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From: GNUN
Subject: www/philosophy right-to-read.ca.html po/right-t...
Date: Sat, 17 Dec 2016 05:59:20 -0500 (EST)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     16/12/17 05:59:20

Modified files:
        philosophy     : right-to-read.ca.html 
        philosophy/po  : right-to-read.ca-diff.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.


Index: right-to-read.ca.html
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/right-to-read.ca.html,v
retrieving revision 1.37
retrieving revision 1.38
diff -u -b -r1.37 -r1.38
--- right-to-read.ca.html       18 Sep 2016 11:28:49 -0000      1.37
+++ right-to-read.ca.html       17 Dec 2016 10:59:19 -0000      1.38
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/right-to-read.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/right-to-read.ca.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/right-to-read.ca.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/right-to-read.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value="/philosophy/po/right-to-read.ca-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2016-10-18" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/right-to-read.en.html" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ca.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
@@ -15,6 +20,7 @@
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/right-to-read.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ca.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ca.html" -->
 <h2>El dret a llegir</h2>
@@ -488,7 +494,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2016/09/18 11:28:49 $
+$Date: 2016/12/17 10:59:19 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->

Index: po/right-to-read.ca-diff.html
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/po/right-to-read.ca-diff.html,v
retrieving revision 1.7
retrieving revision 1.8
diff -u -b -r1.7 -r1.8
--- po/right-to-read.ca-diff.html       15 Sep 2016 12:00:34 -0000      1.7
+++ po/right-to-read.ca-diff.html       17 Dec 2016 10:59:20 -0000      1.8
@@ -11,38 +11,74 @@
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Parent-Version: <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>1.77</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>1.79</em></ins></span> --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;The Right to Read
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;style type="text/css" 
-hr { margin: 1.2em 0; }
-#content ul li p { margin-top: 1em; }
-#AuthorsNote ul li { margin-top: 1.3em; }
-#content div.announcement { margin-bottom: 2em; }
+&lt;style type="text/css" media="print,screen"&gt;&lt;!--
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>hr</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>.info {
+   margin: 0 0 1.5em;
+.announcement {
+   text-align: center;
+   margin: 2em 3%;
+   background: #f5f5f5;
+   border-right: .3em solid #fc7;
+#AuthorsNote ul, #AuthorsNote li</em></ins></span> {
+   margin: <span class="removed"><del><strong>1.2em</strong></del></span> 0;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>#content ul</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>#AuthorsNote</em></ins></span> li p {
+   margin-top: 1em;
+#AuthorsNote <span class="removed"><del><strong>ul</strong></del></span> li 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>p.emph-box {
+   margin: .5em 3%;
+   background: #f7f7f7;
+   border-color: #e74c3c;
address@hidden (min-width: 53em) {
+   .announcement {
+      width: 75%;
+      margin: 2em auto;
+   }
+   #AuthorsNote .columns &gt; p:first-child,
+    #AuthorsNote li p.inline-block</em></ins></span> {
+      margin-top: <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>1.3em;</strong></del></span> <span 
+   }
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>#content 
+   <span class="inserted"><ins><em>#AuthorsNote .columns 
p.emph-box</em></ins></span> { <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>margin-bottom: 2em;</strong></del></span>
+      <span class="inserted"><ins><em>margin: .5em 6%;
+   }</em></ins></span>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/right-to-read.translist" --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
-&lt;h2&gt;The Right to Read&lt;/h2&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;h2&gt;The</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;h2 class="center"&gt;The</em></ins></span> 
Right to Read&lt;/h2&gt;
-by &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Richard 
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;</strong></del></span>
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;blockquote class="note"&gt;
-&lt;p&gt;&lt;a href="http://defectivebydesign.org/ebooks.html"&gt;Join our 
mailing list about the dangers of eBooks&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p class="byline 
+by &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Richard 
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p class="center"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 &lt;em&gt;This article appeared in the February 1997 issue
-of <span 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;cite&gt;Communications</em></ins></span> of 
the <span class="removed"><del><strong>ACM&lt;/strong&gt;</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>ACM&lt;/cite&gt;</em></ins></span> (Volume 40, 
+of &lt;cite&gt;Communications of the ACM&lt;/cite&gt; (Volume 40, Number
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;hr /&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;hr <span class="inserted"><ins><em>class="thin"</em></ins></span> /&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;div class="article"&gt;
+&lt;blockquote class="info center"&gt;&lt;p&gt;</em></ins></span>
             From &lt;cite&gt;The Road To Tycho&lt;/cite&gt;, a collection of
             articles about the antecedents of the Lunarian
             Revolution, published in Luna City in 2096.
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 For Dan Halbert, the road to Tycho began in college&mdash;when Lissa
 Lenz asked to borrow his computer.  Hers had broken down, and unless
@@ -78,7 +114,10 @@
 fees went to the researchers who wrote the papers; since Dan aimed for
 an academic career, he could hope that his own research papers, if
 frequently referenced, would bring in enough to repay this loan.)&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 Later on, Dan would learn there was a time when anyone could go to the
 library and read journal articles, and even books, without having to
@@ -120,9 +159,12 @@
 the turn of the century.  But not only were they illegal, like
 debuggers&mdash;you could not install one if you had one, without
 knowing your computer's root password.  And neither
-the <span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;abbr title="Federal Bureau of 
Investigation"&gt;FBI&lt;/abbr&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>FBI</em></ins></span> nor
+the FBI nor
 Microsoft Support would tell you that.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 Dan concluded that he couldn't simply lend Lissa his computer.  But he
 couldn't refuse to help her, because he loved her.  Every chance to
@@ -159,7 +201,10 @@
 using computers.  Previously, universities maintained a different
 approach to student discipline; they punished activities that were
 harmful, not those that merely raised suspicion.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 Lissa did not report Dan to the SPA.  His decision to help her led to
 their marriage, and also led them to question what they had been
@@ -170,142 +215,150 @@
 the long arm of the SPA.  When the Tycho Uprising began in 2062, the
 universal right to read soon became one of its central aims.&lt;/p&gt;
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;h3 
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;blockquote 
-&lt;a href="http://defectivebydesign.org/ebooks.html"&gt;Join our mailing list
-about the dangers of eBooks&lt;/a&gt;.
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;blockquote 
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="announcement"&gt;
href="http://defectivebydesign.org/ebooks.html"&gt;Join our mailing list about 
the dangers of <span class="removed"><del><strong>eBooks&lt;/a&gt;.
+&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
 &lt;div id="AuthorsNote"&gt;
-&lt;h3&gt;Author's</em></ins></span> Notes&lt;/h3&gt;
+&lt;h3&gt;Author's Notes&lt;/h3&gt;
-&lt;li&gt;This story is supposedly a historical article that will be written in
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;ul&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;ul class="no-bullet"&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;This</em></ins></span> story is supposedly a historical article that 
will be written in
 the future by someone else, describing Dan Halbert's youth under a
-repressive society shaped by the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>enemies</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>unjust forces</em></ins></span> that use 
&ldquo;pirate&rdquo; as
+repressive society shaped by the unjust forces that use &ldquo;pirate&rdquo; as
 propaganda. So it uses the terminology of that society.
-I have tried to project it <span class="removed"><del><strong>from today so as 
to sound even</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>forwards 
into something</em></ins></span> more <span 
+I have tried to project it forwards into something more visibly
 oppressive. See &lt;a
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;</em></ins></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p&gt;Computer-enforced restrictions on 
lending or reading books (and other
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;div 
+&lt;p&gt;Computer-enforced restrictions on lending or reading books (and other
 kinds of published works) are known as DRM, short for
 &ldquo;Digital Restrictions Management&rdquo;.  To
 eliminate DRM, the Free Software Foundation has
 established the &lt;a href="http://DefectiveByDesign.org"&gt;Defective by
 Design&lt;/a&gt; campaign.  We ask for your support.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p&gt;The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a 
separate organization not
+related to the Free Software Foundation, also campaigns against
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;</em></ins></span>
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;li&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/ul&gt;
+&lt;blockquote class="info center"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 &lt;p&gt;The following note has been updated several times since the first
 publication of the story.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+&lt;ul class="no-bullet"&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
-The <span class="inserted"><ins><em>battle for the</em></ins></span> right to 
read is <span class="removed"><del><strong>a battle</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>already</em></ins></span> being <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>fought today.</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>fought.</em></ins></span>  Although it
-may take 50 years for our <span class="removed"><del><strong>present way of 
life</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>past 
freedoms</em></ins></span> to fade into obscurity, most
-of the specific <span class="inserted"><ins><em>repressive</em></ins></span> 
laws and practices described above have
-already been proposed; <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>many</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>some</em></ins></span> have been enacted into law in 
the US and
+The battle for the right to read is already being fought.  Although it
+may take 50 years for our past freedoms to fade into obscurity, most
+of the specific repressive laws and practices described above have
+already been proposed; some have been enacted into law in the US and
 elsewhere.  In the US, the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act
-(DMCA) <span class="removed"><del><strong>established the legal
-basis</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>gave explicit 
government backing</em></ins></span> to <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>restrict</strong></del></span> the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>reading and lending of computerized books (and
-other works</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>computer-enforced restrictions 
known</em></ins></span> as <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>well).</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>DRM, by making the
-distribution of programs that can break DRM a crime.</em></ins></span>  The 
-Union imposed similar restrictions in a 2001 copyright <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>directive.  In France, under the DADVSI law
-adopted</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>directive,</em></ins></span> in <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2006, mere possession of a copy of DeCSS, the free 
-to decrypt video on a DVD, is a crime.&lt;/p&gt;
-In 2001, Disney-funded Senator Hollings proposed a bill called the
-SSSCA that would require every new computer to have mandatory
-copy-restriction facilities that the user cannot bypass.  Following
-the Clipper chip and similar US government key-escrow proposals, this
-shows</strong></del></span> a <span class="removed"><del><strong>long-term 
trend: computer systems are increasingly set up to
-give absentees with clout control over the people actually using the
-computer system.  The SSSCA was later renamed to the unpronounceable
-CBDTPA, which was glossed</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>form not quite</em></ins></span> as <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>the &ldquo;Consume But Don't Try
-Programming Act&rdquo;.
-&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
-The <span class="removed"><del><strong>Republicans took control of the US 
senate shortly thereafter.
-They are less tied to Hollywood than the Democrats, so they did not
-press these proposals.  Now that the Democrats are back in control,
-the danger is once again higher.&lt;/p&gt;
-In 2001 the</strong></del></span> US <span class="removed"><del><strong>began 
attempting to use the proposed &ldquo;Free Trade&rdquo; Area of
-the Americas (FTAA) treaty</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>campaigns</em></ins></span> to impose <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>the same</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>such</em></ins></span> rules on <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>all</strong></del></span> the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>countries in
-the Western Hemisphere.  The FTAA is one</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>rest</em></ins></span> of the <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>world through</em></ins></span>
-so-called <span class="removed"><del><strong>free
-trade treaties, which</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>&ldquo;free trade&rdquo; treaties.
+(DMCA) gave explicit government backing to the
+computer-enforced restrictions known as DRM, by making the
+distribution of programs that can break DRM a crime.  The European
+Union imposed similar restrictions in a 2001 copyright directive, in a
+form not quite as strong.&lt;/p&gt;
+The US campaigns to impose such rules on the rest of the world through
+so-called &ldquo;free trade&rdquo; treaties.
 &lt;a href="https://stallman.org/business-supremacy-treaties.html"&gt;
 Business-supremacy treaties&lt;/a&gt; is a more fitting term for them, since
-they</em></ins></span> are <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>actually</strong></del></span> designed to give 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>increased power</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>dominion</em></ins></span> over <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nominally</em></ins></span> democratic <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>governments; imposing laws like the
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>states.  The DMCA's policy of criminalizing 
programs that
-break DRM</em></ins></span> is <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>typical</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>one</em></ins></span> of <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>this spirit.  The FTAA was effectively killed by
-Lula, President</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>many 
unjust policies that these treaties impose
-across a wide range</em></ins></span> of <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>Brazil, who rejected the DMCA requirement and
-others.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>Since then, the</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>The</em></ins></span> US has imposed <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>similar</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>DMCA</em></ins></span> requirements on <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>countries such
-as Australia</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>Australia, 
Panama, Colombia</em></ins></span>
-and <span class="removed"><del><strong>Mexico</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>South Korea</em></ins></span> through bilateral <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>&ldquo;free trade&rdquo;</strong></del></span> 
agreements, and on countries such as
-Costa Rica through another treaty, CAFTA.  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>Ecuador's President Correa refused to sign a
-&ldquo;free trade&rdquo; agreement</strong></del></span>  <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Obama has escalated the
-campaign</em></ins></span> with <span class="inserted"><ins><em>two new 
proposed treaties,</em></ins></span> the <span class="removed"><del><strong>US, 
but I've heard Ecuador
-had adopted something like</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>TPP and</em></ins></span> the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>DMCA</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>TTIP.  The
+they are designed to give business dominion over nominally democratic
+states.  The DMCA's policy of criminalizing programs that
+break DRM is one of many unjust policies that these treaties impose
+across a wide range of fields.&lt;/p&gt;
+The US has imposed DMCA requirements on Australia, Panama, Colombia
+and South Korea through bilateral agreements, and on countries such as
+Costa Rica through another treaty, CAFTA.  Obama has escalated the
+campaign with two new proposed treaties, the TPP and the TTIP.  The
 TPP would impose the DMCA, along with many other wrongs, on 12
 countries on the Pacific Ocean.  The TTIP would impose similar
-strictures on Europe.  Americans should demand their congressional
-representatives reject the attempt to approve the TPP</em></ins></span> in 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>2003.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>the lame-duck
+strictures on Europe.  <span class="removed"><del><strong>Americans should 
demand their congressional
+representatives reject the attempt to approve the TPP in the lame-duck
 session after the 2016 election.&lt;/p&gt;
 With Windows Vista, Microsoft admitted it had built in a back door:
 Microsoft can use it to forcibly install software
-&ldquo;upgrades,&rdquo; even if users consider them rather to be
-downgrades.  It can also order all machines running Vista to refuse to
+&ldquo;upgrades,&rdquo; even if users consider them rather 
to</strong></del></span>  <span class="inserted"><ins><em>All these treaties 
must</em></ins></span> be
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>downgrades.  It can also order all machines 
running Vista to refuse to
 run a certain device driver.  The main purpose of Vista's clampdown on
-users was to impose DRM that users can't overcome.&lt;/p&gt;
+users was to impose DRM that users can't 
overcome.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>defeated, or
 Even the World Wide Web Consortium has fallen under the shadow of the
 copyright industry; it is on the verge of approving a DRM system as an
 official part of the web specifications.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;
+&lt;p class="emph-box"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 Nonfree software tends to have &lt;a href="/proprietary/"&gt;abusive
-features of many kinds&lt;/a&gt;, which support the conclusion that
+features of many kinds&lt;/a&gt;, which <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>support</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>lead to</em></ins></span> the conclusion that
 &lt;a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"&gt;you can
 never trust a nonfree program&lt;/a&gt;.  We must insist on free (libre)
-software only, and reject nonfree programs.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+software only, and reject nonfree programs.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;p class="inline-block"&gt;
+With Windows Vista, Microsoft admitted it had built in a back door:
+Microsoft can use it to forcibly install software
+&ldquo;upgrades,&rdquo; even if users consider them rather to be
+downgrades.  It can also order all machines running Vista to refuse to
+run a certain device driver.  The main purpose of Vista's clampdown on
+users was to impose DRM that users can't overcome.  Of course, Windows
+10 is no better&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 One of the ideas in the story was not proposed in reality until 2002.
-This is the idea that the <span 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>FBI</em></ins></span> and Microsoft will keep 
+This is the idea that the FBI and Microsoft will keep the
 root passwords for your personal computers, and not let you have
-The proponents of this scheme <span class="removed"><del><strong>have given 
it</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>gave early 
versions</em></ins></span> names such as
-&ldquo;trusted computing&rdquo; and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>&ldquo;Palladium&rdquo;.  We call
-it &lt;a href="/philosophy/can-you-trust.html"&gt;&ldquo;treacherous
-computing&rdquo;&lt;/a&gt; because the effect is to make your computer obey
-companies even to the extent of disobeying and defying you.  This was
-implemented in 2007</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>&ldquo;Palladium&rdquo;, but</em></ins></span> as 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>part of &lt;a 
-Vista&lt;/a&gt;; we expect Apple to do something similar.  In this 
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>ultimately put into use,</em></ins></span> it 
is <span class="removed"><del><strong>the manufacturer that keeps the secret 
code, but
-the &lt;abbr&gt;FBI&lt;/abbr&gt; would have little trouble getting 
it.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>called 
&ldquo;secure boot&rdquo;.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+The proponents of this scheme gave early versions names such as
+&ldquo;trusted computing&rdquo; and &ldquo;Palladium&rdquo;, but as
+ultimately put into use, it is called &ldquo;secure boot&rdquo;.&lt;/p&gt;
 What Microsoft keeps is not exactly a password in the traditional
@@ -313,37 +366,32 @@
 signature and encryption key that corresponds to a second key stored
 in your computer.  This enables Microsoft, and potentially any web
 sites that cooperate with Microsoft, the ultimate control over what
-the user can do on <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>his</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>per</em></ins></span> own <span 
+the user can do on per own computer.  Microsoft is likely to use that
+control on behalf of the FBI when asked: it
+already &lt;a href="/proprietary/malware-microsoft.html"&gt;shows
+the NSA security bugs in Windows&lt;/a&gt; to exploit.&lt;/p&gt;
-Vista also gives Microsoft additional powers; for 
instance,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>computer.</em></ins></span>  Microsoft
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>can forcibly install upgrades, and it can 
order all machines running
-Vista to refuse to run a certain device driver.  The main purpose of
-Vista's many restrictions</strong></del></span> is <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>likely</em></ins></span> to <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>impose DRM (Digital Restrictions
-Management)</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>use</em></ins></span> that <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>users can't overcome.  The 
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>control on behalf</em></ins></span> of <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>DRM is why we
-have established</strong></del></span> the <span class="inserted"><ins><em>FBI 
when asked: it
-already</em></ins></span> &lt;a <span 
-Defective by Design&lt;/a&gt; campaign.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
-the NSA security bugs in Windows&lt;/a&gt; to 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>When</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>Secure boot can be implemented in a way that 
permits the user to
+Secure boot can be implemented in a way that permits the user to
 specify the signature key and decide what software to sign.  In
 practice, PCs designed for Windows 10 carry only Microsoft's key, and
 whether the machine's owner can install any other system (such as
 GNU/Linux) is under Microsoft's control.  We call this &lt;em&gt;restricted
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
-In 1997, when</em></ins></span> this story was first <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>written,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>published,</em></ins></span> the SPA was
+In 1997, when this story was first published, the SPA was
 threatening small Internet service providers, demanding they permit
 the SPA to monitor all users.  Most ISPs surrendered when
-threatened, because they <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>cannot</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>could not</em></ins></span> afford to fight back in 
court.  One
+threatened, because they could not afford to fight back in court.  One
 ISP, Community ConneXion in Oakland, California, refused the demand
 and was actually sued.  The SPA later dropped the suit,
-but <span class="removed"><del><strong>obtained</strong></del></span> the 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>DMCA, which</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>DMCA</em></ins></span> gave <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>them</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>it</em></ins></span> the power <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>they</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>it</em></ins></span> sought.&lt;/p&gt;
+but the DMCA gave it the power it sought.&lt;/p&gt;
 The SPA, which actually stands for Software Publishers
@@ -353,8 +401,13 @@
 reminiscent of the erstwhile Soviet Union, it invites people to inform
 on their coworkers and friends.  A BSA terror campaign in
 Argentina in 2001 made slightly veiled threats that people sharing
-software would be <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>raped.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>raped in prison.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+software would be raped in prison.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="column-limit"&gt;&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;div class="reduced-width"&gt;</em></ins></span>
 The university security policies described above are not imaginary.
 For example, a computer at one Chicago-area university displayed this
@@ -376,75 +429,70 @@
 This is an interesting approach to the Fourth Amendment: pressure most
 everyone to agree, in advance, to waive their rights under it.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;</em></ins></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;</em></ins></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;div 
 &lt;h3 id="BadNews"&gt;Bad News&lt;/h3&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;div class="columns"&gt;</em></ins></span>
-The battle for the right to read is already in progress,
-The enemy is organized, while we are not, so it is going against us.
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>Here are articles about bad things that 
have happened since the
-original publication of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/p&gt;
+The battle for the right to read is <span class="removed"><del><strong>already 
in progress,</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>going 
against us so far.</em></ins></span>
+The enemy is organized, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>while</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>and</em></ins></span> we are <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>not, so it is going against 
us.</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>not.</em></ins></span>
-&lt;p&gt;Today's</em></ins></span> commercial
-ebooks &lt;a href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.html"&gt; abolish
-readers' traditional <span 
-&lt;li&gt;&lt;a href="http://www.nature.com/nature_education/biology.html"&gt;
-     A "biology textbook" web site&lt;/a&gt; that you can access 
only</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>freedoms&lt;/a&gt;.  
Amazon's e-book reader product,
+&lt;p&gt;Today's commercial
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>ebooks</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>e-books</em></ins></span> &lt;a 
href="/philosophy/the-danger-of-ebooks.html"&gt; abolish
+readers' traditional freedoms&lt;/a&gt;.  Amazon's e-book reader product,
 which I call the &ldquo;Amazon Swindle&rdquo; because it's designed to
 swindle readers out of the traditional freedoms of readers of books,
-is run</em></ins></span> by <span class="removed"><del><strong>signing
-     a</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>software with 
-demonstrated</em></ins></span> &lt;a <span 
-     contract not to lend</strong></del></span> <span 
+is run by software with several
+demonstrated &lt;a href="/proprietary/malware-kindle-swindle.html"&gt;Orwellian
 functionalities&lt;/a&gt;.  Any one of them calls for rejecting the product
-&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;It spies on everything the user does:</em></ins></span> it 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>to anyone 
else&lt;/a&gt;,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>reports</em></ins></span> which <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>book the
+&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;It spies on everything the user does: it reports which book 
 user is reading, and which page, and it reports when the user highlights
-text, and any notes</em></ins></span> the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>publisher</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>user enters.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+text, and any notes the user enters.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
 &lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;It has DRM, which is intended to block users from
 sharing copies.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
-&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;It has a back door with which Amazon</em></ins></span> can
-     <span class="removed"><del><strong>revoke at will.&lt;/li&gt;
-     Publishing:&lt;/a&gt; An article about distribution</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>remotely erase any book.
-In 2009, it erased thousands</em></ins></span> of <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>books in
-     electronic form,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>copies of 1984, by George Orwell.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
-&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;In case all that isn't Orwellian enough, there is a 
-back door with which Amazon can remotely change the 
software,</em></ins></span> and <span class="removed"><del><strong>copyright 
issues affecting</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>introduce any other form of 
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;It</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;li&gt;&lt;p 
class="inline-block"&gt;It</em></ins></span> has a back door with which Amazon 
can remotely erase any book.
+In 2009, it erased thousands of copies of 1984, by George 
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;li&gt;&lt;p&gt;In</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;li&gt;&lt;p 
class="inline-block"&gt;In</em></ins></span> case all that isn't Orwellian 
enough, there is a universal
+back door with which Amazon can remotely change the software, and
+introduce any other form of nastiness.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
-&lt;p&gt;Amazon's e-book distribution is oppressive, too.  It 
identifies</em></ins></span> the <span 
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>user and records what books the user obtains.  
It also requires
-users</em></ins></span> to <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>read</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>agree to an antisocial contract that they won't share 
-with others.  My conscience tells me that, if I had agreed to 
such</em></ins></span> a <span class="removed"><del><strong>copy.&lt;/li&gt;
-     inside Computers:&lt;/a&gt; Software</strong></del></span>
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>contract, the lesser evil would 
be</em></ins></span> to <span class="removed"><del><strong>control who can read
-     books</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>defy 
it</em></ins></span> and <span class="removed"><del><strong>documents on a 
-&lt;/ul&gt;</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>share copies
-anyway; however, to be entirely good, we should not agree to it in the
-first place.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;p&gt;Amazon's e-book distribution is oppressive, too.  It identifies the
+user and records what books the user obtains.  It also requires users
+to agree to an antisocial contract that they won't share copies with
+others.  My conscience tells me that, if I had agreed to such a
+contract, the lesser evil would be to defy it and share copies anyway;
+however, to be entirely good, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>we</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>I</em></ins></span> should not agree to it in the 
first <span class="removed"><del><strong>place.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>place.  Therefore, I refuse to agree to such 
contracts, whether for
+software, for e-books, for music, or for anything 
 &lt;p&gt;If we want to stop the bad news and create some good news, we need
-to organize and fight.  The
+to organize and fight.  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>The</strong></del></span>  <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Subscribe to the</em></ins></span>
 FSF's &lt;a href="http://defectivebydesign.org"&gt; Defective by 
-campaign has made a start; subscribe to the campaign's mailing
-list to lend a hand.  And &lt;a href="http://www.fsf.org/associate"&gt;join
-the FSF&lt;/a&gt; to help fund our work.
+campaign <span class="removed"><del><strong>has made a start; subscribe to the 
campaign's mailing
+list</strong></del></span> to lend a hand.  <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>And</strong></del></span>  <span 
+can</em></ins></span> &lt;a href="http://www.fsf.org/associate"&gt;join the 
FSF&lt;/a&gt; to <span class="removed"><del><strong>help 
fund</strong></del></span> <span 
+our <span class="removed"><del><strong>work.</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>work more generally.  There is also a &lt;a 
href="/help/help.html"&gt;list of ways
+to participate in our work&lt;/a&gt;.</em></ins></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;</em></ins></span>
 &lt;h3 id="References"&gt;References&lt;/h3&gt;
@@ -465,18 +513,20 @@
 Data or Private Data&lt;/a&gt;, 
        Washington Post, 4 Nov 1996. &lt;/li&gt;
-  &lt;li&gt;&lt;a <span 
 for the Public
+  &lt;li&gt;&lt;a 
 for the Public
        Domain&lt;/a&gt;&mdash;an organization which aims to resist and
        reverse the overextension of copyright and patent powers.&lt;/li&gt;
-&lt;hr /&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;hr /&gt;
 &lt;blockquote id="fsfs"&gt;&lt;p class="big"&gt;This essay is published
 in &lt;a 
 Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
 M. Stallman&lt;/cite&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
-&lt;h5&gt;Other Texts to Read&lt;/h5&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;h4&gt;Other</em></ins></span> Texts to 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>Read&lt;/h5&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
        &lt;li&gt;&lt;a href="/philosophy/philosophy.html"&gt;Philosophy of the
@@ -485,6 +535,13 @@
                id="copy-protection"&gt;Copy Protection: Just Say No&lt;/a&gt;,
                published in Computer World.&lt;/li&gt;
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;
+&lt;hr class="thin" /&gt;
+&lt;blockquote id="fsfs"&gt;&lt;p class="big"&gt;This essay is published
+in &lt;a 
+Software, Free Society: The Selected Essays of Richard
 &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
@@ -543,7 +600,7 @@
 &lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2016/09/15 12:00:34 $
+$Date: 2016/12/17 10:59:20 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;

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