freedom by
+rejecting all</em></ins></span> proprietary <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software, and many</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>software on our computers.  Many</em></ins></span> 
others <span class="removed"><del><strong>consider 
nonfreedom</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>recognize nonfreeness as</em></ins></span> a 
strike against the <span class="removed"><del><strong>program.  
Many</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Many</em></ins></span> users are aware that this issue applies to the 
plug-ins that
+browsers offer to install, since they can be free or <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>nonfree.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;But</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree.  
But</em></ins></span>
+browsers run other nonfree programs which they don't ask you
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>about</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>about,</em></ins></span> or
+even tell you about&mdash;programs that web pages contain or link to.
+These programs are most often written in JavaScript, though other
+languages are also used.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;JavaScript (officially called ECMAScript, but few use that name)
+was once used for minor frills in web pages, such as cute but
+inessential navigation and display features.  It was acceptable to
+consider these as mere extensions of HTML markup, rather than as true <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software; they
+did not constitute a significant</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>software, and disregard the</em></ins></span> 
issue.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;Many sites still use JavaScript that way, but some use it for major
 programs that do large jobs.  For instance, Google Docs tries to download into
@@ -50,10 +64,10 @@
 modifying it; the compacted code is not source code, and the real
 source code of this program is not available to the user.&lt;/p&gt;
 
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p&gt;In addition to being nonfree, many of 
these programs are malware
+&lt;p&gt;In addition to being nonfree, many of these programs are malware
 because
 they &lt;a 
href="http://github.com/w3c/fingerprinting-guidance/issues/8"&gt;snoop
-on the user&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+on the user&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;Browsers don't normally tell you when they load JavaScript
 programs.  Some browsers have a way to turn off JavaScript entirely,
@@ -155,8 +169,10 @@
   &lt;/li&gt;
 &lt;/ul&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;How do we tell whether the JavaScript code is free?  At the end of
-this article we propose a convention by which a nontrivial JavaScript
+&lt;p&gt;How do we tell whether the JavaScript code is free?  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>At the end of
+this article</strong></del></span>  <span class="inserted"><ins><em>In a &lt;a 
+href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt;separate 
article&lt;/a&gt;,</em></ins></span>
+we propose a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>convention</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>method</em></ins></span> by which a nontrivial 
JavaScript
 program in a web page can state the URL where its source code is
 located, and can state its license too, using stylized comments.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -164,7 +180,7 @@
 nontrivial nonfree JavaScript in web pages.  The program
 &lt;a href="/software/librejs/"&gt;LibreJS&lt;/a&gt; detects nonfree,
 nontrivial JavaScript in pages you visit, and blocks it.  LibreJS is
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>included in IceCat, and available 
as</em></ins></span> an add-on for <span class="removed"><del><strong>IceCat 
and IceWeasel (and Firefox).&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Firefox.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+included in IceCat, and available as an add-on for Firefox.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;Browser users also need a convenient facility to specify JavaScript
 code to use &lt;em&gt;instead&lt;/em&gt; of the JavaScript in a certain page.
@@ -192,10 +208,21 @@
 site.  Please don't hesitate to enable JavaScript temporarily to do
 that&mdash;but remember to disable it again afterwards.&lt;/p&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Thank you to &lt;a 
href="/people/people.html#mattlee"&gt;Matt Lee&lt;/a&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Thank 
you</strong></del></span>
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;</em></ins></span>
+to <span class="inserted"><ins><em>indicate the license of JavaScript programs 
in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Acknowledgements:&lt;/strong&gt; I 
thank</em></ins></span> &lt;a href="/people/people.html#mattlee"&gt;Matt 
Lee&lt;/a&gt;
 and &lt;a href="http://ejohn.org"&gt;John Resig&lt;/a&gt; for their help in
-defining our proposed criterion, and to David Parunakian for
-helping to make me aware of the problem.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+defining our proposed criterion, and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>to</strong></del></span> David Parunakian for
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>helping to make me aware of the 
problem.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;h3 id="AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A: a convention for releasing free 
JavaScript programs&lt;/h3&gt;
 
@@ -254,9 +281,10 @@
 
 &lt;/pre&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;I thank Jaffar Rumith for bringing this issue to my 
attention.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;I thank Jaffar Rumith for</strong></del></span>
+bringing <span class="removed"><del><strong>this issue</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>the problem</em></ins></span> to my 
attention.&lt;/p&gt;
 
-&lt;h3 id="AppendixB"&gt;Appendix B: Publishing free JavaScript programs as
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;h3 id="AppendixB"&gt;Appendix B: 
Publishing free JavaScript programs as
   a webmaster&lt;/h3&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;If you're a webmaster deploying free JavaScript software
@@ -269,7 +297,7 @@
   &lt;a href="#AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A&lt;/a&gt;.  A second
   method, &lt;a href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt; JavaScript
   license web labels&lt;/a&gt;, can be more convenient for libraries of
-  minified JavaScript code, especially when you didn't write them.&lt;/p&gt;
+  minified JavaScript code, especially when you didn't write 
them.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span>
 
 &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
@@ -318,7 +346,7 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2009-2013, 2016 Richard Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2009-2013, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span> Richard 
Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
 href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
@@ -328,7 +356,7 @@
 
 &lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2016/05/26 22:28:56 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
 &lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;/div&gt;

Index: po/selling.ca-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/selling.ca-diff.html,v
retrieving revision 1.2
retrieving revision 1.3
diff -u -b -r1.2 -r1.3
--- po/selling.ca-diff.html     29 Feb 2016 22:58:30 -0000      1.2
+++ po/selling.ca-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.3
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 </style></head>
 <body><pre>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@
 either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
 we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
 not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
-the program, change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
 without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@
 
 &lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
      files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
-     be under CC BY-ND <span class="removed"><del><strong>3.0 
US.</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>4.0.</em></ins></span>  Please do NOT change or 
remove this
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
      without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
      Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
      document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
@@ -240,19 +240,18 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2013, 2015</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2015, 2016</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
-<span 
class="removed"><del><strong>href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/"&gt;Creative</strong></del></span>
-<span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative</em></ins></span>
-Commons <span class="removed"><del><strong>Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United 
States</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 
International</em></ins></span> License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
 
 &lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2016/02/29 22:58:30 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
 &lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;/div&gt;

Index: po/selling.nl-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/selling.nl-diff.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- po/selling.nl-diff.html     1 Jan 2016 06:06:30 -0000       1.7
+++ po/selling.nl-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.8
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 </style></head>
 <body><pre>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
@@ -31,8 +31,8 @@
 &lt;p&gt;
 Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
 &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt; to charge as 
much
-as they wish or can.  If <span class="inserted"><ins><em>a license does not 
permit users to make
-copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If</em></ins></span> this seems
+as they wish or can.  If a license does not permit users to make
+copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If this seems
 surprising to you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@
 either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
 we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
 not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
-the program, change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
 without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
 &lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;Nonfree 
programs&lt;/a&gt;
 are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
 a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
-Price or no price, the program is nonfree because <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>its</em></ins></span> users <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>don't have</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>are denied</em></ins></span>
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because its users are denied
 freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@
 
 &lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
      files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
-     be under CC BY-ND <span class="removed"><del><strong>3.0 
US.</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>4.0.</em></ins></span>  Please do NOT change or 
remove this
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
      without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
      Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
      document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
@@ -240,19 +240,18 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2013</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2015, 2016</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
-<span 
class="removed"><del><strong>href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/"&gt;Creative</strong></del></span>
-<span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative</em></ins></span>
-Commons <span class="removed"><del><strong>Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United 
States</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 
International</em></ins></span> License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
 
 &lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2016/01/01 06:06:30 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
 &lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;/div&gt;

Index: po/selling.pl-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/selling.pl-diff.html,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -u -b -r1.1 -r1.2
--- po/selling.pl-diff.html     18 Oct 2013 11:40:42 -0000      1.1
+++ po/selling.pl-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.2
@@ -11,21 +11,13 @@
 </style></head>
 <body><pre>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.75 
--&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
-- GNU Project - Free Software <span class="removed"><del><strong>Foundation 
(FSF)&lt;/title&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Foundation&lt;/title&gt;</em></ins></span>
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
 &lt;h2&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/h2&gt;
 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;!-- This document uses XHTML 1.0 
Strict, but may be served as --&gt;
-&lt;!-- text/html.  Please ensure that markup style considers --&gt;
-&lt;!-- appendex C of the XHTML 1.0 standard. See validator.w3.org. --&gt;
-
-&lt;!-- Please ensure links are consistent with Apache's MultiView. --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Change include statements to be consistent with the relevant --&gt;
-&lt;!-- language, where necessary. --&gt;</strong></del></span>
-
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;&lt;a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html"&gt;Some 
views on the
 ideas of selling exceptions to free software licenses, such as the GNU
 GPL&lt;/a&gt; are also available.&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
@@ -33,21 +25,22 @@
 &lt;p&gt;
 Many people believe that the spirit of the GNU Project is that you
 should not charge money for distributing copies of software, or that
-you should charge as little as possible &mdash; just enough to cover
+you should charge as little as possible&mdash;just enough to cover
 the cost.  This is a misunderstanding.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
 Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
-&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt;
-to charge as much as they wish or can.  If this seems surprising to
-you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt; to charge as 
much
+as they wish or can.  If a license does not permit users to make
+copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If this seems
+surprising to you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
 The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer
 either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
 we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
 not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
-the program, change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
 without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -60,7 +53,7 @@
 &lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;Nonfree 
programs&lt;/a&gt;
 are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
 a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
-Price or no price, the program is nonfree because users don't have
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because its users are denied
 freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -95,7 +88,7 @@
 People sometimes worry that a high distribution fee will put free
 software out of range for users who don't have a lot of money.  With
 &lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;proprietary
-software&lt;/a&gt;, a high price does exactly that &mdash; but free software
+software&lt;/a&gt;, a high price does exactly that&mdash;but free software
 is different.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
@@ -124,7 +117,7 @@
 users, or that a low price is likely to encourage users.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;
-This is true for proprietary software &mdash; but free software is
+This is true for proprietary software&mdash;but free software is
 different.  With so many ways to get copies, the price of distribution
 service has less effect on popularity.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -185,8 +178,8 @@
 Without a limit on the fee for the source code, they would be able set
 a fee too large for anyone to pay&mdash;such as a billion
 dollars&mdash;and thus pretend to release source code while in truth
-concealing it.  So <span class="removed"><del><strong>in</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;a 
href="/licenses/gpl.html#section6"&gt;in</em></ins></span> this case we
-have to limit the <span class="removed"><del><strong>fee</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>fee&lt;/a&gt;</em></ins></span> for source in 
order
+concealing it.  So &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html#section6"&gt;in this case we
+have to limit the fee&lt;/a&gt; for source in order
 to ensure the user's freedom.  In ordinary situations, however, there
 is no such justification for limiting distribution fees, so we do not
 limit them.&lt;/p&gt;
@@ -200,31 +193,16 @@
 distracted by side issues such as how much of a distribution fee is
 charged.  Freedom is the issue, the whole issue, and the only issue.&lt;/p&gt;
 
-
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;!-- If needed, change the copyright 
block at the bottom. In general, --&gt;
-&lt;!-- all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about    --&gt;
-&lt;!-- verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking     --&gt;
-&lt;!-- with the webmasters first. --&gt; 
-&lt;!-- Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document 
--&gt;
-&lt;!-- and that it is like this "2001, 2002" not this "2001-2002." 
--&gt;</strong></del></span>
-
 &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
 &lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;
-Please</strong></del></span>
-
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p&gt;Please</em></ins></span> send <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>general</em></ins></span> FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
-&lt;a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;em&gt;address@hidden&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.</strong></del></span>
 <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
 There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
-the FSF.
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;br /&gt;
-Please send broken</strong></del></span>  <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Broken</em></ins></span> links and other corrections 
or suggestions <span class="inserted"><ins><em>can be sent</em></ins></span>
-to &lt;a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;em&gt;address@hidden&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-
-&lt;p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
         replace it with the translation of these two:
@@ -238,19 +216,16 @@
         &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
         our web pages, see &lt;a
         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
-        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;</em></ins></span>
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
 Please see the &lt;a
 href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
 README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
-of this <span class="removed"><del><strong>article.
-&lt;/p&gt;
-
-&lt;p&gt;
-Copyright</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>article.&lt;/p&gt;
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
 
 &lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
      files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
-     be under CC BY-ND 3.0 US.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
      without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
      Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
      document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
@@ -265,21 +240,18 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Copyright</em></ins></span> &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2007</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2007, 2013</em></ins></span>
-Free Software Foundation, <span class="removed"><del><strong>Inc.,
-&lt;/p&gt;
-&lt;address&gt;51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, 
USA&lt;/address&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Inc.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
+Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
-href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/"&gt;Creative
-Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>License&lt;/a&gt;.
-&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Updated:
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2013/10/18 11:40:42 $
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
 &lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;/div&gt;

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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/javascript-trap.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;The JavaScript Trap&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;h2&gt;The JavaScript Trap&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;by &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;Richard 
Stallman&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;You may be running nonfree programs on your computer 
every
+day without realizing it&mdash;through your web 
browser.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;
+to indicate the license of JavaScript programs in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the free software community, the idea that nonfree programs
+mistreat their users is familiar.  Some of us <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>refuse entirely to
+install</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>defend our 
freedom by
+rejecting all</em></ins></span> proprietary <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software, and many</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>software on our computers.  Many</em></ins></span> 
others <span class="removed"><del><strong>consider 
nonfreedom</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>recognize nonfreeness as</em></ins></span> a 
strike against the <span class="removed"><del><strong>program.  
Many</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Many</em></ins></span> users are aware that this issue applies to the 
plug-ins that
+browsers offer to install, since they can be free or <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>nonfree.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;But</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree.  
But</em></ins></span>
+browsers run other nonfree programs which they don't ask you
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>about</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>about,</em></ins></span> or
+even tell you about&mdash;programs that web pages contain or link to.
+These programs are most often written in JavaScript, though other
+languages are also used.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;JavaScript (officially called ECMAScript, but few use that name)
+was once used for minor frills in web pages, such as cute but
+inessential navigation and display features.  It was acceptable to
+consider these as mere extensions of HTML markup, rather than as true <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software; they
+did not constitute a significant</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>software, and disregard the</em></ins></span> 
issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Many sites still use JavaScript that way, but some use it for major
+programs that do large jobs.  For instance, Google Docs tries to download into
+your machine a JavaScript program which measures half a megabyte, in a
+compacted form that we could call Obfuscript because it has no
+comments and hardly any whitespace, and the method names are one
+letter long.  The source code of a program is the preferred form for
+modifying it; the compacted code is not source code, and the real
+source code of this program is not available to the user.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In addition to being nonfree, many of these programs are malware
+because
+they &lt;a 
href="http://github.com/w3c/fingerprinting-guidance/issues/8"&gt;snoop
+on the user&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Browsers don't normally tell you when they load JavaScript
+programs.  Some browsers have a way to turn off JavaScript entirely,
+but even if you're aware of this issue, it would take you considerable
+trouble to identify the nontrivial nonfree programs and block them.
+However, even in the free software community most users are not aware
+of this issue; the browsers' silence tends to conceal it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;It is possible to release a JavaScript program as free software, by
+distributing the source code under a free software license.  If the
+program is self-contained&mdash;if its functioning and purpose are
+independent of the page it came in&mdash;that is fine; you can copy it
+to a file on your machine, modify it, and visit that file with a
+browser to run it.  But that is an unusual case.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the usual case, JavaScript programs are meant to work with a
+particular page or site, and the page or site depends on them to
+function.  Then another problem arises: even if the program's source
+is available, browsers do not offer a way to run your modified version
+instead of the original when visiting that page or site.  The effect
+is comparable to tivoization, although in principle not quite so hard
+to overcome.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;JavaScript is not the only language web sites use for programs sent
+to the user.  Flash supports programming through an extended variant
+of JavaScript; if we ever have a sufficiently complete free Flash
+player, we will need to deal with the issue of nonfree Flash programs.
+Silverlight seems likely to create a problem similar to Flash, except
+worse, since Microsoft uses it as a platform for nonfree codecs.  A
+free replacement for Silverlight does not do the job for the free
+world unless it normally comes with free replacement codecs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Java applets also run in the browser, and raise similar issues.  In
+general, any sort of applet system poses this sort of problem.  Having
+a free execution environment for an applet only brings us far enough
+to encounter the problem.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;It is theoretically possible to program in HTML and CSS, but in
+practice this capability is limited and inconvenient; merely to make
+it do something is an impressive hack.  Such programs ought to be
+free, but CSS is not a serious problem for users' freedom as of
+2016.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;A strong movement has developed that calls for web sites to
+communicate only through formats and protocols that are free (some say
+&quot;open&quot;); that is to say, whose documentation is published and which
+anyone is free to implement.  With the presence of programs in web
+pages, that criterion is necessary, but not sufficient.  JavaScript
+itself, as a format, is free, and use of JavaScript in a web site is
+not necessarily bad.  However, as we've seen above, it also isn't
+necessarily OK.  When the site transmits a program to the user, it is
+not enough for the program to be written in a documented and
+unencumbered language; that program must be free, too.  &ldquo;Only free
+programs transmitted to the user&rdquo; must become part of the criterion
+for proper behavior by web sites.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Silently loading and running nonfree programs is one among several
+issues raised by &quot;web applications&quot;.  The term &quot;web
+application&quot; was designed to disregard the fundamental
+distinction between software delivered to users and software running
+on a server.  It can refer to a specialized client program running
+in a browser; it can refer to specialized server software; it can
+refer to a specialized client program that works hand in hand with
+specialized server software.  The client and server sides raise
+different ethical issues, even if they are so closely integrated that
+they arguably form parts of a single program.  This article addresses
+only the issue of the client-side software.  We are addressing the
+server issue separately.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In practical terms, how can we deal with the problem of nonfree
+JavaScript programs in web sites?  The first step is to avoid running
+it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;What do we mean by &quot;nontrivial&quot;?  It is a matter of
+degree, so this is a matter of designing a simple criterion that gives
+good results, rather than finding the one correct answer.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Our tentative policy is to consider a JavaScript program nontrivial 
if:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;ul&gt;
+  &lt;li&gt;it makes an AJAX request or is loaded along with scripts that make
+    an AJAX request,&lt;/li&gt;
+
+  &lt;li&gt;it loads external scripts dynamically or is loaded along with
+    scripts that do,&lt;/li&gt;
+
+  &lt;li&gt;it defines functions or methods and either loads an external script
+    (from html) or is loaded as one,&lt;/li&gt;
+  
+  &lt;li&gt;it uses dynamic JavaScript constructs that are difficult to analyze
+    without interpreting the program, or is loaded along with scripts
+    that use such constructs.  These constructs are:
+    &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;using the eval function,&lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;calling methods with the square bracket notation,&lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;using any other construct than a string literal with
+       certain methods (Obj.write, Obj.createElement, ...).&lt;/li&gt;
+    &lt;/ul&gt;
+  &lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;/ul&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;How do we tell whether the JavaScript code is free?  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>At the end of
+this article</strong></del></span>  <span class="inserted"><ins><em>In a &lt;a 
+href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt;separate 
article&lt;/a&gt;,</em></ins></span>
+we propose a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>convention</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>method</em></ins></span> by which a nontrivial 
JavaScript
+program in a web page can state the URL where its source code is
+located, and can state its license too, using stylized comments.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Finally, we need to change free browsers to detect and block
+nontrivial nonfree JavaScript in web pages.  The program
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/"&gt;LibreJS&lt;/a&gt; detects nonfree,
+nontrivial JavaScript in pages you visit, and blocks it.  LibreJS is
+included in IceCat, and available as an add-on for Firefox.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Browser users also need a convenient facility to specify JavaScript
+code to use &lt;em&gt;instead&lt;/em&gt; of the JavaScript in a certain page.
+(The specified code might be total replacement, or a modified version
+of the free JavaScript program in that page.)  Greasemonkey comes close
+to being able to do this, but not quite, since it doesn't guarantee to
+modify the JavaScript code in a page before that program starts to
+execute.  Using a local proxy works, but is too inconvenient now to be
+a real solution.  We need to construct a solution that is reliable and
+convenient, as well as sites for sharing changes.  The GNU Project
+would like to recommend sites which are dedicated to free changes
+only.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;These features will make it possible for a JavaScript program included
+in a web page to be free in a real and practical sense.  JavaScript
+will no longer be a particular obstacle to our freedom&mdash;no more than
+C and Java are now.  We will be able to reject and even replace the
+nonfree nontrivial JavaScript programs, just as we reject and replace
+nonfree packages that are offered for installation in the usual way.
+Our campaign for web sites to free their JavaScript can then begin.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the mean time, there's one case where it is acceptable to run a
+nonfree JavaScript program: to send a complaint to the website
+operators saying they should free or remove the JavaScript code in the
+site.  Please don't hesitate to enable JavaScript temporarily to do
+that&mdash;but remember to disable it again afterwards.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Thank 
you</strong></del></span>
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;</em></ins></span>
+to <span class="inserted"><ins><em>indicate the license of JavaScript programs 
in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Acknowledgements:&lt;/strong&gt; I 
thank</em></ins></span> &lt;a href="/people/people.html#mattlee"&gt;Matt 
Lee&lt;/a&gt;
+and &lt;a href="http://ejohn.org"&gt;John Resig&lt;/a&gt; for their help in
+defining our proposed criterion, and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>to</strong></del></span> David Parunakian for
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>helping to make me aware of the 
problem.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A: a convention for releasing free 
JavaScript programs&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;For references to corresponding source code, we recommend&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+
+    // @source:
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;followed by the URL.  This satisfies the GNU GPL's requirement to
+distribute source code.  If the source is on a different site, you
+must take care
+to &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.html#SourceAndBinaryOnDifferentSites"&gt;
+handle that properly&lt;/a&gt;.  Source code is necessary for the program to
+be free.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;To indicate the license of the JavaScript code embedded in a page, we
+recommend putting the license notice between two notes of this form:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+&lt;!--TRANSLATORS: Do not translate these license notices.  The &lt;pre&gt;
+    elements have dir="ltr" explicitly set to cater for RTL languages.--&gt;
+    @licstart  The following is the entire license notice for the 
+    JavaScript code in this page.
+    ...
+    @licend  The above is the entire license notice
+    for the JavaScript code in this page.
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Of course, all of this should be contained in a multiline 
comment.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;The &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html"&gt;GNU GPL&lt;/a&gt;, like many 
other free
+software licenses, requires distribution of a copy of the license with
+both source and binary forms of the program.  However, the GNU GPL is
+long enough that including it in a page with a JavaScript program can
+be inconvenient.  You can remove that requirement, for code that you
+have the copyright on, with a license notice like this:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+
+    Copyright (C) YYYY  Developer
+
+    The JavaScript code in this page is free software: you can
+    redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
+    General Public License (GNU GPL) as published by the Free Software
+    Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
+    any later version.  The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
+    without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
+    FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU GPL for more details.
+
+    As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, you
+    may distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms of
+    that code without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required by
+    section 4, provided you include this license notice and a URL
+    through which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;I thank Jaffar Rumith for</strong></del></span>
+bringing <span class="removed"><del><strong>this issue</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>the problem</em></ins></span> to my 
attention.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;h3 id="AppendixB"&gt;Appendix B: 
Publishing free JavaScript programs as
+  a webmaster&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;If you're a webmaster deploying free JavaScript software
+  on your site, clearly and consistently publishing information about
+  those files' licenses and source code helps your visitors make
+  sure that they're running free software, and help you comply with
+  license conditions.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;One method of stating the licenses is the one described above in
+  &lt;a href="#AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A&lt;/a&gt;.  A second
+  method, &lt;a href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt; JavaScript
+  license web labels&lt;/a&gt;, can be more convenient for libraries of
+  minified JavaScript code, especially when you didn't write 
them.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2009-2013, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span> Richard 
Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/javascript-trap.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;The JavaScript Trap&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/javascript-trap.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;h2&gt;The JavaScript Trap&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;by &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;Richard 
Stallman&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;You may be running nonfree programs on your computer 
every
+day without realizing it&mdash;through your web 
browser.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;
+to indicate the license of JavaScript programs in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the free software community, the idea that nonfree programs
+mistreat their users is familiar.  Some of us <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>refuse entirely to
+install</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>defend our 
freedom by
+rejecting all</em></ins></span> proprietary <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software, and many</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>software on our computers.  Many</em></ins></span> 
others <span class="removed"><del><strong>consider 
nonfreedom</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>recognize nonfreeness as</em></ins></span> a 
strike against the <span class="removed"><del><strong>program.  
Many</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Many</em></ins></span> users are aware that this issue applies to the 
plug-ins that
+browsers offer to install, since they can be free or <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>nonfree.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;But</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree.  
But</em></ins></span>
+browsers run other nonfree programs which they don't ask you
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>about</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>about,</em></ins></span> or
+even tell you about&mdash;programs that web pages contain or link to.
+These programs are most often written in JavaScript, though other
+languages are also used.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;JavaScript (officially called ECMAScript, but few use that name)
+was once used for minor frills in web pages, such as cute but
+inessential navigation and display features.  It was acceptable to
+consider these as mere extensions of HTML markup, rather than as true <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>software; they
+did not constitute a significant</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>software, and disregard the</em></ins></span> 
issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Many sites still use JavaScript that way, but some use it for major
+programs that do large jobs.  For instance, Google Docs tries to download into
+your machine a JavaScript program which measures half a megabyte, in a
+compacted form that we could call Obfuscript because it has no
+comments and hardly any whitespace, and the method names are one
+letter long.  The source code of a program is the preferred form for
+modifying it; the compacted code is not source code, and the real
+source code of this program is not available to the user.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In addition to being nonfree, many of these programs are malware
+because
+they &lt;a 
href="http://github.com/w3c/fingerprinting-guidance/issues/8"&gt;snoop
+on the user&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Browsers don't normally tell you when they load JavaScript
+programs.  Some browsers have a way to turn off JavaScript entirely,
+but even if you're aware of this issue, it would take you considerable
+trouble to identify the nontrivial nonfree programs and block them.
+However, even in the free software community most users are not aware
+of this issue; the browsers' silence tends to conceal it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;It is possible to release a JavaScript program as free software, by
+distributing the source code under a free software license.  If the
+program is self-contained&mdash;if its functioning and purpose are
+independent of the page it came in&mdash;that is fine; you can copy it
+to a file on your machine, modify it, and visit that file with a
+browser to run it.  But that is an unusual case.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the usual case, JavaScript programs are meant to work with a
+particular page or site, and the page or site depends on them to
+function.  Then another problem arises: even if the program's source
+is available, browsers do not offer a way to run your modified version
+instead of the original when visiting that page or site.  The effect
+is comparable to tivoization, although in principle not quite so hard
+to overcome.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;JavaScript is not the only language web sites use for programs sent
+to the user.  Flash supports programming through an extended variant
+of JavaScript; if we ever have a sufficiently complete free Flash
+player, we will need to deal with the issue of nonfree Flash programs.
+Silverlight seems likely to create a problem similar to Flash, except
+worse, since Microsoft uses it as a platform for nonfree codecs.  A
+free replacement for Silverlight does not do the job for the free
+world unless it normally comes with free replacement codecs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Java applets also run in the browser, and raise similar issues.  In
+general, any sort of applet system poses this sort of problem.  Having
+a free execution environment for an applet only brings us far enough
+to encounter the problem.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;It is theoretically possible to program in HTML and CSS, but in
+practice this capability is limited and inconvenient; merely to make
+it do something is an impressive hack.  Such programs ought to be
+free, but CSS is not a serious problem for users' freedom as of
+2016.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;A strong movement has developed that calls for web sites to
+communicate only through formats and protocols that are free (some say
+&quot;open&quot;); that is to say, whose documentation is published and which
+anyone is free to implement.  With the presence of programs in web
+pages, that criterion is necessary, but not sufficient.  JavaScript
+itself, as a format, is free, and use of JavaScript in a web site is
+not necessarily bad.  However, as we've seen above, it also isn't
+necessarily OK.  When the site transmits a program to the user, it is
+not enough for the program to be written in a documented and
+unencumbered language; that program must be free, too.  &ldquo;Only free
+programs transmitted to the user&rdquo; must become part of the criterion
+for proper behavior by web sites.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Silently loading and running nonfree programs is one among several
+issues raised by &quot;web applications&quot;.  The term &quot;web
+application&quot; was designed to disregard the fundamental
+distinction between software delivered to users and software running
+on a server.  It can refer to a specialized client program running
+in a browser; it can refer to specialized server software; it can
+refer to a specialized client program that works hand in hand with
+specialized server software.  The client and server sides raise
+different ethical issues, even if they are so closely integrated that
+they arguably form parts of a single program.  This article addresses
+only the issue of the client-side software.  We are addressing the
+server issue separately.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In practical terms, how can we deal with the problem of nonfree
+JavaScript programs in web sites?  The first step is to avoid running
+it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;What do we mean by &quot;nontrivial&quot;?  It is a matter of
+degree, so this is a matter of designing a simple criterion that gives
+good results, rather than finding the one correct answer.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Our tentative policy is to consider a JavaScript program nontrivial 
if:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;ul&gt;
+  &lt;li&gt;it makes an AJAX request or is loaded along with scripts that make
+    an AJAX request,&lt;/li&gt;
+
+  &lt;li&gt;it loads external scripts dynamically or is loaded along with
+    scripts that do,&lt;/li&gt;
+
+  &lt;li&gt;it defines functions or methods and either loads an external script
+    (from html) or is loaded as one,&lt;/li&gt;
+  
+  &lt;li&gt;it uses dynamic JavaScript constructs that are difficult to analyze
+    without interpreting the program, or is loaded along with scripts
+    that use such constructs.  These constructs are:
+    &lt;ul&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;using the eval function,&lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;calling methods with the square bracket notation,&lt;/li&gt;
+      &lt;li&gt;using any other construct than a string literal with
+       certain methods (Obj.write, Obj.createElement, ...).&lt;/li&gt;
+    &lt;/ul&gt;
+  &lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;/ul&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;How do we tell whether the JavaScript code is free?  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>At the end of
+this article</strong></del></span>  <span class="inserted"><ins><em>In a &lt;a 
+href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt;separate 
article&lt;/a&gt;,</em></ins></span>
+we propose a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>convention</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>method</em></ins></span> by which a nontrivial 
JavaScript
+program in a web page can state the URL where its source code is
+located, and can state its license too, using stylized comments.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Finally, we need to change free browsers to detect and block
+nontrivial nonfree JavaScript in web pages.  The program
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/"&gt;LibreJS&lt;/a&gt; detects nonfree,
+nontrivial JavaScript in pages you visit, and blocks it.  LibreJS is
+included in IceCat, and available as an add-on for Firefox.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Browser users also need a convenient facility to specify JavaScript
+code to use &lt;em&gt;instead&lt;/em&gt; of the JavaScript in a certain page.
+(The specified code might be total replacement, or a modified version
+of the free JavaScript program in that page.)  Greasemonkey comes close
+to being able to do this, but not quite, since it doesn't guarantee to
+modify the JavaScript code in a page before that program starts to
+execute.  Using a local proxy works, but is too inconvenient now to be
+a real solution.  We need to construct a solution that is reliable and
+convenient, as well as sites for sharing changes.  The GNU Project
+would like to recommend sites which are dedicated to free changes
+only.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;These features will make it possible for a JavaScript program included
+in a web page to be free in a real and practical sense.  JavaScript
+will no longer be a particular obstacle to our freedom&mdash;no more than
+C and Java are now.  We will be able to reject and even replace the
+nonfree nontrivial JavaScript programs, just as we reject and replace
+nonfree packages that are offered for installation in the usual way.
+Our campaign for web sites to free their JavaScript can then begin.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;In the mean time, there's one case where it is acceptable to run a
+nonfree JavaScript program: to send a complaint to the website
+operators saying they should free or remove the JavaScript code in the
+site.  Please don't hesitate to enable JavaScript temporarily to do
+that&mdash;but remember to disable it again afterwards.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Thank 
you</strong></del></span>
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;!-- any links that used to point to the 
appendices should point to
+     free-your-javascript.html instead.  --&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Webmasters: there are
+&lt;a href="/software/librejs/free-your-javascript.html"&gt;several 
ways&lt;/a&gt;</em></ins></span>
+to <span class="inserted"><ins><em>indicate the license of JavaScript programs 
in a web site.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Acknowledgements:&lt;/strong&gt; I 
thank</em></ins></span> &lt;a href="/people/people.html#mattlee"&gt;Matt 
Lee&lt;/a&gt;
+and &lt;a href="http://ejohn.org"&gt;John Resig&lt;/a&gt; for their help in
+defining our proposed criterion, and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>to</strong></del></span> David Parunakian for
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>helping to make me aware of the 
problem.&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A: a convention for releasing free 
JavaScript programs&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;For references to corresponding source code, we recommend&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+
+    // @source:
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;followed by the URL.  This satisfies the GNU GPL's requirement to
+distribute source code.  If the source is on a different site, you
+must take care
+to &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.html#SourceAndBinaryOnDifferentSites"&gt;
+handle that properly&lt;/a&gt;.  Source code is necessary for the program to
+be free.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;To indicate the license of the JavaScript code embedded in a page, we
+recommend putting the license notice between two notes of this form:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+&lt;!--TRANSLATORS: Do not translate these license notices.  The &lt;pre&gt;
+    elements have dir="ltr" explicitly set to cater for RTL languages.--&gt;
+    @licstart  The following is the entire license notice for the 
+    JavaScript code in this page.
+    ...
+    @licend  The above is the entire license notice
+    for the JavaScript code in this page.
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Of course, all of this should be contained in a multiline 
comment.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;The &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html"&gt;GNU GPL&lt;/a&gt;, like many 
other free
+software licenses, requires distribution of a copy of the license with
+both source and binary forms of the program.  However, the GNU GPL is
+long enough that including it in a page with a JavaScript program can
+be inconvenient.  You can remove that requirement, for code that you
+have the copyright on, with a license notice like this:&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;pre dir="ltr"&gt;
+
+    Copyright (C) YYYY  Developer
+
+    The JavaScript code in this page is free software: you can
+    redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
+    General Public License (GNU GPL) as published by the Free Software
+    Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
+    any later version.  The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
+    without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
+    FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU GPL for more details.
+
+    As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, you
+    may distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms of
+    that code without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required by
+    section 4, provided you include this license notice and a URL
+    through which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.
+
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;I thank Jaffar Rumith for</strong></del></span>
+bringing <span class="removed"><del><strong>this issue</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>the problem</em></ins></span> to my 
attention.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;h3 id="AppendixB"&gt;Appendix B: 
Publishing free JavaScript programs as
+  a webmaster&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;If you're a webmaster deploying free JavaScript software
+  on your site, clearly and consistently publishing information about
+  those files' licenses and source code helps your visitors make
+  sure that they're running free software, and help you comply with
+  license conditions.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;One method of stating the licenses is the one described above in
+  &lt;a href="#AppendixA"&gt;Appendix A&lt;/a&gt;.  A second
+  method, &lt;a href="/licenses/javascript-labels.html"&gt; JavaScript
+  license web labels&lt;/a&gt;, can be more convenient for libraries of
+  minified JavaScript code, especially when you didn't write 
them.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2009-2013, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span> Richard 
Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

Index: po/selling.ja-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: po/selling.ja-diff.html
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/selling.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;&lt;a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html"&gt;Some 
views on the
+ideas of selling exceptions to free software licenses, such as the GNU
+GPL&lt;/a&gt; are also available.&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Many people believe that the spirit of the GNU Project is that you
+should not charge money for distributing copies of software, or that
+you should charge as little as possible&mdash;just enough to cover
+the cost.  This is a misunderstanding.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt; to charge as 
much
+as they wish or can.  If a license does not permit users to make
+copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If this seems
+surprising to you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer
+either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
+we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
+not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free programs are sometimes distributed gratis, and sometimes for a
+substantial price.  Often the same program is available in both ways
+from different places.  The program is free regardless of the price,
+because users have freedom in using it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;Nonfree 
programs&lt;/a&gt;
+are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
+a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because its users are denied
+freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Since free software is not a matter of price, a low price doesn't make
+the software
+free, or even closer to free.  So if you are redistributing copies of free
+software, you might as well charge a substantial fee and &lt;em&gt;make
+some money&lt;/em&gt;.  Redistributing free software is a good and
+legitimate activity; if you do it, you might as well make a profit
+from it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free software is a community project, and everyone who depends on it
+ought to look for ways to contribute to building the community.  For a
+distributor, the way to do this is to give a part of the profit to free 
software development projects or to the
+&lt;a href="/fsf/fsf.html"&gt;Free Software Foundation&lt;/a&gt;.  This way 
you can
+advance the world of free software.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;strong&gt;Distributing free software is an opportunity to raise
+funds for development.  Don't waste it!&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In order to contribute funds, you need to have some extra.  If you
+charge too low a fee, you won't have anything to spare to support
+development.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price hurt some users?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+People sometimes worry that a high distribution fee will put free
+software out of range for users who don't have a lot of money.  With
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;proprietary
+software&lt;/a&gt;, a high price does exactly that&mdash;but free software
+is different.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The difference is that free software naturally tends to spread around,
+and there are many ways to get it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Software hoarders try their damnedest to stop you from running a
+proprietary program without paying the standard price.  If this price
+is high, that does make it hard for some users to use the program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+With free software, users don't &lt;em&gt;have&lt;/em&gt; to pay the
+distribution fee in order to use the software.  They can copy the
+program from a friend who has a copy, or with the help of a friend who
+has network access.  Or several users can join together, split the
+price of one CD-ROM, then each in turn can install the software.  A high
+CD-ROM price is not a major obstacle when the software is free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price discourage use of free 
software?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another common concern is for the popularity of free software.  People
+think that a high price for distribution would reduce the number of
+users, or that a low price is likely to encourage users.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+This is true for proprietary software&mdash;but free software is
+different.  With so many ways to get copies, the price of distribution
+service has less effect on popularity.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the long run, how many people use free software is determined
+mainly by &lt;em&gt;how much free software can do&lt;/em&gt;, and how easy it
+is to use.  Many users do not make freedom their priority; they
+may continue to use proprietary software if
+free software can't do all the jobs they want done.  Thus, if we want
+to increase the number of users in the long run, we should above all
+&lt;em&gt;develop more free software&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The most direct way to do this is by writing needed
+&lt;a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/tasklist"&gt;free 
software&lt;/a&gt;
+or
+&lt;a href="/doc/doc.html"&gt;manuals&lt;/a&gt; yourself.  But if you do
+distribution rather than writing, the best way you can help is by
+raising funds for others to write them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;The term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; can be confusing 
too&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Strictly speaking, &ldquo;selling&rdquo; means trading goods for
+money.  Selling a copy of a free program is legitimate, and we
+encourage it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+However, when people think of
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#SellSoftware"&gt;&ldquo;selling 
software&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;,
+they usually imagine doing it the way most companies do it: making the
+software proprietary rather than free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+So unless you're going to draw distinctions carefully, the way this
+article does, we suggest it is better to avoid using the term
+&ldquo;selling software&rdquo; and choose some other wording instead.
+For example, you could say &ldquo;distributing free software for a
+fee&rdquo;&mdash;that is unambiguous.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;High or low fees, and the GNU GPL&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Except for one special situation, the
+&lt;a href="/copyleft/gpl.html"&gt;GNU General Public License&lt;/a&gt; (GNU 
GPL)
+has no requirements about how much you can charge for distributing a
+copy of free software.  You can charge nothing, a penny, a dollar, or
+a billion dollars.  It's up to you, and the marketplace, so don't
+complain to us if nobody wants to pay a billion dollars for a
+copy.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The one exception is in the case where binaries are distributed
+without the corresponding complete source code.  Those who do this are
+required by the GNU GPL to provide source code on subsequent request.
+Without a limit on the fee for the source code, they would be able set
+a fee too large for anyone to pay&mdash;such as a billion
+dollars&mdash;and thus pretend to release source code while in truth
+concealing it.  So &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html#section6"&gt;in this case we
+have to limit the fee&lt;/a&gt; for source in order
+to ensure the user's freedom.  In ordinary situations, however, there
+is no such justification for limiting distribution fees, so we do not
+limit them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Sometimes companies whose activities cross the line stated in the GNU
+GPL plead for permission, saying that they &ldquo;won't charge
+money for the GNU software&rdquo; or such like.  That won't get them anywhere
+with us.  Free software is about freedom, and enforcing the GPL is
+defending freedom.  When we defend users' freedom, we are not
+distracted by side issues such as how much of a distribution fee is
+charged.  Freedom is the issue, the whole issue, and the only issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
+Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

Index: po/selling.lt-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: po/selling.lt-diff.html
diff -N po/selling.lt-diff.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/selling.lt-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,261 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/selling.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;&lt;a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html"&gt;Some 
views on the
+ideas of selling exceptions to free software licenses, such as the GNU
+GPL&lt;/a&gt; are also available.&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Many people believe that the spirit of the GNU Project is that you
+should not charge money for distributing copies of software, or that
+you should charge as little as possible&mdash;just enough to cover
+the cost.  This is a misunderstanding.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt; to charge as 
much
+as they wish or can.  If a license does not permit users to make
+copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If this seems
+surprising to you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer
+either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
+we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
+not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free programs are sometimes distributed gratis, and sometimes for a
+substantial price.  Often the same program is available in both ways
+from different places.  The program is free regardless of the price,
+because users have freedom in using it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;Nonfree 
programs&lt;/a&gt;
+are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
+a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because its users are denied
+freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Since free software is not a matter of price, a low price doesn't make
+the software
+free, or even closer to free.  So if you are redistributing copies of free
+software, you might as well charge a substantial fee and &lt;em&gt;make
+some money&lt;/em&gt;.  Redistributing free software is a good and
+legitimate activity; if you do it, you might as well make a profit
+from it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free software is a community project, and everyone who depends on it
+ought to look for ways to contribute to building the community.  For a
+distributor, the way to do this is to give a part of the profit to free 
software development projects or to the
+&lt;a href="/fsf/fsf.html"&gt;Free Software Foundation&lt;/a&gt;.  This way 
you can
+advance the world of free software.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;strong&gt;Distributing free software is an opportunity to raise
+funds for development.  Don't waste it!&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In order to contribute funds, you need to have some extra.  If you
+charge too low a fee, you won't have anything to spare to support
+development.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price hurt some users?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+People sometimes worry that a high distribution fee will put free
+software out of range for users who don't have a lot of money.  With
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;proprietary
+software&lt;/a&gt;, a high price does exactly that&mdash;but free software
+is different.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The difference is that free software naturally tends to spread around,
+and there are many ways to get it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Software hoarders try their damnedest to stop you from running a
+proprietary program without paying the standard price.  If this price
+is high, that does make it hard for some users to use the program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+With free software, users don't &lt;em&gt;have&lt;/em&gt; to pay the
+distribution fee in order to use the software.  They can copy the
+program from a friend who has a copy, or with the help of a friend who
+has network access.  Or several users can join together, split the
+price of one CD-ROM, then each in turn can install the software.  A high
+CD-ROM price is not a major obstacle when the software is free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price discourage use of free 
software?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another common concern is for the popularity of free software.  People
+think that a high price for distribution would reduce the number of
+users, or that a low price is likely to encourage users.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+This is true for proprietary software&mdash;but free software is
+different.  With so many ways to get copies, the price of distribution
+service has less effect on popularity.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the long run, how many people use free software is determined
+mainly by &lt;em&gt;how much free software can do&lt;/em&gt;, and how easy it
+is to use.  Many users do not make freedom their priority; they
+may continue to use proprietary software if
+free software can't do all the jobs they want done.  Thus, if we want
+to increase the number of users in the long run, we should above all
+&lt;em&gt;develop more free software&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The most direct way to do this is by writing needed
+&lt;a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/tasklist"&gt;free 
software&lt;/a&gt;
+or
+&lt;a href="/doc/doc.html"&gt;manuals&lt;/a&gt; yourself.  But if you do
+distribution rather than writing, the best way you can help is by
+raising funds for others to write them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;The term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; can be confusing 
too&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Strictly speaking, &ldquo;selling&rdquo; means trading goods for
+money.  Selling a copy of a free program is legitimate, and we
+encourage it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+However, when people think of
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#SellSoftware"&gt;&ldquo;selling 
software&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;,
+they usually imagine doing it the way most companies do it: making the
+software proprietary rather than free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+So unless you're going to draw distinctions carefully, the way this
+article does, we suggest it is better to avoid using the term
+&ldquo;selling software&rdquo; and choose some other wording instead.
+For example, you could say &ldquo;distributing free software for a
+fee&rdquo;&mdash;that is unambiguous.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;High or low fees, and the GNU GPL&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Except for one special situation, the
+&lt;a href="/copyleft/gpl.html"&gt;GNU General Public License&lt;/a&gt; (GNU 
GPL)
+has no requirements about how much you can charge for distributing a
+copy of free software.  You can charge nothing, a penny, a dollar, or
+a billion dollars.  It's up to you, and the marketplace, so don't
+complain to us if nobody wants to pay a billion dollars for a
+copy.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The one exception is in the case where binaries are distributed
+without the corresponding complete source code.  Those who do this are
+required by the GNU GPL to provide source code on subsequent request.
+Without a limit on the fee for the source code, they would be able set
+a fee too large for anyone to pay&mdash;such as a billion
+dollars&mdash;and thus pretend to release source code while in truth
+concealing it.  So &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html#section6"&gt;in this case we
+have to limit the fee&lt;/a&gt; for source in order
+to ensure the user's freedom.  In ordinary situations, however, there
+is no such justification for limiting distribution fees, so we do not
+limit them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Sometimes companies whose activities cross the line stated in the GNU
+GPL plead for permission, saying that they &ldquo;won't charge
+money for the GNU software&rdquo; or such like.  That won't get them anywhere
+with us.  Free software is about freedom, and enforcing the GPL is
+defending freedom.  When we defend users' freedom, we are not
+distracted by side issues such as how much of a distribution fee is
+charged.  Freedom is the issue, the whole issue, and the only issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
+Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

Index: po/selling.uk-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: po/selling.uk-diff.html
diff -N po/selling.uk-diff.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/selling.uk-diff.html     19 May 2017 14:29:08 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,261 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/selling.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Selling Free Software
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/selling.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;&lt;a href="/philosophy/selling-exceptions.html"&gt;Some 
views on the
+ideas of selling exceptions to free software licenses, such as the GNU
+GPL&lt;/a&gt; are also available.&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Many people believe that the spirit of the GNU Project is that you
+should not charge money for distributing copies of software, or that
+you should charge as little as possible&mdash;just enough to cover
+the cost.  This is a misunderstanding.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Actually, we encourage people who redistribute
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;free software&lt;/a&gt; to charge as 
much
+as they wish or can.  If a license does not permit users to make
+copies and sell them, it is a nonfree license.  If this seems
+surprising to you, please read on.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The word &ldquo;free&rdquo; has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer
+either to freedom or to price.  When we speak of &ldquo;free software&rdquo;,
+we're talking about freedom, not price.  (Think of &ldquo;free speech&rdquo;,
+not &ldquo;free beer&rdquo;.)  Specifically, it means that a user is free to 
run
+the program, <span class="inserted"><ins><em>study and</em></ins></span> 
change the program, and redistribute the program with or
+without changes.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free programs are sometimes distributed gratis, and sometimes for a
+substantial price.  Often the same program is available in both ways
+from different places.  The program is free regardless of the price,
+because users have freedom in using it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;Nonfree 
programs&lt;/a&gt;
+are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store will give you
+a copy at no charge.  That doesn't make it free software, though.
+Price or no price, the program is nonfree because its users are denied
+freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Since free software is not a matter of price, a low price doesn't make
+the software
+free, or even closer to free.  So if you are redistributing copies of free
+software, you might as well charge a substantial fee and &lt;em&gt;make
+some money&lt;/em&gt;.  Redistributing free software is a good and
+legitimate activity; if you do it, you might as well make a profit
+from it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free software is a community project, and everyone who depends on it
+ought to look for ways to contribute to building the community.  For a
+distributor, the way to do this is to give a part of the profit to free 
software development projects or to the
+&lt;a href="/fsf/fsf.html"&gt;Free Software Foundation&lt;/a&gt;.  This way 
you can
+advance the world of free software.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;strong&gt;Distributing free software is an opportunity to raise
+funds for development.  Don't waste it!&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In order to contribute funds, you need to have some extra.  If you
+charge too low a fee, you won't have anything to spare to support
+development.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price hurt some users?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+People sometimes worry that a high distribution fee will put free
+software out of range for users who don't have a lot of money.  With
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;proprietary
+software&lt;/a&gt;, a high price does exactly that&mdash;but free software
+is different.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The difference is that free software naturally tends to spread around,
+and there are many ways to get it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Software hoarders try their damnedest to stop you from running a
+proprietary program without paying the standard price.  If this price
+is high, that does make it hard for some users to use the program.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+With free software, users don't &lt;em&gt;have&lt;/em&gt; to pay the
+distribution fee in order to use the software.  They can copy the
+program from a friend who has a copy, or with the help of a friend who
+has network access.  Or several users can join together, split the
+price of one CD-ROM, then each in turn can install the software.  A high
+CD-ROM price is not a major obstacle when the software is free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;Will a higher distribution price discourage use of free 
software?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another common concern is for the popularity of free software.  People
+think that a high price for distribution would reduce the number of
+users, or that a low price is likely to encourage users.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+This is true for proprietary software&mdash;but free software is
+different.  With so many ways to get copies, the price of distribution
+service has less effect on popularity.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the long run, how many people use free software is determined
+mainly by &lt;em&gt;how much free software can do&lt;/em&gt;, and how easy it
+is to use.  Many users do not make freedom their priority; they
+may continue to use proprietary software if
+free software can't do all the jobs they want done.  Thus, if we want
+to increase the number of users in the long run, we should above all
+&lt;em&gt;develop more free software&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The most direct way to do this is by writing needed
+&lt;a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/tasklist"&gt;free 
software&lt;/a&gt;
+or
+&lt;a href="/doc/doc.html"&gt;manuals&lt;/a&gt; yourself.  But if you do
+distribution rather than writing, the best way you can help is by
+raising funds for others to write them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;The term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; can be confusing 
too&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Strictly speaking, &ldquo;selling&rdquo; means trading goods for
+money.  Selling a copy of a free program is legitimate, and we
+encourage it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+However, when people think of
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#SellSoftware"&gt;&ldquo;selling 
software&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;,
+they usually imagine doing it the way most companies do it: making the
+software proprietary rather than free.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+So unless you're going to draw distinctions carefully, the way this
+article does, we suggest it is better to avoid using the term
+&ldquo;selling software&rdquo; and choose some other wording instead.
+For example, you could say &ldquo;distributing free software for a
+fee&rdquo;&mdash;that is unambiguous.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;h3&gt;High or low fees, and the GNU GPL&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Except for one special situation, the
+&lt;a href="/copyleft/gpl.html"&gt;GNU General Public License&lt;/a&gt; (GNU 
GPL)
+has no requirements about how much you can charge for distributing a
+copy of free software.  You can charge nothing, a penny, a dollar, or
+a billion dollars.  It's up to you, and the marketplace, so don't
+complain to us if nobody wants to pay a billion dollars for a
+copy.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The one exception is in the case where binaries are distributed
+without the corresponding complete source code.  Those who do this are
+required by the GNU GPL to provide source code on subsequent request.
+Without a limit on the fee for the source code, they would be able set
+a fee too large for anyone to pay&mdash;such as a billion
+dollars&mdash;and thus pretend to release source code while in truth
+concealing it.  So &lt;a href="/licenses/gpl.html#section6"&gt;in this case we
+have to limit the fee&lt;/a&gt; for source in order
+to ensure the user's freedom.  In ordinary situations, however, there
+is no such justification for limiting distribution fees, so we do not
+limit them.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Sometimes companies whose activities cross the line stated in the GNU
+GPL plead for permission, saying that they &ldquo;won't charge
+money for the GNU software&rdquo; or such like.  That won't get them anywhere
+with us.  Free software is about freedom, and enforcing the GPL is
+defending freedom.  When we defend users' freedom, we are not
+distracted by side issues such as how much of a distribution fee is
+charged.  Freedom is the issue, the whole issue, and the only issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span>
+Free Software Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or 
Confusing
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or 
Confusing&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+There are a number of words and phrases that we recommend avoiding, or
+avoiding in certain contexts and usages.  Some are ambiguous or
+misleading; others presuppose a viewpoint that we disagree with, and
+we hope you disagree with it too.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;div class="announcement"&gt;
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;Also note &lt;a 
href="/philosophy/categories.html"&gt;Categories of Free
+Software&lt;/a&gt;,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html"&gt;Why Call It The
+Swindle?&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-START 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Ad-blocker"&gt;Ad-blocker&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Access"&gt;Access&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Alternative"&gt;Alternative&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Assets"&gt;Assets&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#BSD-style"&gt;BSD-style&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Closed"&gt;Closed&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#CloudComputing"&gt;Cloud Computing&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Commercial"&gt;Commercial&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Compensation"&gt;Compensation&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Consume"&gt;Consume&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Consumer"&gt;Consumer&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Content"&gt;Content&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#CreativeCommonsLicensed"&gt;Creative Commons 
licensed&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Creator"&gt;Creator&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalGoods"&gt;Digital Goods&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalLocks"&gt;Digital Locks&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalRightsManagement"&gt;Digital Rights 
Management&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Ecosystem"&gt;Ecosystem&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FLOSS"&gt;FLOSS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#ForFree"&gt;For free&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FOSS"&gt;FOSS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FreelyAvailable"&gt;Freely available&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Freeware"&gt;Freeware&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#GiveAwaySoftware"&gt;Give away software&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Google"&gt;Google&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Hacker"&gt;Hacker&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#IntellectualProperty"&gt;Intellectual property&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#LAMP"&gt;LAMP system&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Linux"&gt;Linux system&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Market"&gt;Market&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Monetize"&gt;Monetize&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#MP3Player"&gt;MP3 player&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Open"&gt;Open&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#PC"&gt;PC&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Photoshop"&gt;Photoshop&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Piracy"&gt;Piracy&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#PowerPoint"&gt;PowerPoint&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Protection"&gt;Protection&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#RAND"&gt;RAND&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SaaS"&gt;SaaS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SellSoftware"&gt;Sell software&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SharingEconomy"&gt;Sharing economy&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Skype"&gt;Skype&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SoftwareIndustry"&gt;Software Industry&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SourceModel"&gt;Source model&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!--#if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX      = /^.(es)$/" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your
+     language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise,
+     fill the translation with a space. --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;&ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Terminal"&gt;Terminal&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY 
--&gt;&lt;!--#endif
+ --&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Theft"&gt;Theft&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#TrustedComputing"&gt;Trusted Computing&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Vendor"&gt;Vendor&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-STOP 
--&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-START --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Ad-blocker"&gt;&ldquo;Ad-blocker&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When the purpose of some program is to block advertisements,
+&ldquo;ad-blocker&rdquo; is a good term for it.  However, the GNU
+browser IceCat blocks advertisements that track the user as
+consequence of broader measures to prevent surveillance by web sites.
+This is not an &ldquo;ad-blocker,&rdquo; this is
+&lt;em&gt;surveillance protection&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Access"&gt;&ldquo;Access&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is a common misunderstanding to think free software means that the
+public has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to a program.  That is not what free
+software means.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;criterion for free 
software&lt;/a&gt;
+is not about who has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to the program; the four
+essential freedoms concern what a user that has a copy of the program
+is allowed to do with it.  For instance, freedom 2 says that that user
+is free to make another copy and give or sell it to you.  But no user
+is &lt;em&gt;obligated&lt;/em&gt; to do that for you; you do not have
+a &lt;em&gt;right&lt;/em&gt; to demand a copy of that program from any 
user.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In particular, if you write a program yourself and never offer a copy
+to anyone else, that program is free software albeit in a trivial way,
+because every user that has a copy has the four essential freedoms
+(since the only such user is you).&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In practice, when many users have copies of a program, someone is sure
+to post it on the internet, giving everyone access to it.  We think
+people ought to do that, if the program is useful.  But that isn't a
+requirement of free software.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+There is one specific point in which a question of having access is
+directly pertinent to free software: the GNU GPL permits giving a
+particular user access to download a program's source code as a
+substitute for physically giving that user a copy of the source.  This
+applies to the special case in which the user already has a copy of
+the program in non-source form.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Alternative"&gt;&ldquo;Alternative&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We don't describe free software as an &ldquo;alternative&rdquo; to
+proprietary, because that word presumes all the &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; are
+legitimate and each additional one makes users better off.  In effect,
+it assumes that free software ought to coexist with software that does
+not respect users' freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We believe that distribution as free software is the only ethical way
+to make software available for others to use.  The other methods,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"&gt;nonfree
+software&lt;/a&gt;
+and &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;Service
+as a Software Substitute&lt;/a&gt; subjugate their users.  We do not think
+it is good to offer users those &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; to free
+software.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Assets"&gt;&ldquo;Assets&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To refer to published works as &ldquo;assets&rdquo;, or &ldquo;digital
+assets&rdquo;, is even worse than calling
+them &lt;a href="#Content"&gt;&ldquo;content&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt; &mdash; it 
presumes
+they have no value to society except commercial value.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="BSD-style"&gt;&ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The expression &ldquo;BSD-style license&rdquo; leads to confusion because it
+&lt;a href="/licenses/bsd.html"&gt;lumps together licenses that have
+important differences&lt;/a&gt;.  For instance, the original BSD license
+with the advertising clause is incompatible with the GNU General
+Public License, but the revised BSD license is compatible with the
+GPL.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid confusion, it is best to
+name &lt;a href="/licenses/license-list.html"&gt; the specific license in
+question&lt;/a&gt; and avoid the vague term &ldquo;BSD-style.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Closed"&gt;&ldquo;Closed&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Describing nonfree software as &ldquo;closed&rdquo; clearly refers to
+the term &ldquo;open source.&rdquo;  In the free software movement,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html"&gt; we do not want 
to
+be confused with the open source camp&lt;/a&gt;, so we
+are careful to avoid saying things that would encourage people to lump us in
+with them.  For instance, we avoid describing nonfree software as
+&ldquo;closed.&rdquo;  We call it &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; or
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;
+&ldquo;proprietary&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="CloudComputing"&gt;&ldquo;Cloud Computing&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; (or
+just &lt;a name="Cloud"&gt;&ldquo;cloud&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;, in the context of
+computing) is a marketing buzzword with no coherent meaning.  It is
+used for a range of different activities whose only common
+characteristic is that they use the Internet for something beyond
+transmitting files.  Thus, the term spreads confusion.  If you base
+your thinking on it, your thinking will be confused (or, could we say,
+&ldquo;cloudy&rdquo;?).
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+When thinking about or responding to a statement someone else has made
+using this term, the first step is to clarify the topic.  What
+scenario is the statement about?  What is a good, clear term for that
+scenario?  Once the topic is clearly formulated, coherent thought
+about it becomes possible.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+One of the many meanings of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; is storing
+your data in online services.  In most scenarios, that is foolish
+because it exposes you to
+&lt;a 
href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/25/hackers-spooks-cloud-antiauthoritarian-dream"&gt;surveillance&lt;/a&gt;.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning (which overlaps that but is not the same thing)
+is &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;
+Service as a Software Substitute&lt;/a&gt;, which denies you control over
+your computing.  You should never use SaaSS.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning is renting a remote physical server, or virtual server.
+These practices are ok under certain circumstances.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning is accessing your own server from your own mobile device.
+That raises no particular ethical issues.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The &lt;a 
href="http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf"&gt;
+NIST definition of "cloud computing"&lt;/a&gt; mentions three scenarios that
+raise different ethical issues: Software as a Service, Platform as a
+Service, and Infrastructure as a Service.  However, that definition
+does not match the common use of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo;, since
+it does not include storing data in online services.  Software as a
+Service as defined by NIST overlaps considerably with Service as a
+Software Substitute, which mistreats the user, but the two concepts
+are not equivalent.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+These different computing practices don't even belong in the same
+discussion.  The best way to avoid the confusion the term &ldquo;cloud
+computing&rdquo; spreads is not to use the term &ldquo;cloud&rdquo; in
+connection with computing.  Talk about the scenario you mean, and call
+it by a specific term.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Curiously, Larry Ellison, a proprietary software developer,
+also &lt;a 
href="http://www.cnet.com/news/oracles-ellison-nails-cloud-computing/"&gt;
+noted the vacuity of the term &ldquo;cloud computing.&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;  He
+decided to use the term anyway because, as a proprietary software
+developer, he isn't motivated by the same ideals as we are.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Commercial"&gt;&ldquo;Commercial&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; as a synonym for
+&ldquo;nonfree.&rdquo; That confuses two entirely different
+issues.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity.  A
+commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of
+distribution.  Likewise, a program developed by a school or an
+individual can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of
+distribution.  The two questions&mdash;what sort of entity developed
+the program and what freedom its users have&mdash;are independent.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the first decade of the free software movement, free software
+packages were almost always noncommercial; the components of the
+GNU/Linux operating system were developed by individuals or by
+nonprofit organizations such as the FSF and universities.  Later, in
+the 1990s, free commercial software started to appear.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we
+should encourage it.  But people who think that
+&ldquo;commercial&rdquo; means &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; will tend to
+think that the &ldquo;free commercial&rdquo; combination is
+self-contradictory, and dismiss the possibility.  Let's be careful not
+to use the word &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; in that way.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Compensation"&gt;&ldquo;Compensation&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To speak of &ldquo;compensation for authors&rdquo; in connection with
+copyright carries the assumptions that (1) copyright exists for the
+sake of authors and (2) whenever we read something, we take on a debt
+to the author which we must then repay.  The first assumption is
+simply
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html"&gt;false&lt;/a&gt;, and
+the second is outrageous.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Compensating the rights-holders&rdquo; adds a further swindle:
+you're supposed to imagine that means paying the authors, and
+occasionally it does, but most of the time it means a subsidy for the
+same publishing companies that are pushing unjust laws on us.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Consume"&gt;&ldquo;Consume&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Consume&rdquo; refers to what we do with food: we ingest it,
+after which the food as such no longer exists.  By analogy, we employ
+the same word for other products whose use &lt;em&gt;uses them up&lt;/em&gt;.
+Applying it to durable goods, such as clothing or appliances, is a
+stretch.  Applying it to published works (programs, recordings on a
+disk or in a file, books on paper or in a file), whose nature is to
+last indefinitely and which can be run, played or read any number of
+times, is stretching the word so far that it snaps.  Playing a
+recording, or running a program, does not consume it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Those who use &ldquo;consume&rdquo; in this context will say they
+don't mean it literally.  What, then, does it mean?  It means to regard
+copies of software and other works from a narrow economistic point of
+view.  &ldquo;Consume&rdquo; is associated with the economics of
+material commodities, such as the fuel or electricity that a car uses
+up.  Gasoline is a commodity, and so is electricity.  Commodities
+are &lt;em&gt;fungible&lt;/em&gt;: there is nothing special about a drop of
+gasoline that your car burns today versus another drop that it burned
+last week.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Do we want people to think of writings (software, news, any other
+kind) as a commodity, with the assumption that there is nothing
+special about any one story, article, program, or song?  Should we
+treat them as fungible?  That is the twisted viewpoint of an
+economist, or the accountant of a publishing company.  It is no
+surprise that proprietary software would like you to think of the use
+of software as a commodity.  Their twisted viewpoint comes through
+clearly
+in &lt;a 
href="http://www.businessinsider.com/former-google-exec-launches-sourcepoint-with-10-million-series-a-funding-2015-6"&gt;this
+article&lt;/a&gt;, which also refers to publications as
+&ldquo;&lt;a href="#Content"&gt;content&lt;/a&gt;.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The narrow thinking associated with the idea that we &ldquo;consume
+content&rdquo; paves the way for laws such as the DMCA that forbid
+users to break the &lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org/"&gt;Digital
+Restrictions Management&lt;/a&gt; (DRM) facilities in digital devices.  If
+users think what they do with these devices is &ldquo;consume,&rdquo;
+they may see such restrictions as natural.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+It also encourages the acceptation of &ldquo;streaming&rdquo;
+services, which use DRM to perversely limit listening to music so that
+it fits the assumptions of the word &ldquo;consume.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Why is this perverse usage spreading?  Some may feel that the term
+sounds sophisticated, but rejecting it with cogent reasons can appear
+even more sophisticated.  Others may be acting from business interests
+(their own, or their employers').  Their use of the term in
+prestigious forums gives the impression that it's the
+&ldquo;correct&rdquo; term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+To speak of &ldquo;consuming&rdquo; music, fiction, or any other
+artistic works is to treat them as products rather than as art.  If
+you don't want to spread that attitude, you would do well to avoid
+using the term &ldquo;consume&rdquo; for them.  What to use instead?
+We prefer specific verbs such as &ldquo;listen to&rdquo;,
+&ldquo;watch&rdquo;, &ldquo;read&rdquo; or &ldquo;look at&rdquo;,
+since they help to restrain the tendency to overgeneralize.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;When it is absolutely necessary to generalize about all kinds of
+works and all media, we recommend &ldquo;experience&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;give attention to&rdquo; for an artistic work or a work to
+present a point of view, and &ldquo;use&rdquo; for a practically
+useful work.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;See also the following entry.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Consumer"&gt;&ldquo;Consumer&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;consumer,&rdquo; when used to refer to the users of
+computing, is loaded with assumptions we should reject.  Some come
+from the idea that using the program &ldquo;consumes&rdquo; the program (see
+&lt;a href="#Consume"&gt;the previous entry&lt;/a&gt;), which leads people to
+impose on copiable digital works the economic conclusions that were
+drawn about uncopiable material products.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In addition, describing the users of software as
+&ldquo;consumers&rdquo; refers to a framing in which people are
+limited to selecting between whatever &ldquo;products&rdquo; are
+available in the &ldquo;market.&rdquo; There is no room in this
+framing for the idea that users
+can &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"&gt;directly
+exercise control over what a program does&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To describe people who are not limited to passive use of works, we
+suggest terms such as &ldquo;individuals&rdquo; and
+&ldquo;citizens,&rdquo; rather than &ldquo;consumers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+This problem with the word &ldquo;consumer&rdquo; has
+been &lt;a 
href="http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/11/capitalism-language-raymond-williams"&gt;noted
 before&lt;/a&gt;.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Content"&gt;&ldquo;Content&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to describe a feeling of comfort and satisfaction, by all
+means say you are &ldquo;content,&rdquo; but using the word as a
+noun to describe publications and works of authorship adopts an
+attitude you might rather avoid: it treats them as a
+commodity whose purpose is to fill a box and make money.  In effect,
+it disparages the works themselves.  If you don't agree with that
+attitude, you can call them &ldquo;works&rdquo; or &ldquo;publications.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Those who use the term &ldquo;content&rdquo; are often the publishers
+that push for increased copyright power in the name of the authors
+(&ldquo;creators,&rdquo; as they say) of the works.  The term
+&ldquo;content&rdquo; reveals their real attitude towards these works
+and their authors.  This was also recognized by Tom Chatfield
+&lt;a 
href="https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2016/aug/02/how-to-deal-with-trump-trolls-online"&gt;in
 the Guardian&lt;/a&gt;:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;
+Content itself is beside the point&mdash;as the very use of words like
+content suggests. The moment you start labelling every single piece of
+writing in the world &ldquo;content,&rdquo; you have conceded its
+interchangeability: its primary purpose as mere grist to the metrical
+mill.
+&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;See also &lt;a 
href="http://www.salon.com/2000/06/14/love_7/"&gt;Courtney
+Love's open letter to Steve Case&lt;/a&gt; and search for &ldquo;content
+provider&rdquo; in that page.  Alas, Ms. Love is unaware that the term
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; is
+also &lt;a href="#IntellectualProperty"&gt; biased and 
confusing&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+However, as long as other people use the term &ldquo;content
+provider,&rdquo; political dissidents can well call themselves
+&ldquo;malcontent providers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;content management&rdquo; takes the prize for vacuity.
+&ldquo;Content&rdquo; means &ldquo;some sort of information,&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;management&rdquo; in this context means &ldquo;doing
+something with it.&rdquo;  So a &ldquo;content management
+system&rdquo; is a system for doing something to some sort of
+information.  Nearly all programs fit that description.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In most cases, that term really refers to a system for updating pages
+on a web site.  For that, we recommend the term &ldquo;web site revision
+system&rdquo; (WRS).&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="CreativeCommonsLicensed"&gt;&ldquo;Creative Commons 
licensed&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The most important licensing characteristic of a work is whether it is
+free.  Creative Commons publishes seven licenses; three are free
+(CC BY, CC BY-SA and CC0) and the rest are nonfree.  Thus, to
+describe a work as &ldquo;Creative Commons licensed&rdquo; fails to
+say whether it is free, and suggests that the question is not
+important.  The statement may be accurate, but the omission is
+harmful.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+To encourage people to pay attention to the most important
+distinction, always specify &lt;em&gt;which&lt;/em&gt; Creative Commons 
license is
+used, as in &ldquo;licensed under CC BY-SA.&rdquo; If you don't know
+which license a certain work uses, find out and then make your
+statement.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Creator"&gt;&ldquo;Creator&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;creator&rdquo; as applied to authors implicitly
+compares them to a deity (&ldquo;the creator&rdquo;).  The term is
+used by publishers to elevate authors' moral standing above that of
+ordinary people in order to justify giving them increased copyright
+power, which the publishers can then exercise in their name.  We
+recommend saying &ldquo;author&rdquo; instead.  However, in many cases
+&ldquo;copyright holder&rdquo; is what you really mean.  These two
+terms are not equivalent: often the copyright holder is not the
+author.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalGoods"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Goods&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;digital goods,&rdquo; as applied to copies of works of
+authorship, identifies them with physical goods&mdash;which cannot be
+copied, and which therefore have to be manufactured in quantity and
+sold.  This metaphor encourages people to judge issues about software
+or other digital works based on their views and intuitions about
+physical goods.  It also frames issues in terms of economics, whose
+shallow and limited values don't include freedom and community.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalLocks"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Locks&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Digital locks&rdquo; is used to refer to Digital Restrictions
+Management by some who criticize it.  The problem with this term is
+that it fails to do justice to the badness of DRM.  The people who
+adopted that term did not think it through.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Locks are not necessarily oppressive or bad.  You probably own several
+locks, and their keys or codes as well; you may find them useful or
+troublesome, but they don't oppress you, because you can open and
+close them.  Likewise, we
+find &lt;a 
href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/may/01/encryption-wont-work-if-it-has-a-back-door-only-the-good-guys-have-keys-to-"&gt;encryption&lt;/a&gt;
+invaluable for protecting our digital files.  That too is a kind
+of digital lock that you have control over.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+DRM is like a lock placed on you by someone else, who refuses to give
+you the key&mdash;in other words, like &lt;em&gt;handcuffs&lt;/em&gt;.  
Therefore,
+the proper metaphor for DRM is &ldquo;digital handcuffs,&rdquo; not
+&ldquo;digital locks.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A number of opposition campaigns have chosen the unwise term
+&ldquo;digital locks&rdquo;; to get things back on the right track, we
+must firmly insist on correcting this mistake.  The FSF can support a
+campaign that opposes &ldquo;digital locks&rdquo; if we agree on the
+substance; however, when we state our support, we conspicuously
+replace the term with &ldquo;digital handcuffs&rdquo; and say why.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalRightsManagement"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Rights 
Management&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo; (abbreviated
+&ldquo;DRM&rdquo;) refers to technical mechanisms designed to impose
+restrictions on computer users.  The use of the word
+&ldquo;rights&rdquo; in this term is propaganda, designed to lead you
+unawares into seeing the issue from the viewpoint of the few that
+impose the restrictions, and ignoring that of the general public on
+whom these restrictions are imposed.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Good alternatives include &ldquo;Digital Restrictions
+Management,&rdquo; and &ldquo;digital handcuffs.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please sign up to support our &lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org/"&gt;
+campaign to abolish DRM&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Ecosystem"&gt;&ldquo;Ecosystem&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is inadvisable to describe the free software community, or any human
+community, as an &ldquo;ecosystem,&rdquo; because that word implies
+the absence of ethical judgment.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;ecosystem&rdquo; implicitly suggests an attitude of
+nonjudgmental observation: don't ask how what &lt;em&gt;should&lt;/em&gt; 
happen,
+just study and understand what &lt;em&gt;does&lt;/em&gt; happen.  In an 
ecosystem,
+some organisms consume other organisms.  In ecology, we do not ask
+whether it is right for an owl to eat a mouse or for a mouse to eat a
+seed, we only observe that they do so.  Species' populations grow or
+shrink according to the conditions; this is neither right nor wrong,
+merely an ecological phenomenon, even if it goes so far as the
+extinction of a species.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+By contrast, beings that adopt an ethical stance towards their
+surroundings can decide to preserve things that, without their
+intervention, might vanish&mdash;such as civil society, democracy,
+human rights, peace, public health, a stable climate, clean air and
+water, endangered species, traditional arts&hellip;and computer users'
+freedom.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FLOSS"&gt;&ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;FLOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free/Libre and Open
+Source Software,&rdquo; was coined as a way
+to &lt;a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"&gt;be neutral between free
+software and open source&lt;/a&gt;.  If neutrality is your goal,
+&ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is the best way to be neutral.  But if you want to
+show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="ForFree"&gt;&ldquo;For free&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to say that a program is free software, please don't say
+that it is available &ldquo;for free.&rdquo; That term specifically
+means &ldquo;for zero price.&rdquo; Free software is a matter of
+freedom, not price.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free software copies are often available for free&mdash;for example,
+by downloading via FTP.  But free software copies are also available
+for a price on CD-ROMs; meanwhile, proprietary software copies are
+occasionally available for free in promotions, and some proprietary
+packages are normally available at no charge to certain users.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid confusion, you can say that the program is available
+&ldquo;as free software.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FOSS"&gt;&ldquo;FOSS&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;FOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free and Open Source
+Software,&rdquo; was coined as a way
+to &lt;a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"&gt;be neutral between free
+software and open source&lt;/a&gt;, but it doesn't really do that.  If
+neutrality is your goal, &ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is better.  But if you
+want to show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FreelyAvailable"&gt;&ldquo;Freely available&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Don't use &ldquo;freely available software&rdquo; as a synonym for &ldquo;free
+software.&rdquo; The terms are not equivalent.  Software is &ldquo;freely
+available&rdquo; if anyone can easily get a copy.  &ldquo;Free
+software&rdquo; is defined in terms of the freedom of users that have
+a copy of it.  These are answers to different questions.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Freeware"&gt;&ldquo;Freeware&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use the term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; as a synonym for
+&ldquo;free software.&rdquo; The term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; was used
+often in the 1980s for programs released only as executables, with
+source code not available.  Today it has no particular agreed-on
+definition.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When using languages other than English, please avoid
+borrowing English terms such as &ldquo;free software&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;freeware.&rdquo; It is better to translate the term &ldquo;free
+software&rdquo; into
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html"&gt;your 
language&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+By using a word in &lt;a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html"&gt;your
+own language&lt;/a&gt;, you show that you are really referring to freedom
+and not just parroting some mysterious foreign marketing concept.
+The reference to freedom may at first seem strange or disturbing
+to your compatriots, but once they see that it means exactly what
+it says, they will really understand what the issue is.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="GiveAwaySoftware"&gt;&ldquo;Give away software&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It's misleading to use the term &ldquo;give away&rdquo; to mean
+&ldquo;distribute a program as free software.&rdquo;
+This locution has the same
+problem as &ldquo;for free&rdquo;: it implies the issue is price, not
+freedom.  One way to avoid the confusion is to say &ldquo;release as
+free software.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Google"&gt;&ldquo;Google&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;google&rdquo; as a verb, meaning to
+search for something on the internet. &ldquo;Google&rdquo; is just the
+name of one particular search engine among others. We suggest to use
+the term &ldquo;search the web&rdquo; or (in some contexts) just
+&ldquo;search&rdquo;. Try to use a search engine that respects your
+privacy; <span class="inserted"><ins><em>for instance,</em></ins></span> &lt;a 
href="https://duckduckgo.com/"&gt;DuckDuckGo&lt;/a&gt;
+claims not to track its <span class="removed"><del><strong>users, although we 
cannot confirm.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>users.  (There is no way for outsiders to
+verify claims of that kind.)&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Hacker"&gt;&ldquo;Hacker&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A hacker is someone
+who &lt;a href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html"&gt; enjoys
+playful cleverness&lt;/a&gt;&mdash;not necessarily with computers.  The
+programmers in the old
+&lt;abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology"&gt;MIT&lt;/abbr&gt; free
+software community of the 60s and 70s referred to themselves as
+hackers.  Around 1980, journalists who discovered the hacker community
+mistakenly took the term to mean &ldquo;security breaker.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't spread this mistake.
+People who break security are &ldquo;crackers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="IntellectualProperty"&gt;&ldquo;Intellectual 
property&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;&mdash;a term also applied to
+patents, trademarks, and other more obscure areas of law.  These laws
+have so little in common, and differ so much, that it is ill-advised
+to generalize about them.  It is best to talk specifically about
+&ldquo;copyright,&rdquo; or about &ldquo;patents,&rdquo; or about
+&ldquo;trademarks.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; carries a hidden
+assumption&mdash;that the way to think about all these disparate
+issues is based on an analogy with physical objects,
+and our conception of them as physical property.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When it comes to copying, this analogy disregards the crucial
+difference between material objects and information: information can
+be copied and shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't
+be.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid spreading unnecessary bias and confusion, it is best to adopt
+a firm policy &lt;a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html"&gt; not to speak or even
+think in terms of &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The hypocrisy of calling these powers &ldquo;rights&rdquo; is
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/wipo-PublicAwarenessOfCopyright-2002.html"&gt;
+starting to make the World &ldquo;Intellectual Property&rdquo;
+Organization embarrassed&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="LAMP"&gt;&ldquo;LAMP system&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; stands for &ldquo;Linux, Apache, MySQL and
+PHP&rdquo;&mdash;a common combination of software to use on a web
+server, except that &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; in this context really refers
+to the GNU/Linux system.  So instead of &ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; it should
+be &ldquo;GLAMP&rdquo;: &ldquo;GNU, Linux, Apache, MySQL and
+PHP.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Linux"&gt;&ldquo;Linux system&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Linux is the name of the kernel that Linus Torvalds developed starting
+in 1991.  The operating system in which Linux is used is basically GNU
+with Linux added.  To call the whole system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; is
+both unfair and confusing.  Please call the complete
+system &lt;a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html"&gt; GNU/Linux&lt;/a&gt;, both to 
give
+the GNU Project credit and to distinguish the whole system from the
+kernel alone.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Market"&gt;&ldquo;Market&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is misleading to describe the users of free software, or the
+software users in general, as a &ldquo;market.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+This is not to say there is no room for markets in the free software community.
+If you have a free software
+support business, then you have clients, and you trade with them in a
+market.  As long as you respect their freedom, we wish you success in
+your market.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+But the free software movement is a social movement, not a business,
+and the success it aims for is not a market success.  We are trying to
+serve the public by giving it freedom&mdash;not competing to draw business
+away from a rival.  To equate this campaign for freedom to a business's
+efforts for mere success is to deny the importance of freedom
+and legitimize proprietary software.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Monetize"&gt;&ldquo;Monetize&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The proper definition of &ldquo;monetize&rdquo; is &ldquo;to use
+something as currency.&rdquo; For instance, human societies have
+monetized gold, silver, copper, printed paper, special kinds of
+seashells, and large rocks.  However, we now see a tendency to use the
+word in another way, meaning &ldquo;to use something as a basis for
+profit&rdquo;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+That usage casts the profit as primary, and the thing used to get the
+profit as secondary.  That attitude applied to a software project is
+objectionable because it would lead the developers to make the program
+proprietary, if they conclude that making it free/libre isn't
+sufficiently profitable.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A productive and ethical business can make money, but if it
+subordinates all else to profit, it is not likely to remain
+ethical.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="MP3Player"&gt;&ldquo;MP3 Player&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the late 1990s it became feasible to make portable, solid-state
+digital audio players. Most support the patented MP3 codec, but not
+all.  Some support the patent-free audio codecs Ogg Vorbis and FLAC,
+and may not even support MP3-encoded files at all, precisely to avoid
+these patents.  To call such players &ldquo;MP3 players&rdquo; is not
+only confusing, it also privileges the MP3 that we ought to reject.
+We suggest the terms &ldquo;digital audio player,&rdquo;
+or simply &ldquo;audio player&rdquo; if context permits.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Open"&gt;&ldquo;Open&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;open&rdquo; or &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo; as a substitute for &ldquo;free software.&rdquo;  Those terms
+refer to a &lt;a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html"&gt;
+different set of views&lt;/a&gt; based on different values.  The free software
+movement campaigns for your freedom in your computing, as a matter
+of justice.  The open source non-movement does not campaign for anything
+in this way.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;When referring to the open source views, it's correct to use that
+name, but please do not use that term when talking about us, our
+software, or our views&mdash;that leads people to suppose our views
+are similar to theirs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="PC"&gt;&ldquo;PC&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It's OK to use the abbreviation &ldquo;PC&rdquo; to refer to a certain
+kind of computer hardware, but please don't use it with the
+implication that the computer is running Microsoft Windows.  If you
+install GNU/Linux on the same computer, it is still a PC.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;WC&rdquo; has been suggested for a computer running
+Windows.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Photoshop"&gt;&ldquo;Photoshop&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;photoshop&rdquo; as a verb, meaning
+any kind of photo manipulation or image editing in general.  Photoshop
+is just the name of one particular image editing program, which should
+be avoided since it is proprietary.  There are plenty of free programs
+for editing images, such as the &lt;a 
href="/software/gimp"&gt;GIMP&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Piracy"&gt;&ldquo;Piracy&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers often refer to copying they don't approve of as
+&ldquo;piracy.&rdquo; In this way, they imply that it is ethically
+equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas, kidnapping and
+murdering the people on them.  Based on such propaganda, they have
+procured laws in most of the world to forbid copying in most (or
+sometimes all) circumstances.  (They are still pressuring to make
+these prohibitions more complete.)
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you don't believe that copying not approved by the publisher is
+just like kidnapping and murder, you might prefer not to use the word
+&ldquo;piracy&rdquo; to describe it.  Neutral terms such as
+&ldquo;unauthorized copying&rdquo; (or &ldquo;prohibited
+copying&rdquo; for the situation where it is illegal) are available
+for use instead.  Some of us might even prefer to use a positive term
+such as &ldquo;sharing information with your neighbor.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement,
+recognized that
+&lt;a 
href="http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/"&gt;&ldquo;piracy&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; are smear words.&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="PowerPoint"&gt;&ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; to mean any kind
+of slide presentation.  &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; is just the name of
+one particular proprietary program to make presentations.  For your
+freedom's sake, you should use only free software to make your
+presentations.  Recommended options include TeX's &lt;tt&gt;beamer&lt;/tt&gt;
+class and LibreOffice.org's Impress.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Protection"&gt;&ldquo;Protection&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers' lawyers love to use the term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; to
+describe copyright.  This word carries the implication of preventing
+destruction or suffering; therefore, it encourages people to identify
+with the owner and publisher who benefit from copyright, rather than
+with the users who are restricted by it.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is easy to avoid &ldquo;protection&rdquo; and use neutral terms
+instead.  For example, instead of saying, &ldquo;Copyright protection lasts a
+very long time,&rdquo; you can say, &ldquo;Copyright lasts a very long
+time.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Likewise, instead of saying, &ldquo;protected by copyright,&rdquo; you
+can say, &ldquo;covered by copyright&rdquo; or just
+&ldquo;copyrighted.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to criticize copyright rather than be neutral, you can
+use the term &ldquo;copyright restrictions.&rdquo; Thus, you can say,
+&ldquo;Copyright restrictions last a very long time.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; is also used to describe malicious
+features.  For instance, &ldquo;copy protection&rdquo; is a feature
+that interferes with copying.  From the user's point of view, this is
+obstruction.  So we could call that malicious feature &ldquo;copy
+obstruction.&rdquo;  More often it is called Digital Restrictions
+Management (DRM)&mdash;see the
+&lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org"&gt; Defective by Design&lt;/a&gt;
+campaign.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="RAND"&gt;&ldquo;RAND (Reasonable and 
Non-Discriminatory)&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Standards bodies that promulgate patent-restricted standards that
+prohibit free software typically have a policy of obtaining patent
+licenses that require a fixed fee per copy of a conforming program.
+They often refer to such licenses by the term &ldquo;RAND,&rdquo;
+which stands for &ldquo;reasonable and non-discriminatory.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+That term whitewashes a class of patent licenses that are normally
+neither reasonable nor nondiscriminatory.  It is true that these
+licenses do not discriminate against any specific person, but they do
+discriminate against the free software community, and that makes them
+unreasonable.  Thus, half of the term &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; is deceptive
+and the other half is prejudiced.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Standards bodies should recognize that these licenses are
+discriminatory, and drop the use of the term &ldquo;reasonable and
+non-discriminatory&rdquo; or &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; to describe them.
+Until they do so, writers who do not wish to join in the
+whitewashing would do well to reject that term.  To accept and use it
+merely because patent-wielding companies have made it widespread is to
+let those companies dictate the views you express.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We suggest the term &ldquo;uniform fee only,&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;UFO&rdquo; for short, as a replacement.  It is accurate because
+the only condition in these licenses is a uniform royalty fee.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SaaS"&gt;&ldquo;SaaS&rdquo; or &ldquo;Software as a 
Service&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We used to say that SaaS (short for &ldquo;Software as a
+Service&rdquo;) is an injustice, but then we found that there was a
+lot of variation in people's understanding of which activities count
+as SaaS.  So we switched to a new term, &ldquo;Service as a Software
+Substitute&rdquo; or &ldquo;SaaSS.&rdquo; This term has two
+advantages: it wasn't used before, so our definition is the only one,
+and it explains what the injustice consists of.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+See &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;Who
+Does That Server Really Serve?&lt;/a&gt; for discussion of this
+issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In Spanish we continue to use the term &ldquo;software como
+servicio&rdquo; because the joke of &ldquo;software como ser
+vicio&rdquo; (&ldquo;software, as being pernicious&rdquo;) is too good
+to give up.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SellSoftware"&gt;&ldquo;Sell software&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;sell software&rdquo; is ambiguous.  Strictly speaking,
+exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money
+is &lt;a href="/philosophy/selling.html"&gt; selling the program&lt;/a&gt;, and
+there is nothing wrong with doing that.  However, people usually
+associate the term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; with proprietary
+restrictions on the subsequent use of the software.  You can be clear,
+and prevent confusion, by saying either &ldquo;distributing copies of
+a program for a fee&rdquo; or &ldquo;imposing proprietary restrictions
+on the use of a program.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+See &lt;a href="/philosophy/selling.html"&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/a&gt; 
for
+further discussion of this issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SharingEconomy"&gt;&ldquo;Sharing economy&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;sharing economy&rdquo; is not a good way to refer to
+services such as Uber and Airbnb that arrange business transactions
+between people.  We use the term &ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to refer to
+noncommercial cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of
+exact copies of published works.  Stretching the word
+&ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to include these transactions undermines its
+meaning, so we don't use it in this context.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A more suitable term for businesses like Uber is the
+&ldquo;piecework service economy.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Skype"&gt;&ldquo;Skype&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;skype&rdquo; as a verb, meaning any
+kind of video communication or telephony over the Internet in general.
+&ldquo;Skype&rdquo; is just the name of one particular proprietary
+program, one that &lt;a
+href="/philosophy/proprietary/proprietary-surveillance.html#SpywareInSkype"&gt;
+spies on its users&lt;/a&gt;. If you want to make video and voice calls over 
the
+Internet in a way that respects both your freedom and your privacy, try
+one of the &lt;a 
href="https://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group:Skype_Replacement"&gt;
+numerous free Skype replacements&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SoftwareIndustry"&gt;&ldquo;Software Industry&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;software industry&rdquo; encourages people to imagine
+that software is always developed by a sort of factory and then
+delivered to &ldquo;consumers.&rdquo;  The free software community
+shows this is not the case.  Software businesses exist, and various
+businesses develop free and/or nonfree software, but those that
+develop free software are not run like factories.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;industry&rdquo; is being used as propaganda by
+advocates of software patents.  They call software development
+&ldquo;industry&rdquo; and then try to argue that this means it should
+be subject to patent monopolies.  &lt;a
+href="https://web.archive.org/web/20071215073111/http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/";
+title="archived version of http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/"&gt;The
+European Parliament, rejecting software patents in 2003, voted to
+define &ldquo;industry&rdquo; as &ldquo;automated production of
+material goods.&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SourceModel"&gt;&ldquo;Source model&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Wikipedia uses the term &ldquo;source model&rdquo; in a confused and
+ambiguous way.  Ostensibly it refers to how a program's source is
+distributed, but the text confuses this with the development
+methodology.  It distinguishes &ldquo;open source&rdquo; and
+&rdquo;shared source&rdquo; as answers, but they overlap &mdash;
+Microsoft uses the latter as a marketing term to cover a range of
+practices, some of which are &ldquo;open source&rdquo;.  Thus, this
+term really conveys no coherent information, but it provides an
+opportunity to say &ldquo;open source&rdquo; in pages describing free
+software programs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!--#if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX      = /^.(es)$/" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your
+     language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise,
+     fill the translation with a space. --&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Terminal"&gt;&ldquo;Terminal&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Mobile phones and tablets are computers, and people should be
+able to do their computing on them using free software.
+To call them &ldquo;terminals&rdquo; supposes that all they are good for
+is to connect to servers, which is a bad way to do your own 
computing.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;!--#endif --&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Theft"&gt;&ldquo;Theft&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The supporters of a too-strict, repressive form of copyright often use
+words like &ldquo;stolen&rdquo; and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; to refer to
+copyright infringement.  This is spin, but they would like you to take
+it for objective truth.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Under the US legal system, copyright infringement is not theft.  
+&lt;a
+href="http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207"&gt;
+Laws about theft are not applicable to copyright infringement.&lt;/a&gt;
+The supporters of repressive copyright are making an appeal to
+authority&mdash;and misrepresenting what authority says.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To refute them, you can point to this
+&lt;a 
href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/04/harper-lee-kill-mockingbird-copyright"&gt;
+real case&lt;/a&gt; which shows what can properly be described as
+&ldquo;copyright theft.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Unauthorized copying is forbidden by copyright law in many
+circumstances (not all!), but being forbidden doesn't make it wrong.
+In general, laws don't define right and wrong.  Laws, at their best,
+attempt to implement justice.  If the laws (the implementation) don't
+fit our ideas of right and wrong (the spec), the laws are what should
+change.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement,
+recognized that
+&lt;a 
href="http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/"&gt;&ldquo;piracy&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; are smear-words.&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="TrustedComputing"&gt;&ldquo;Trusted Computing&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/can-you-trust.html"&gt;&ldquo;Trusted 
computing&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt; is
+the proponents' name for a scheme to redesign computers so that
+application developers can trust your computer to obey them instead of
+you.  From their point of view, it is &ldquo;trusted&rdquo;; from your
+point of view, it is &ldquo;treacherous.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Vendor"&gt;&ldquo;Vendor&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use the term &ldquo;vendor&rdquo; to refer generally to
+anyone that develops or packages software.  Many programs
+are developed in order to sell copies, and their developers are
+therefore their vendors; this even includes some free software packages.
+However, many programs are developed by volunteers or organizations
+which do not intend to sell copies.  These developers are not vendors.
+Likewise, only some of the packagers of GNU/Linux distributions are
+vendors.  We recommend the general term &ldquo;supplier&rdquo; instead.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-STOP --&gt;
+
+&lt;hr /&gt;
+&lt;blockquote id="fsfs"&gt;&lt;p class="big"&gt;This essay is published
+in &lt;a 
href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/"&gt;&lt;cite&gt;Free
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
+M. Stallman&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007,
+2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span> Free Software 
Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:08 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>

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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or 
Confusing
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/words-to-avoid.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Words to Avoid (or Use with Care) Because They Are Loaded or 
Confusing&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+There are a number of words and phrases that we recommend avoiding, or
+avoiding in certain contexts and usages.  Some are ambiguous or
+misleading; others presuppose a viewpoint that we disagree with, and
+we hope you disagree with it too.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;div class="announcement"&gt;
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;Also note &lt;a 
href="/philosophy/categories.html"&gt;Categories of Free
+Software&lt;/a&gt;,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/why-call-it-the-swindle.html"&gt;Why Call It The
+Swindle?&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-START 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Ad-blocker"&gt;Ad-blocker&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Access"&gt;Access&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Alternative"&gt;Alternative&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Assets"&gt;Assets&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#BSD-style"&gt;BSD-style&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Closed"&gt;Closed&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#CloudComputing"&gt;Cloud Computing&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Commercial"&gt;Commercial&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Compensation"&gt;Compensation&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Consume"&gt;Consume&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Consumer"&gt;Consumer&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Content"&gt;Content&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#CreativeCommonsLicensed"&gt;Creative Commons 
licensed&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Creator"&gt;Creator&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalGoods"&gt;Digital Goods&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalLocks"&gt;Digital Locks&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#DigitalRightsManagement"&gt;Digital Rights 
Management&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Ecosystem"&gt;Ecosystem&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FLOSS"&gt;FLOSS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#ForFree"&gt;For free&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FOSS"&gt;FOSS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#FreelyAvailable"&gt;Freely available&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Freeware"&gt;Freeware&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#GiveAwaySoftware"&gt;Give away software&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Google"&gt;Google&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Hacker"&gt;Hacker&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#IntellectualProperty"&gt;Intellectual property&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#LAMP"&gt;LAMP system&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Linux"&gt;Linux system&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Market"&gt;Market&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Monetize"&gt;Monetize&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#MP3Player"&gt;MP3 player&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Open"&gt;Open&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#PC"&gt;PC&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Photoshop"&gt;Photoshop&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Piracy"&gt;Piracy&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#PowerPoint"&gt;PowerPoint&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Protection"&gt;Protection&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#RAND"&gt;RAND&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SaaS"&gt;SaaS&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SellSoftware"&gt;Sell software&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SharingEconomy"&gt;Sharing economy&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Skype"&gt;Skype&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SoftwareIndustry"&gt;Software Industry&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#SourceModel"&gt;Source model&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!--#if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX      = /^.(es)$/" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your
+     language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise,
+     fill the translation with a space. --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;&ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Terminal"&gt;Terminal&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY 
--&gt;&lt;!--#endif
+ --&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Theft"&gt;Theft&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#TrustedComputing"&gt;Trusted Computing&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+|&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM 
--&gt; &ldquo;&lt;a
+       href="#Vendor"&gt;Vendor&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;
+&lt;span class="gnun-split"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-STOP 
--&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-START --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Ad-blocker"&gt;&ldquo;Ad-blocker&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When the purpose of some program is to block advertisements,
+&ldquo;ad-blocker&rdquo; is a good term for it.  However, the GNU
+browser IceCat blocks advertisements that track the user as
+consequence of broader measures to prevent surveillance by web sites.
+This is not an &ldquo;ad-blocker,&rdquo; this is
+&lt;em&gt;surveillance protection&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Access"&gt;&ldquo;Access&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is a common misunderstanding to think free software means that the
+public has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to a program.  That is not what free
+software means.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html"&gt;criterion for free 
software&lt;/a&gt;
+is not about who has &ldquo;access&rdquo; to the program; the four
+essential freedoms concern what a user that has a copy of the program
+is allowed to do with it.  For instance, freedom 2 says that that user
+is free to make another copy and give or sell it to you.  But no user
+is &lt;em&gt;obligated&lt;/em&gt; to do that for you; you do not have
+a &lt;em&gt;right&lt;/em&gt; to demand a copy of that program from any 
user.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In particular, if you write a program yourself and never offer a copy
+to anyone else, that program is free software albeit in a trivial way,
+because every user that has a copy has the four essential freedoms
+(since the only such user is you).&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In practice, when many users have copies of a program, someone is sure
+to post it on the internet, giving everyone access to it.  We think
+people ought to do that, if the program is useful.  But that isn't a
+requirement of free software.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+There is one specific point in which a question of having access is
+directly pertinent to free software: the GNU GPL permits giving a
+particular user access to download a program's source code as a
+substitute for physically giving that user a copy of the source.  This
+applies to the special case in which the user already has a copy of
+the program in non-source form.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Alternative"&gt;&ldquo;Alternative&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We don't describe free software as an &ldquo;alternative&rdquo; to
+proprietary, because that word presumes all the &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; are
+legitimate and each additional one makes users better off.  In effect,
+it assumes that free software ought to coexist with software that does
+not respect users' freedom.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We believe that distribution as free software is the only ethical way
+to make software available for others to use.  The other methods,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"&gt;nonfree
+software&lt;/a&gt;
+and &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;Service
+as a Software Substitute&lt;/a&gt; subjugate their users.  We do not think
+it is good to offer users those &ldquo;alternatives&rdquo; to free
+software.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Assets"&gt;&ldquo;Assets&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To refer to published works as &ldquo;assets&rdquo;, or &ldquo;digital
+assets&rdquo;, is even worse than calling
+them &lt;a href="#Content"&gt;&ldquo;content&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt; &mdash; it 
presumes
+they have no value to society except commercial value.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="BSD-style"&gt;&ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The expression &ldquo;BSD-style license&rdquo; leads to confusion because it
+&lt;a href="/licenses/bsd.html"&gt;lumps together licenses that have
+important differences&lt;/a&gt;.  For instance, the original BSD license
+with the advertising clause is incompatible with the GNU General
+Public License, but the revised BSD license is compatible with the
+GPL.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid confusion, it is best to
+name &lt;a href="/licenses/license-list.html"&gt; the specific license in
+question&lt;/a&gt; and avoid the vague term &ldquo;BSD-style.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Closed"&gt;&ldquo;Closed&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Describing nonfree software as &ldquo;closed&rdquo; clearly refers to
+the term &ldquo;open source.&rdquo;  In the free software movement,
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html"&gt; we do not want 
to
+be confused with the open source camp&lt;/a&gt;, so we
+are careful to avoid saying things that would encourage people to lump us in
+with them.  For instance, we avoid describing nonfree software as
+&ldquo;closed.&rdquo;  We call it &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; or
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware"&gt;
+&ldquo;proprietary&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="CloudComputing"&gt;&ldquo;Cloud Computing&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; (or
+just &lt;a name="Cloud"&gt;&ldquo;cloud&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;, in the context of
+computing) is a marketing buzzword with no coherent meaning.  It is
+used for a range of different activities whose only common
+characteristic is that they use the Internet for something beyond
+transmitting files.  Thus, the term spreads confusion.  If you base
+your thinking on it, your thinking will be confused (or, could we say,
+&ldquo;cloudy&rdquo;?).
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+When thinking about or responding to a statement someone else has made
+using this term, the first step is to clarify the topic.  What
+scenario is the statement about?  What is a good, clear term for that
+scenario?  Once the topic is clearly formulated, coherent thought
+about it becomes possible.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+One of the many meanings of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo; is storing
+your data in online services.  In most scenarios, that is foolish
+because it exposes you to
+&lt;a 
href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/25/hackers-spooks-cloud-antiauthoritarian-dream"&gt;surveillance&lt;/a&gt;.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning (which overlaps that but is not the same thing)
+is &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;
+Service as a Software Substitute&lt;/a&gt;, which denies you control over
+your computing.  You should never use SaaSS.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning is renting a remote physical server, or virtual server.
+These practices are ok under certain circumstances.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Another meaning is accessing your own server from your own mobile device.
+That raises no particular ethical issues.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The &lt;a 
href="http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf"&gt;
+NIST definition of "cloud computing"&lt;/a&gt; mentions three scenarios that
+raise different ethical issues: Software as a Service, Platform as a
+Service, and Infrastructure as a Service.  However, that definition
+does not match the common use of &ldquo;cloud computing&rdquo;, since
+it does not include storing data in online services.  Software as a
+Service as defined by NIST overlaps considerably with Service as a
+Software Substitute, which mistreats the user, but the two concepts
+are not equivalent.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+These different computing practices don't even belong in the same
+discussion.  The best way to avoid the confusion the term &ldquo;cloud
+computing&rdquo; spreads is not to use the term &ldquo;cloud&rdquo; in
+connection with computing.  Talk about the scenario you mean, and call
+it by a specific term.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Curiously, Larry Ellison, a proprietary software developer,
+also &lt;a 
href="http://www.cnet.com/news/oracles-ellison-nails-cloud-computing/"&gt;
+noted the vacuity of the term &ldquo;cloud computing.&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;  He
+decided to use the term anyway because, as a proprietary software
+developer, he isn't motivated by the same ideals as we are.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Commercial"&gt;&ldquo;Commercial&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; as a synonym for
+&ldquo;nonfree.&rdquo; That confuses two entirely different
+issues.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A program is commercial if it is developed as a business activity.  A
+commercial program can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of
+distribution.  Likewise, a program developed by a school or an
+individual can be free or nonfree, depending on its manner of
+distribution.  The two questions&mdash;what sort of entity developed
+the program and what freedom its users have&mdash;are independent.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the first decade of the free software movement, free software
+packages were almost always noncommercial; the components of the
+GNU/Linux operating system were developed by individuals or by
+nonprofit organizations such as the FSF and universities.  Later, in
+the 1990s, free commercial software started to appear.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free commercial software is a contribution to our community, so we
+should encourage it.  But people who think that
+&ldquo;commercial&rdquo; means &ldquo;nonfree&rdquo; will tend to
+think that the &ldquo;free commercial&rdquo; combination is
+self-contradictory, and dismiss the possibility.  Let's be careful not
+to use the word &ldquo;commercial&rdquo; in that way.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Compensation"&gt;&ldquo;Compensation&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To speak of &ldquo;compensation for authors&rdquo; in connection with
+copyright carries the assumptions that (1) copyright exists for the
+sake of authors and (2) whenever we read something, we take on a debt
+to the author which we must then repay.  The first assumption is
+simply
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/misinterpreting-copyright.html"&gt;false&lt;/a&gt;, and
+the second is outrageous.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Compensating the rights-holders&rdquo; adds a further swindle:
+you're supposed to imagine that means paying the authors, and
+occasionally it does, but most of the time it means a subsidy for the
+same publishing companies that are pushing unjust laws on us.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Consume"&gt;&ldquo;Consume&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Consume&rdquo; refers to what we do with food: we ingest it,
+after which the food as such no longer exists.  By analogy, we employ
+the same word for other products whose use &lt;em&gt;uses them up&lt;/em&gt;.
+Applying it to durable goods, such as clothing or appliances, is a
+stretch.  Applying it to published works (programs, recordings on a
+disk or in a file, books on paper or in a file), whose nature is to
+last indefinitely and which can be run, played or read any number of
+times, is stretching the word so far that it snaps.  Playing a
+recording, or running a program, does not consume it.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Those who use &ldquo;consume&rdquo; in this context will say they
+don't mean it literally.  What, then, does it mean?  It means to regard
+copies of software and other works from a narrow economistic point of
+view.  &ldquo;Consume&rdquo; is associated with the economics of
+material commodities, such as the fuel or electricity that a car uses
+up.  Gasoline is a commodity, and so is electricity.  Commodities
+are &lt;em&gt;fungible&lt;/em&gt;: there is nothing special about a drop of
+gasoline that your car burns today versus another drop that it burned
+last week.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Do we want people to think of writings (software, news, any other
+kind) as a commodity, with the assumption that there is nothing
+special about any one story, article, program, or song?  Should we
+treat them as fungible?  That is the twisted viewpoint of an
+economist, or the accountant of a publishing company.  It is no
+surprise that proprietary software would like you to think of the use
+of software as a commodity.  Their twisted viewpoint comes through
+clearly
+in &lt;a 
href="http://www.businessinsider.com/former-google-exec-launches-sourcepoint-with-10-million-series-a-funding-2015-6"&gt;this
+article&lt;/a&gt;, which also refers to publications as
+&ldquo;&lt;a href="#Content"&gt;content&lt;/a&gt;.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The narrow thinking associated with the idea that we &ldquo;consume
+content&rdquo; paves the way for laws such as the DMCA that forbid
+users to break the &lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org/"&gt;Digital
+Restrictions Management&lt;/a&gt; (DRM) facilities in digital devices.  If
+users think what they do with these devices is &ldquo;consume,&rdquo;
+they may see such restrictions as natural.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+It also encourages the acceptation of &ldquo;streaming&rdquo;
+services, which use DRM to perversely limit listening to music so that
+it fits the assumptions of the word &ldquo;consume.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Why is this perverse usage spreading?  Some may feel that the term
+sounds sophisticated, but rejecting it with cogent reasons can appear
+even more sophisticated.  Others may be acting from business interests
+(their own, or their employers').  Their use of the term in
+prestigious forums gives the impression that it's the
+&ldquo;correct&rdquo; term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+To speak of &ldquo;consuming&rdquo; music, fiction, or any other
+artistic works is to treat them as products rather than as art.  If
+you don't want to spread that attitude, you would do well to avoid
+using the term &ldquo;consume&rdquo; for them.  What to use instead?
+We prefer specific verbs such as &ldquo;listen to&rdquo;,
+&ldquo;watch&rdquo;, &ldquo;read&rdquo; or &ldquo;look at&rdquo;,
+since they help to restrain the tendency to overgeneralize.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;When it is absolutely necessary to generalize about all kinds of
+works and all media, we recommend &ldquo;experience&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;give attention to&rdquo; for an artistic work or a work to
+present a point of view, and &ldquo;use&rdquo; for a practically
+useful work.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;See also the following entry.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Consumer"&gt;&ldquo;Consumer&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;consumer,&rdquo; when used to refer to the users of
+computing, is loaded with assumptions we should reject.  Some come
+from the idea that using the program &ldquo;consumes&rdquo; the program (see
+&lt;a href="#Consume"&gt;the previous entry&lt;/a&gt;), which leads people to
+impose on copiable digital works the economic conclusions that were
+drawn about uncopiable material products.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In addition, describing the users of software as
+&ldquo;consumers&rdquo; refers to a framing in which people are
+limited to selecting between whatever &ldquo;products&rdquo; are
+available in the &ldquo;market.&rdquo; There is no room in this
+framing for the idea that users
+can &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"&gt;directly
+exercise control over what a program does&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To describe people who are not limited to passive use of works, we
+suggest terms such as &ldquo;individuals&rdquo; and
+&ldquo;citizens,&rdquo; rather than &ldquo;consumers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+This problem with the word &ldquo;consumer&rdquo; has
+been &lt;a 
href="http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/11/capitalism-language-raymond-williams"&gt;noted
 before&lt;/a&gt;.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Content"&gt;&ldquo;Content&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to describe a feeling of comfort and satisfaction, by all
+means say you are &ldquo;content,&rdquo; but using the word as a
+noun to describe publications and works of authorship adopts an
+attitude you might rather avoid: it treats them as a
+commodity whose purpose is to fill a box and make money.  In effect,
+it disparages the works themselves.  If you don't agree with that
+attitude, you can call them &ldquo;works&rdquo; or &ldquo;publications.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Those who use the term &ldquo;content&rdquo; are often the publishers
+that push for increased copyright power in the name of the authors
+(&ldquo;creators,&rdquo; as they say) of the works.  The term
+&ldquo;content&rdquo; reveals their real attitude towards these works
+and their authors.  This was also recognized by Tom Chatfield
+&lt;a 
href="https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2016/aug/02/how-to-deal-with-trump-trolls-online"&gt;in
 the Guardian&lt;/a&gt;:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;
+Content itself is beside the point&mdash;as the very use of words like
+content suggests. The moment you start labelling every single piece of
+writing in the world &ldquo;content,&rdquo; you have conceded its
+interchangeability: its primary purpose as mere grist to the metrical
+mill.
+&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;See also &lt;a 
href="http://www.salon.com/2000/06/14/love_7/"&gt;Courtney
+Love's open letter to Steve Case&lt;/a&gt; and search for &ldquo;content
+provider&rdquo; in that page.  Alas, Ms. Love is unaware that the term
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; is
+also &lt;a href="#IntellectualProperty"&gt; biased and 
confusing&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+However, as long as other people use the term &ldquo;content
+provider,&rdquo; political dissidents can well call themselves
+&ldquo;malcontent providers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;content management&rdquo; takes the prize for vacuity.
+&ldquo;Content&rdquo; means &ldquo;some sort of information,&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;management&rdquo; in this context means &ldquo;doing
+something with it.&rdquo;  So a &ldquo;content management
+system&rdquo; is a system for doing something to some sort of
+information.  Nearly all programs fit that description.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+In most cases, that term really refers to a system for updating pages
+on a web site.  For that, we recommend the term &ldquo;web site revision
+system&rdquo; (WRS).&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="CreativeCommonsLicensed"&gt;&ldquo;Creative Commons 
licensed&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The most important licensing characteristic of a work is whether it is
+free.  Creative Commons publishes seven licenses; three are free
+(CC BY, CC BY-SA and CC0) and the rest are nonfree.  Thus, to
+describe a work as &ldquo;Creative Commons licensed&rdquo; fails to
+say whether it is free, and suggests that the question is not
+important.  The statement may be accurate, but the omission is
+harmful.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+To encourage people to pay attention to the most important
+distinction, always specify &lt;em&gt;which&lt;/em&gt; Creative Commons 
license is
+used, as in &ldquo;licensed under CC BY-SA.&rdquo; If you don't know
+which license a certain work uses, find out and then make your
+statement.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Creator"&gt;&ldquo;Creator&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;creator&rdquo; as applied to authors implicitly
+compares them to a deity (&ldquo;the creator&rdquo;).  The term is
+used by publishers to elevate authors' moral standing above that of
+ordinary people in order to justify giving them increased copyright
+power, which the publishers can then exercise in their name.  We
+recommend saying &ldquo;author&rdquo; instead.  However, in many cases
+&ldquo;copyright holder&rdquo; is what you really mean.  These two
+terms are not equivalent: often the copyright holder is not the
+author.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalGoods"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Goods&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;digital goods,&rdquo; as applied to copies of works of
+authorship, identifies them with physical goods&mdash;which cannot be
+copied, and which therefore have to be manufactured in quantity and
+sold.  This metaphor encourages people to judge issues about software
+or other digital works based on their views and intuitions about
+physical goods.  It also frames issues in terms of economics, whose
+shallow and limited values don't include freedom and community.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalLocks"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Locks&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Digital locks&rdquo; is used to refer to Digital Restrictions
+Management by some who criticize it.  The problem with this term is
+that it fails to do justice to the badness of DRM.  The people who
+adopted that term did not think it through.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Locks are not necessarily oppressive or bad.  You probably own several
+locks, and their keys or codes as well; you may find them useful or
+troublesome, but they don't oppress you, because you can open and
+close them.  Likewise, we
+find &lt;a 
href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/may/01/encryption-wont-work-if-it-has-a-back-door-only-the-good-guys-have-keys-to-"&gt;encryption&lt;/a&gt;
+invaluable for protecting our digital files.  That too is a kind
+of digital lock that you have control over.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+DRM is like a lock placed on you by someone else, who refuses to give
+you the key&mdash;in other words, like &lt;em&gt;handcuffs&lt;/em&gt;.  
Therefore,
+the proper metaphor for DRM is &ldquo;digital handcuffs,&rdquo; not
+&ldquo;digital locks.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A number of opposition campaigns have chosen the unwise term
+&ldquo;digital locks&rdquo;; to get things back on the right track, we
+must firmly insist on correcting this mistake.  The FSF can support a
+campaign that opposes &ldquo;digital locks&rdquo; if we agree on the
+substance; however, when we state our support, we conspicuously
+replace the term with &ldquo;digital handcuffs&rdquo; and say why.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="DigitalRightsManagement"&gt;&ldquo;Digital Rights 
Management&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;Digital Rights Management&rdquo; (abbreviated
+&ldquo;DRM&rdquo;) refers to technical mechanisms designed to impose
+restrictions on computer users.  The use of the word
+&ldquo;rights&rdquo; in this term is propaganda, designed to lead you
+unawares into seeing the issue from the viewpoint of the few that
+impose the restrictions, and ignoring that of the general public on
+whom these restrictions are imposed.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Good alternatives include &ldquo;Digital Restrictions
+Management,&rdquo; and &ldquo;digital handcuffs.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please sign up to support our &lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org/"&gt;
+campaign to abolish DRM&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Ecosystem"&gt;&ldquo;Ecosystem&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is inadvisable to describe the free software community, or any human
+community, as an &ldquo;ecosystem,&rdquo; because that word implies
+the absence of ethical judgment.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;ecosystem&rdquo; implicitly suggests an attitude of
+nonjudgmental observation: don't ask how what &lt;em&gt;should&lt;/em&gt; 
happen,
+just study and understand what &lt;em&gt;does&lt;/em&gt; happen.  In an 
ecosystem,
+some organisms consume other organisms.  In ecology, we do not ask
+whether it is right for an owl to eat a mouse or for a mouse to eat a
+seed, we only observe that they do so.  Species' populations grow or
+shrink according to the conditions; this is neither right nor wrong,
+merely an ecological phenomenon, even if it goes so far as the
+extinction of a species.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+By contrast, beings that adopt an ethical stance towards their
+surroundings can decide to preserve things that, without their
+intervention, might vanish&mdash;such as civil society, democracy,
+human rights, peace, public health, a stable climate, clean air and
+water, endangered species, traditional arts&hellip;and computer users'
+freedom.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FLOSS"&gt;&ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;FLOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free/Libre and Open
+Source Software,&rdquo; was coined as a way
+to &lt;a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"&gt;be neutral between free
+software and open source&lt;/a&gt;.  If neutrality is your goal,
+&ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is the best way to be neutral.  But if you want to
+show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="ForFree"&gt;&ldquo;For free&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to say that a program is free software, please don't say
+that it is available &ldquo;for free.&rdquo; That term specifically
+means &ldquo;for zero price.&rdquo; Free software is a matter of
+freedom, not price.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Free software copies are often available for free&mdash;for example,
+by downloading via FTP.  But free software copies are also available
+for a price on CD-ROMs; meanwhile, proprietary software copies are
+occasionally available for free in promotions, and some proprietary
+packages are normally available at no charge to certain users.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid confusion, you can say that the program is available
+&ldquo;as free software.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FOSS"&gt;&ldquo;FOSS&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;FOSS,&rdquo; meaning &ldquo;Free and Open Source
+Software,&rdquo; was coined as a way
+to &lt;a href="/philosophy/floss-and-foss.html"&gt;be neutral between free
+software and open source&lt;/a&gt;, but it doesn't really do that.  If
+neutrality is your goal, &ldquo;FLOSS&rdquo; is better.  But if you
+want to show you stand for freedom, don't use a neutral term.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="FreelyAvailable"&gt;&ldquo;Freely available&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Don't use &ldquo;freely available software&rdquo; as a synonym for &ldquo;free
+software.&rdquo; The terms are not equivalent.  Software is &ldquo;freely
+available&rdquo; if anyone can easily get a copy.  &ldquo;Free
+software&rdquo; is defined in terms of the freedom of users that have
+a copy of it.  These are answers to different questions.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Freeware"&gt;&ldquo;Freeware&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use the term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; as a synonym for
+&ldquo;free software.&rdquo; The term &ldquo;freeware&rdquo; was used
+often in the 1980s for programs released only as executables, with
+source code not available.  Today it has no particular agreed-on
+definition.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When using languages other than English, please avoid
+borrowing English terms such as &ldquo;free software&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;freeware.&rdquo; It is better to translate the term &ldquo;free
+software&rdquo; into
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html"&gt;your 
language&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+By using a word in &lt;a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html"&gt;your
+own language&lt;/a&gt;, you show that you are really referring to freedom
+and not just parroting some mysterious foreign marketing concept.
+The reference to freedom may at first seem strange or disturbing
+to your compatriots, but once they see that it means exactly what
+it says, they will really understand what the issue is.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="GiveAwaySoftware"&gt;&ldquo;Give away software&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It's misleading to use the term &ldquo;give away&rdquo; to mean
+&ldquo;distribute a program as free software.&rdquo;
+This locution has the same
+problem as &ldquo;for free&rdquo;: it implies the issue is price, not
+freedom.  One way to avoid the confusion is to say &ldquo;release as
+free software.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Google"&gt;&ldquo;Google&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;google&rdquo; as a verb, meaning to
+search for something on the internet. &ldquo;Google&rdquo; is just the
+name of one particular search engine among others. We suggest to use
+the term &ldquo;search the web&rdquo; or (in some contexts) just
+&ldquo;search&rdquo;. Try to use a search engine that respects your
+privacy; <span class="inserted"><ins><em>for instance,</em></ins></span> &lt;a 
href="https://duckduckgo.com/"&gt;DuckDuckGo&lt;/a&gt;
+claims not to track its <span class="removed"><del><strong>users, although we 
cannot confirm.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>users.  (There is no way for outsiders to
+verify claims of that kind.)&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Hacker"&gt;&ldquo;Hacker&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A hacker is someone
+who &lt;a href="http://stallman.org/articles/on-hacking.html"&gt; enjoys
+playful cleverness&lt;/a&gt;&mdash;not necessarily with computers.  The
+programmers in the old
+&lt;abbr title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology"&gt;MIT&lt;/abbr&gt; free
+software community of the 60s and 70s referred to themselves as
+hackers.  Around 1980, journalists who discovered the hacker community
+mistakenly took the term to mean &ldquo;security breaker.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't spread this mistake.
+People who break security are &ldquo;crackers.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="IntellectualProperty"&gt;&ldquo;Intellectual 
property&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers and lawyers like to describe copyright as
+&ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;&mdash;a term also applied to
+patents, trademarks, and other more obscure areas of law.  These laws
+have so little in common, and differ so much, that it is ill-advised
+to generalize about them.  It is best to talk specifically about
+&ldquo;copyright,&rdquo; or about &ldquo;patents,&rdquo; or about
+&ldquo;trademarks.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo; carries a hidden
+assumption&mdash;that the way to think about all these disparate
+issues is based on an analogy with physical objects,
+and our conception of them as physical property.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+When it comes to copying, this analogy disregards the crucial
+difference between material objects and information: information can
+be copied and shared almost effortlessly, while material objects can't
+be.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To avoid spreading unnecessary bias and confusion, it is best to adopt
+a firm policy &lt;a href="/philosophy/not-ipr.html"&gt; not to speak or even
+think in terms of &ldquo;intellectual property&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The hypocrisy of calling these powers &ldquo;rights&rdquo; is
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/wipo-PublicAwarenessOfCopyright-2002.html"&gt;
+starting to make the World &ldquo;Intellectual Property&rdquo;
+Organization embarrassed&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="LAMP"&gt;&ldquo;LAMP system&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; stands for &ldquo;Linux, Apache, MySQL and
+PHP&rdquo;&mdash;a common combination of software to use on a web
+server, except that &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; in this context really refers
+to the GNU/Linux system.  So instead of &ldquo;LAMP&rdquo; it should
+be &ldquo;GLAMP&rdquo;: &ldquo;GNU, Linux, Apache, MySQL and
+PHP.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Linux"&gt;&ldquo;Linux system&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Linux is the name of the kernel that Linus Torvalds developed starting
+in 1991.  The operating system in which Linux is used is basically GNU
+with Linux added.  To call the whole system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; is
+both unfair and confusing.  Please call the complete
+system &lt;a href="/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html"&gt; GNU/Linux&lt;/a&gt;, both to 
give
+the GNU Project credit and to distinguish the whole system from the
+kernel alone.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Market"&gt;&ldquo;Market&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is misleading to describe the users of free software, or the
+software users in general, as a &ldquo;market.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+This is not to say there is no room for markets in the free software community.
+If you have a free software
+support business, then you have clients, and you trade with them in a
+market.  As long as you respect their freedom, we wish you success in
+your market.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+But the free software movement is a social movement, not a business,
+and the success it aims for is not a market success.  We are trying to
+serve the public by giving it freedom&mdash;not competing to draw business
+away from a rival.  To equate this campaign for freedom to a business's
+efforts for mere success is to deny the importance of freedom
+and legitimize proprietary software.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Monetize"&gt;&ldquo;Monetize&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The proper definition of &ldquo;monetize&rdquo; is &ldquo;to use
+something as currency.&rdquo; For instance, human societies have
+monetized gold, silver, copper, printed paper, special kinds of
+seashells, and large rocks.  However, we now see a tendency to use the
+word in another way, meaning &ldquo;to use something as a basis for
+profit&rdquo;.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+That usage casts the profit as primary, and the thing used to get the
+profit as secondary.  That attitude applied to a software project is
+objectionable because it would lead the developers to make the program
+proprietary, if they conclude that making it free/libre isn't
+sufficiently profitable.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A productive and ethical business can make money, but if it
+subordinates all else to profit, it is not likely to remain
+ethical.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="MP3Player"&gt;&ldquo;MP3 Player&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In the late 1990s it became feasible to make portable, solid-state
+digital audio players. Most support the patented MP3 codec, but not
+all.  Some support the patent-free audio codecs Ogg Vorbis and FLAC,
+and may not even support MP3-encoded files at all, precisely to avoid
+these patents.  To call such players &ldquo;MP3 players&rdquo; is not
+only confusing, it also privileges the MP3 that we ought to reject.
+We suggest the terms &ldquo;digital audio player,&rdquo;
+or simply &ldquo;audio player&rdquo; if context permits.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Open"&gt;&ldquo;Open&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;open&rdquo; or &ldquo;open
+source&rdquo; as a substitute for &ldquo;free software.&rdquo;  Those terms
+refer to a &lt;a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html"&gt;
+different set of views&lt;/a&gt; based on different values.  The free software
+movement campaigns for your freedom in your computing, as a matter
+of justice.  The open source non-movement does not campaign for anything
+in this way.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;When referring to the open source views, it's correct to use that
+name, but please do not use that term when talking about us, our
+software, or our views&mdash;that leads people to suppose our views
+are similar to theirs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="PC"&gt;&ldquo;PC&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It's OK to use the abbreviation &ldquo;PC&rdquo; to refer to a certain
+kind of computer hardware, but please don't use it with the
+implication that the computer is running Microsoft Windows.  If you
+install GNU/Linux on the same computer, it is still a PC.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;WC&rdquo; has been suggested for a computer running
+Windows.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Photoshop"&gt;&ldquo;Photoshop&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;photoshop&rdquo; as a verb, meaning
+any kind of photo manipulation or image editing in general.  Photoshop
+is just the name of one particular image editing program, which should
+be avoided since it is proprietary.  There are plenty of free programs
+for editing images, such as the &lt;a 
href="/software/gimp"&gt;GIMP&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Piracy"&gt;&ldquo;Piracy&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers often refer to copying they don't approve of as
+&ldquo;piracy.&rdquo; In this way, they imply that it is ethically
+equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas, kidnapping and
+murdering the people on them.  Based on such propaganda, they have
+procured laws in most of the world to forbid copying in most (or
+sometimes all) circumstances.  (They are still pressuring to make
+these prohibitions more complete.)
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you don't believe that copying not approved by the publisher is
+just like kidnapping and murder, you might prefer not to use the word
+&ldquo;piracy&rdquo; to describe it.  Neutral terms such as
+&ldquo;unauthorized copying&rdquo; (or &ldquo;prohibited
+copying&rdquo; for the situation where it is illegal) are available
+for use instead.  Some of us might even prefer to use a positive term
+such as &ldquo;sharing information with your neighbor.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement,
+recognized that
+&lt;a 
href="http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/"&gt;&ldquo;piracy&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; are smear words.&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="PowerPoint"&gt;&ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; to mean any kind
+of slide presentation.  &ldquo;PowerPoint&rdquo; is just the name of
+one particular proprietary program to make presentations.  For your
+freedom's sake, you should use only free software to make your
+presentations.  Recommended options include TeX's &lt;tt&gt;beamer&lt;/tt&gt;
+class and LibreOffice.org's Impress.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Protection"&gt;&ldquo;Protection&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Publishers' lawyers love to use the term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; to
+describe copyright.  This word carries the implication of preventing
+destruction or suffering; therefore, it encourages people to identify
+with the owner and publisher who benefit from copyright, rather than
+with the users who are restricted by it.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+It is easy to avoid &ldquo;protection&rdquo; and use neutral terms
+instead.  For example, instead of saying, &ldquo;Copyright protection lasts a
+very long time,&rdquo; you can say, &ldquo;Copyright lasts a very long
+time.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Likewise, instead of saying, &ldquo;protected by copyright,&rdquo; you
+can say, &ldquo;covered by copyright&rdquo; or just
+&ldquo;copyrighted.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+If you want to criticize copyright rather than be neutral, you can
+use the term &ldquo;copyright restrictions.&rdquo; Thus, you can say,
+&ldquo;Copyright restrictions last a very long time.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;protection&rdquo; is also used to describe malicious
+features.  For instance, &ldquo;copy protection&rdquo; is a feature
+that interferes with copying.  From the user's point of view, this is
+obstruction.  So we could call that malicious feature &ldquo;copy
+obstruction.&rdquo;  More often it is called Digital Restrictions
+Management (DRM)&mdash;see the
+&lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org"&gt; Defective by Design&lt;/a&gt;
+campaign.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="RAND"&gt;&ldquo;RAND (Reasonable and 
Non-Discriminatory)&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Standards bodies that promulgate patent-restricted standards that
+prohibit free software typically have a policy of obtaining patent
+licenses that require a fixed fee per copy of a conforming program.
+They often refer to such licenses by the term &ldquo;RAND,&rdquo;
+which stands for &ldquo;reasonable and non-discriminatory.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+That term whitewashes a class of patent licenses that are normally
+neither reasonable nor nondiscriminatory.  It is true that these
+licenses do not discriminate against any specific person, but they do
+discriminate against the free software community, and that makes them
+unreasonable.  Thus, half of the term &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; is deceptive
+and the other half is prejudiced.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Standards bodies should recognize that these licenses are
+discriminatory, and drop the use of the term &ldquo;reasonable and
+non-discriminatory&rdquo; or &ldquo;RAND&rdquo; to describe them.
+Until they do so, writers who do not wish to join in the
+whitewashing would do well to reject that term.  To accept and use it
+merely because patent-wielding companies have made it widespread is to
+let those companies dictate the views you express.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We suggest the term &ldquo;uniform fee only,&rdquo; or
+&ldquo;UFO&rdquo; for short, as a replacement.  It is accurate because
+the only condition in these licenses is a uniform royalty fee.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SaaS"&gt;&ldquo;SaaS&rdquo; or &ldquo;Software as a 
Service&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+We used to say that SaaS (short for &ldquo;Software as a
+Service&rdquo;) is an injustice, but then we found that there was a
+lot of variation in people's understanding of which activities count
+as SaaS.  So we switched to a new term, &ldquo;Service as a Software
+Substitute&rdquo; or &ldquo;SaaSS.&rdquo; This term has two
+advantages: it wasn't used before, so our definition is the only one,
+and it explains what the injustice consists of.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+See &lt;a href="/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html"&gt;Who
+Does That Server Really Serve?&lt;/a&gt; for discussion of this
+issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+In Spanish we continue to use the term &ldquo;software como
+servicio&rdquo; because the joke of &ldquo;software como ser
+vicio&rdquo; (&ldquo;software, as being pernicious&rdquo;) is too good
+to give up.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SellSoftware"&gt;&ldquo;Sell software&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;sell software&rdquo; is ambiguous.  Strictly speaking,
+exchanging a copy of a free program for a sum of money
+is &lt;a href="/philosophy/selling.html"&gt; selling the program&lt;/a&gt;, and
+there is nothing wrong with doing that.  However, people usually
+associate the term &ldquo;selling software&rdquo; with proprietary
+restrictions on the subsequent use of the software.  You can be clear,
+and prevent confusion, by saying either &ldquo;distributing copies of
+a program for a fee&rdquo; or &ldquo;imposing proprietary restrictions
+on the use of a program.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+See &lt;a href="/philosophy/selling.html"&gt;Selling Free Software&lt;/a&gt; 
for
+further discussion of this issue.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SharingEconomy"&gt;&ldquo;Sharing economy&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;sharing economy&rdquo; is not a good way to refer to
+services such as Uber and Airbnb that arrange business transactions
+between people.  We use the term &ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to refer to
+noncommercial cooperation, including noncommercial redistribution of
+exact copies of published works.  Stretching the word
+&ldquo;sharing&rdquo; to include these transactions undermines its
+meaning, so we don't use it in this context.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+A more suitable term for businesses like Uber is the
+&ldquo;piecework service economy.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Skype"&gt;&ldquo;Skype&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please avoid using the term &ldquo;skype&rdquo; as a verb, meaning any
+kind of video communication or telephony over the Internet in general.
+&ldquo;Skype&rdquo; is just the name of one particular proprietary
+program, one that &lt;a
+href="/philosophy/proprietary/proprietary-surveillance.html#SpywareInSkype"&gt;
+spies on its users&lt;/a&gt;. If you want to make video and voice calls over 
the
+Internet in a way that respects both your freedom and your privacy, try
+one of the &lt;a 
href="https://libreplanet.org/wiki/Group:Skype_Replacement"&gt;
+numerous free Skype replacements&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SoftwareIndustry"&gt;&ldquo;Software Industry&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;software industry&rdquo; encourages people to imagine
+that software is always developed by a sort of factory and then
+delivered to &ldquo;consumers.&rdquo;  The free software community
+shows this is not the case.  Software businesses exist, and various
+businesses develop free and/or nonfree software, but those that
+develop free software are not run like factories.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The term &ldquo;industry&rdquo; is being used as propaganda by
+advocates of software patents.  They call software development
+&ldquo;industry&rdquo; and then try to argue that this means it should
+be subject to patent monopolies.  &lt;a
+href="https://web.archive.org/web/20071215073111/http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/";
+title="archived version of http://eupat.ffii.org/papers/europarl0309/"&gt;The
+European Parliament, rejecting software patents in 2003, voted to
+define &ldquo;industry&rdquo; as &ldquo;automated production of
+material goods.&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="SourceModel"&gt;&ldquo;Source model&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Wikipedia uses the term &ldquo;source model&rdquo; in a confused and
+ambiguous way.  Ostensibly it refers to how a program's source is
+distributed, but the text confuses this with the development
+methodology.  It distinguishes &ldquo;open source&rdquo; and
+&rdquo;shared source&rdquo; as answers, but they overlap &mdash;
+Microsoft uses the latter as a marketing term to cover a range of
+practices, some of which are &ldquo;open source&rdquo;.  Thus, this
+term really conveys no coherent information, but it provides an
+opportunity to say &ldquo;open source&rdquo; in pages describing free
+software programs.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!--#if expr="$LANGUAGE_SUFFIX      = /^.(es)$/" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: translate if this word is used often in your
+     language to refer to mobile computers; otherwise,
+     fill the translation with a space. --&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Terminal"&gt;&ldquo;Terminal&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Mobile phones and tablets are computers, and people should be
+able to do their computing on them using free software.
+To call them &ldquo;terminals&rdquo; supposes that all they are good for
+is to connect to servers, which is a bad way to do your own 
computing.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;!--#endif --&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Theft"&gt;&ldquo;Theft&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+The supporters of a too-strict, repressive form of copyright often use
+words like &ldquo;stolen&rdquo; and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; to refer to
+copyright infringement.  This is spin, but they would like you to take
+it for objective truth.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Under the US legal system, copyright infringement is not theft.  
+&lt;a
+href="http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&amp;vol=473&amp;invol=207"&gt;
+Laws about theft are not applicable to copyright infringement.&lt;/a&gt;
+The supporters of repressive copyright are making an appeal to
+authority&mdash;and misrepresenting what authority says.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+To refute them, you can point to this
+&lt;a 
href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/04/harper-lee-kill-mockingbird-copyright"&gt;
+real case&lt;/a&gt; which shows what can properly be described as
+&ldquo;copyright theft.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Unauthorized copying is forbidden by copyright law in many
+circumstances (not all!), but being forbidden doesn't make it wrong.
+In general, laws don't define right and wrong.  Laws, at their best,
+attempt to implement justice.  If the laws (the implementation) don't
+fit our ideas of right and wrong (the spec), the laws are what should
+change.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+A US judge, presiding over a trial for copyright infringement,
+recognized that
+&lt;a 
href="http://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-banned-from-using-piracy-and-theft-terms-in-hotfile-trial-131129/"&gt;&ldquo;piracy&rdquo;
+and &ldquo;theft&rdquo; are smear-words.&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="TrustedComputing"&gt;&ldquo;Trusted Computing&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+&lt;a href="/philosophy/can-you-trust.html"&gt;&ldquo;Trusted 
computing&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt; is
+the proponents' name for a scheme to redesign computers so that
+application developers can trust your computer to obey them instead of
+you.  From their point of view, it is &ldquo;trusted&rdquo;; from your
+point of view, it is &ldquo;treacherous.&rdquo;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-NEXT-ITEM --&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-BEGIN-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;h3 id="Vendor"&gt;&ldquo;Vendor&rdquo;&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-END-KEY --&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;
+Please don't use the term &ldquo;vendor&rdquo; to refer generally to
+anyone that develops or packages software.  Many programs
+are developed in order to sell copies, and their developers are
+therefore their vendors; this even includes some free software packages.
+However, many programs are developed by volunteers or organizations
+which do not intend to sell copies.  These developers are not vendors.
+Likewise, only some of the packagers of GNU/Linux distributions are
+vendors.  We recommend the general term &ldquo;supplier&rdquo; instead.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;!-- GNUN-SORT-STOP --&gt;
+
+&lt;hr /&gt;
+&lt;blockquote id="fsfs"&gt;&lt;p class="big"&gt;This essay is published
+in &lt;a 
href="http://shop.fsf.org/product/free-software-free-society/"&gt;&lt;cite&gt;Free
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
+M. Stallman&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;&lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:address@hidden"&gt;
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007,
+2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2016</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2016, 2017</em></ins></span> Free Software 
Foundation, Inc.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2017/05/19 14:29:09 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>



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