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www gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html gnu/po/linux-a...


From: GNUN
Subject: www gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html gnu/po/linux-a...
Date: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 +0000 (UTC)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     16/12/12 15:57:53

Modified files:
        gnu            : linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html 
        gnu/po         : linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po 
        licenses       : copyleft.pt-br.html 
        licenses/po    : copyleft.pt-br.po 
        philosophy     : rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html 
        philosophy/po  : rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl-diff.html 
Added files:
        licenses/po    : copyleft.pt-br-en.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.9&r2=1.10
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po?cvsroot=www&r1=1.9&r2=1.10
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/copyleft.pt-br.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po?cvsroot=www&r1=1.8&r2=1.9
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br-en.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.3&r2=1.4
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl-diff.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.1&r2=1.2

Patches:
Index: gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html,v
retrieving revision 1.9
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -b -r1.9 -r1.10
--- gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html        12 Dec 2016 08:58:07 -0000      1.9
+++ gnu/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.html        12 Dec 2016 15:57:52 -0000      1.10
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@
 href="/software/hurd/hurd.html">GNU Hurd</a>, que funciona em cima do
 Mach. Desenvolver esse núcleo tem sido bem mais difícil do que esperávamos;
 <a href="/software/hurd/hurd-and-linux.html">o GNU Hurd começou a funcionar
-de forma seguran em 2001</a>, mas está longe de estar pronto para as pessoas
+de forma segura em 2001</a>, mas está longe de estar pronto para as pessoas
 usarem, de forma geral.</p>
 
 <p>
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Última atualização: 
 
-$Date: 2016/12/12 08:58:07 $
+$Date: 2016/12/12 15:57:52 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po,v
retrieving revision 1.9
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -b -r1.9 -r1.10
--- gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po       12 Dec 2016 15:33:36 -0000      1.9
+++ gnu/po/linux-and-gnu.pt-br.po       12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 -0000      1.10
@@ -233,9 +233,9 @@
 "excitantes<a href=\"#unexciting\">(1)</a>, porque você não pode ter um "
 "sistema sem eles. Alguns de nossos componentes, as ferramentas de sistema, "
 "se tornaram populares por conta própria entre os programadores, mas nós "
-"escrevemos muitos componentes que não são ferramentas<a href=\"#nottools"
-"\">(2)</a>. Nós desenvolvemos um jogo de xadrez, o GNU Chess, porque um "
-"sistema completo precisa de jogos também."
+"escrevemos muitos componentes que não são ferramentas<a href=\"#nottools\">"
+"(2)</a>. Nós desenvolvemos um jogo de xadrez, o GNU Chess, porque um sistema 
"
+"completo precisa de jogos também."
 
 #. type: Content of: <p>
 msgid ""
@@ -411,8 +411,8 @@
 "o sistema GNU e suas variantes usam alguns programas BSD; porém, como um "
 "todo, eles são dois sistemas diferentes que evoluíram separadamente. Os "
 "desenvolvedores do BSD não escreveram um núcleo e o adicionaram ao sistema "
-"GNU, e um nome como GNU/BSD não se adequaria à situação.<a href=\"#gnubsd"
-"\">(5)</a>"
+"GNU, e um nome como GNU/BSD não se adequaria à situação.<a 
href=\"#gnubsd\">"
+"(5)</a>"
 
 #. type: Content of: <h3>
 msgid "Notes:"

Index: licenses/copyleft.pt-br.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/copyleft.pt-br.html,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- licenses/copyleft.pt-br.html        1 Nov 2016 14:27:58 -0000       1.3
+++ licenses/copyleft.pt-br.html        12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 -0000      1.4
@@ -1,60 +1,59 @@
-<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
- value='<a href="/licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po">
- https://www.gnu.org/licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po</a>'
- --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/licenses/copyleft.html"
- --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" value=""
- --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2001-05-31" -->
+<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/licenses/copyleft.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.pt-br.html" -->
-<!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
 
 <!-- This file is automatically generated by GNUnited Nations! -->
-<title>O Que é “Esquerdo de Cópia” (Copyleft)? - Projeto GNU - Free 
Software
-Foundation</title>
+<title>O Que é Copyleft? - Projeto GNU - Free Software Foundation</title>
 <meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, Copyleft" />
 
 <!--#include virtual="/licenses/po/copyleft.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.pt-br.html" -->
-<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.pt-br.html" -->
-<h2>O Que é “Esquerdo de Cópia” (Copyleft)?</h2>
+<h2>O Que é Copyleft?</h2>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft é um método geral para tornar um programa (ou outra obra) livre
+(<cite>free</cite>, em inglês, <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">no sentido
+de liberdade, e não de “preço zero”</a>) e exigir que todas as versões
+modificadas e extensões do programa também sejam livres.</p>
 
 <p>
 O modo mais simples de tornar um programa livre é colocá-lo em <a
-href="/philosophy/categories.html#PublicDomainSoftware">domínio público
-</a>, sem copyright. Isto permite que as pessoas compartilhem o programa e
-suas melhorias, se elas estiverem dispostas a tal.  Mas isto também permite
-que pessoas não-cooperativas transformem o programa em <a
+href="/philosophy/categories.html#PublicDomainSoftware">domínio público</a>,
+sem copyright. Isto permite que as pessoas compartilhem o programa e suas
+melhorias, se elas estiverem dispostas a tal. Mas isto também permite que
+pessoas não-cooperativas transformem o programa em <a
 href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">software
-proprietário</a>. Eles podem fazer modificações, poucas ou muitas, e
+proprietário</a>. Elas podem fazer modificações, poucas ou muitas, e
 distribuir o resultado como um produto proprietário.  As pessoas que
-receberem esta forma modificada do programa não tem a liberdade que o autor
+receberem esta forma modificada do programa não têm a liberdade que o autor
 original havia lhes dado; o intermediário eliminou estas liberdades.</p>
 
 <p>
 No <a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">Projeto GNU</a>, nosso objetivo é dar a
 <em>todos</em> os usuários a liberdade de redistribuir e modificar o
 software GNU. Se algum intermediário fosse capaz de retirar a liberdade,
-teríamos muitos usuários, mas esses usuários não teriam liberdade.  Então,
-em vez de colocar o software GNU em domínio público, colocamo-lo sob
-“esquerdo de cópia (copyleft)”.  O esquerdo de cópia diz que qualquer um 
que
-distribui o software, com ou sem modificações, tem que passar adiante a
-liberdade de copiar e modificar novamente o programa. O esquerdo de cópia
-garante que todos os usuários tem liberdade.</p>
+nosso código poderia “ter muitos usuários”, mas ele não os daria 
liberdade.
+Então, em vez de colocar o software GNU em domínio público, nós o tornamos
+“copyleft”. O copyleft diz que qualquer um que distribui o software, com ou
+sem modificações, deve passar adiante a liberdade de copiar e modificar
+novamente o programa. O copyleft garante que todos os usuários tenham
+liberdade.</p>
 
 <p>
-O esquerdo de cópia também fornece um <a
+Copyleft também fornece um <a
 href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">incentivo</a> para que outros
-programadores contribuam com o software livre.  Programas livres importantes
-como o Compilador GNU C++ existem só por causa disto.</p>
+programadores contribuam com o software livre. Programas livres importantes,
+como o Compilador GNU C++, só existem por causa disto.</p>
 
 <p>
-O esquerdo de cópia também ajuda os programadores que desejam contribuir com
-<a href="/prep/tasks.html">melhorias</a> para o <a
+Copyleft também ajuda os programadores que desejam contribuir com <a
+href="/prep/tasks.html">melhorias</a> para o <a
 href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">software livre</a> a obterem permissão de
 fazer isto. Esses programadores frequentemente trabalham para empresas ou
 universidades que fariam qualquer coisa para ganhar mais dinheiro. Um
-programador pode desejar constribuir suas modificações para a comunidade,
-mas seu empregador pode desejar transformar as mudanças em um produto de
+programador pode desejar contribuir suas modificações para a comunidade, mas
+seu empregador pode desejar transformar as mudanças em um produto de
 software proprietário.</p>
 
 <p>
@@ -63,79 +62,114 @@
 software livre em vez de jogá-lo fora.</p>
 
 <p>
-Para colocar um programa sob esquerdo de cópia, primeiro registramos o
-copyright; então adicionamos termos de distribuição, que são um instrumento
-legal que garante a qualquer pessoa os direitos de usar, modificar, e
-redistribuir o programa <em>ou qualquer programa derivado dele</em> se e
-somente se os termos de distribuição não forem modificados.  Desta forma, o
-programa e as liberdades se tornam legalmente inseparáveis.</p>
+Para tornar um programa copyleft, primeiro afirmamos que ele é protegido por
+um copyright; então adicionamos termos de distribuição, que são um
+instrumento legal que garante a qualquer pessoa os direitos de usar,
+modificar, e redistribuir o programa <em>ou qualquer programa derivado
+dele</em>, mas somente se os termos de distribuição não forem
+modificados. Desta forma, o código e as liberdades se tornam legalmente
+inseparáveis.</p>
 
 <p>
 Desenvolvedores de software proprietário usam o copyright para retirar a
-liberdade dos usuários; utilizamos o copyright para garantir sua liberdade.
-É por isso que invertemos o nome, mudando-o de “copyright” para 
“esquerdo de
-cópia”.</p>
+liberdade dos usuários; utilizamos o copyright para garantir sua
+liberdade. É por isso que invertemos o nome, mudando-o de “copyright” para
+“copyleft”.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft é uma forma de usar o copyright do programa. Ela não significa
+abandonar o copyright; na verdade, fazer isso tornaria a copyleft
+impossível. O “left” em “copyleft” não é uma referência ao verbo 
em inglês
+“to leave” (deixar, sair) &mdash; apenas para a direção que é a imagem
+espelhada de “right”.</p>
 
 <p>
-Esquerdo de cópia é um conceito genérico; existem várias formas de 
preencher
-os detalhes. No Projeto GNU, os termos específicos de distribuição que
+Copyleft é um conceito genérico, e você não pode usar um conceito genérico
+diretamente; você pode apenas usar uma implementação específica do
+conceito. No Projeto GNU, os termos específicos de distribuição que
 utilizamos estão contidos na Licença Pública Geral GNU (disponível nos
 formatos <a href="/copyleft/gpl.html">HTML</a>, <a
 href="/copyleft/gpl.txt">texto puro</a> e <a
 href="/copyleft/gpl.texi">Texinfo</a>). A Licença Pública Geral GNU é
-frequentemente chamada de GPL.</p>
-
-<p>
-Uma forma alternativa de esquerdo de cópia, a Licença Pública Geral Menor
-GNU (LGPL, disponível nos formatos <a href="/copyleft/lesser.html">HTML</a>,
-<a href="/copyleft/lesser.txt"> texto puro</a>, e <a
-href="/copyleft/lesser.texi">Texinfo</a>), se aplica a algumas (mas não
-todas) as bibliotecas do GNU.  Esta licença era originalmente conhecida como
-GPL de Bibliotecas (Library GPL), mas mudamos o nome, porque o nome antigo
-encorajava o uso desta licença com maior frequência do que ela deveria ser
-utilizada. Para uma explicação de porque esta mudança foi necessária, leia 
o
-artigo <a href="/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html"><cite>Por que você não
-deveria utilizar a GPL Menor para sua próxima biblioteca</cite></a>.</p>
+frequentemente abreviada como GNU GPL. Há também uma página de <a
+href="/copyleft/gpl-faq.html">Perguntas Frequentes</a> sobre a GNU GPL. Você
+também pode ler sobre <a href="/copyleft/why-assign.html">por que a FSF fica
+com as atribuições de copyright dos contribuidores</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+Uma forma alternativa de copyleft, a Licença Pública Geral Affero GNU (AGPL)
+(disponível nos formatos <a href="/licenses/agpl.html">HTML</a>, <a
+href="/licenses/agpl.txt">texto</a> e <a
+href="/licenses/agpl.texi">Texinfo</a>), foi projetada para programas que
+são suscetíveis de ser usados em servidores. Ela garante que versões
+modificadas usadas para implementar serviços disponíveis para o público
+sejam lançados como código-fonte para o público.</p>
+
+<p>
+Uma forma alternativa de copyleft, a Licença Pública Geral Menor GNU (LGPL,
+disponível nos formatos <a href="/licenses/lgpl.html">HTML</a>, <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.txt"> texto puro</a>, e <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.texi">Texinfo</a>), se aplica a algumas (mas não todas)
+as bibliotecas do GNU.  Para aprender mais sobre o uso adequado da LGPL, por
+favor leia o artigo, <a href="/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html"><cite>Por que
+você não deveria utilizar a GPL Menor para sua próxima
+biblioteca</cite></a>.</p>
 
 <p>
 A Licença de Documentação Livre GNU (FDL, disponível nos formatos <a
 href="/copyleft/fdl.html">HTML</a>, <a href="/copyleft/fdl.txt">texto
-puro</a> e <a href="/copyleft/fdl.texi">Texinfo</a>) é uma forma de
-esquerdo de cópia criada pra uso em um manual, livro-texto ou outro
-documento para garantir a todos a liberdade efetiva de copiar e
-redistribui-lo, com ou sem modificações, seja comercialmente ou
-não-comercialmente.</p>
+puro</a> e <a href="/copyleft/fdl.texi">Texinfo</a>) é uma forma de copyleft
+criada pra uso em um manual, livro-texto ou outro documento para garantir a
+todos a liberdade efetiva de copiar e redistribuí-lo, com ou sem
+modificações, seja comercialmente ou não-comercialmente.</p>
 
 <p>
 A licença adequada é incluída em muitos manuais e em cada distribuição de
-código fonte do GNU.</p>
+código-fonte do GNU.</p>
 
 <p>
 Todas essas licenças foram criadas de modo que você possa facilmente
-aplicá-los ao seu próprio trabalho, supondo que você é o detentor do
+aplicá-las na sua própria obra, supondo que você seja o detentor do
 copyright. Você não tem que modificar a licença para fazer isso,
-simplesmente inclui uma cópia da licença no trabalho, e adicione notas aos
+simplesmente inclua uma cópia da licença na obra, e adicione notas aos
 arquivos de fonte que façam referências adequadas à licença.</p>
 
 <p>
 Utilizar os mesmos termos de distribuição para vários programas diferentes
-torna fácil copiar o código entre vários programas diferentes. Desde que
-eles todos tenham os mesmos termos de distribuição, não há necessidade de
+facilita copiar o código entre vários programas diferentes. Desde que eles
+todos tenham os mesmos termos de distribuição, não há necessidade de
 verificar se os termos são compatíveis. A GPL Menor, versão 2, inclui uma
 cláusula que permite que você altere os termos de distribuição para os
-termos da GPL original, de modo que você possa copiar código para outro
-programa coberto pela GPL.</p>
+termos da GPL comum, de modo que você possa copiar código para outro
+programa coberto pela GPL. A versão 3 da GPL Menor foi criada como uma
+exceção à GPL versão 3, tornando-a automaticamente compatível.</p>
 
 <p>
-Se você gostaria de colocar seu programa sob esquerdo de cópia utilizando a
-GNU GPL ou a GNU LGPL, por favor veja as <a
-href="/copyleft/gpl-howto.html">instruções para usar essas licenças</a>.</p>
+Se você gostaria de tornar seu programa copyleft com a GNU GPL ou a GNU
+LGPL, por favor veja a <a href="/copyleft/gpl-howto.html">página de
+instruções de licenças</a>. Por favor note que você deve usar todo o texto
+da licença que você escolher. Cada uma representa um todo, e cópias parciais
+não são permitidas.</p>
 
 <p>
-Se você gostaria de colocar seu manual sob esquerdo de cópia utilizando a
-GNU FDL, por favor veja as instruções ao <a
-href="/copyleft/gpl.html#addendum">final</a> do texto da FDL, e a <a
-href="/copyleft/fdl-howto.html">página de instruções para usar a 
GFDL</a>.</p>
+Se você gostaria de tornar seu manual copyleft com a GNU FDL, por favor veja
+as instruções ao <a href="/copyleft/fdl.html#addendum">final</a> do texto da
+FDL, e a <a href="/copyleft/fdl-howto.html">página de instruções da
+GFDL</a>. Novamente, cópias parciais não são permitidas.</p>
+
+<p>
+É um equívoco legal usar um C invertido em um círculo ao invés de um 
símbolo
+de copyright. Copyleft é legalmente baseado no copyright, de forma que a
+obra deve possuir uma nota de copyright. Uma nota de copyright requer o
+símbolo de copyright (um C em um círculo) ou a palavra “Copyright”.</p>
+
+<p>
+Um C invertido em um círculo possui nenhuma significado jurídico especial,
+por isso não o torna uma nota de copyright. Pode até ficar legal em capas de
+livros, cartazes e tal, mas <a
+href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyleft#Symbol";>tenha cuidado como você
+o representa em uma página web</a>!
+</p>
 
 <div class="translators-notes">
 
@@ -181,7 +215,7 @@
 
 <!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
      files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
-     be under CC BY-ND 3.0 US.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
      without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
      Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
      document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
@@ -195,22 +229,24 @@
      
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
-<p>Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, 
Inc.</p>
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
+2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2014, 2015, 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
 
 <p>Esta página está licenciada sob uma licença <a rel="license"
-href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/deed.pt_BR";>Creative
-Commons Atribuição-SemDerivações 3.0 Estados Unidos</a>.</p>
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/deed.pt_BR";>Creative
+Commons Atribuição-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional</a>.</p>
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.pt-br.html" -->
 <div class="translators-credits">
 
 <!--TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.-->
- </div>
+<b>Tradução:</b> Rafael Fontenelle
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>, 2016</div>
 
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Última atualização: 
 
-$Date: 2016/11/01 14:27:58 $
+$Date: 2016/12/12 15:57:53 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po,v
retrieving revision 1.8
retrieving revision 1.9
diff -u -b -r1.8 -r1.9
--- licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po       12 Dec 2016 15:38:24 -0000      1.8
+++ licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br.po       12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 -0000      1.9
@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@
 "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
 "Plural-Forms: nplurals=2; plural=(n > 1);\n"
 "X-Generator: Virtaal 1.0.0-beta1\n"
-"X-Outdated-Since: 2001-05-31 11:14\n"
 
 #. type: Content of: <title>
 msgid "What is Copyleft? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"

Index: philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html,v
retrieving revision 1.3
retrieving revision 1.4
diff -u -b -r1.3 -r1.4
--- philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html  16 Jan 2016 00:05:02 -0000      
1.3
+++ philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.html  12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 -0000      
1.4
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" 
value="/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.en.html" -->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.pl-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2016-10-13" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.pl.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 -->
@@ -9,6 +14,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.pl.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.pl.html" -->
 <h2>Wolne oprogramowanie: wolność i&nbsp;współpraca</h2>
 
 <blockquote><p>Transcrypcja przemównienia Richarda M. Stallmana p.t. 
&bdquo;Wolne
@@ -2278,7 +2284,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Aktualizowane:
 
-$Date: 2016/01/16 00:05:02 $
+$Date: 2016/12/12 15:57:53 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

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@@ -11,22 +11,18 @@
 </style></head>
 <body><pre>
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
-&lt;!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>1.77</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>1.79</em></ins></span> --&gt;
 &lt;title&gt;Free Software: Freedom and Cooperation
 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.translist" 
--&gt;
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
 &lt;h2&gt;Free Software: Freedom and Cooperation&lt;/h2&gt;
 
-<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;p style="text-align: center;"&gt;
-Transcript of&lt;br /&gt;</strong></del></span>
-
-<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;Transcript 
of</em></ins></span>
-Richard M. Stallman's <span class="removed"><del><strong>speech,&lt;br /&gt;
-&lt;em&gt;&ldquo;Free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>speech,
-&ldquo;Free</em></ins></span> Software: Freedom and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>Cooperation&rdquo;&lt;/em&gt;&lt;br 
/&gt;</strong></del></span> <span class="inserted"><ins><em>Cooperation&rdquo;,
-given at</em></ins></span> New York University in New York, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>New York&lt;br /&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>NY,</em></ins></span>
-on 29 May <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2001&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2001&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;Transcript of
+Richard M. Stallman's speech,
+&ldquo;Free Software: Freedom and Cooperation&rdquo;,
+given at New York University in New York, NY,
+on 29 May 2001&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
 
 &lt;div class="announcement"&gt;
 &lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;A &lt;a 
href="/philosophy/rms-nyu-2001-transcript.txt"&gt;plain
@@ -408,7 +404,7 @@
 acronym.  In 1975, I developed the first Emacs text editor, and there
 were many imitations of Emacs, and a lot of them were called
 something-or-other Emacs, but one was called Fine, for Fine Is Not
-Emacs, and there was Sine, for Sine Is Not Emacs, and Eine for Ina Is
+Emacs, and there was Sine, for Sine Is Not Emacs, and Eine for <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>Ina</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>Eine</em></ins></span> Is
 Not Emacs, and MINCE for Mince Is Not Complete
 Emacs.  &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; That was a stripped down imitation.  And
 then, Eine was almost completely rewritten, and the new version was
@@ -463,7 +459,7 @@
 
 &lt;p&gt;So I had to work out the details of distribution.  Of course, I put
 a copy in the anonymous FTP directory, and that was fine for people
-who were on the net They could then just pull over a tar file, but a
+who were on the <span class="removed"><del><strong>net</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>net.</em></ins></span> They could then just 
pull over a tar file, but a
 lot of programmers then even were not on the net in 1985.  They were
 sending me emails saying &ldquo;How can I get a copy?&rdquo; I had to
 decide what I would answer them.  Well, I could have said, I want to
@@ -474,7 +470,7 @@
 But I had no job.  In fact, I've never had a job since quitting MIT in
 January 1984.  So, I was looking for some way I could make money
 through my work on free software, and therefore I started a free
-software business.  I announced, &ldquo;Send me $150 dollars, and I'll
+software business.  I announced, &ldquo;Send me <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>$150 dollars,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>$150,</em></ins></span> and I'll
 mail you a tape of Emacs.&rdquo; And the orders began dribbling in.
 By the middle of the year they were trickling in.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -489,8 +485,8 @@
 won't be able to do what's really important to you.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;So, that was fine, but people used to ask me, &ldquo;What do you
-mean it's free software if it costs $150
-dollars?&rdquo; &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; Well, the reason they asked this 
was
+mean it's free software if it costs <span class="removed"><del><strong>$150
+dollars?&rdquo;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>$150?&rdquo;</em></ins></span> 
&lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; Well, the reason they asked this was
 that they were confused by the multiple meanings of the English word
 &ldquo;free&rdquo;.  One meaning refers to price, and another meaning
 refers to freedom.  When I speak of free software, I'm referring to
@@ -709,7 +705,8 @@
 
 &lt;p&gt;Eventually, people noted this phenomenon.  You see, in the 1980's a
 lot of us thought that maybe free software wouldn't be as good as the
-non-free software, because we wouldn't have as much money to pay
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software, because we 
wouldn't have as much money to pay
 people.  And, of course, people like me, who value freedom and
 community said, &ldquo;Well, we'll use the free software
 anyway.&rdquo; It's worth making a little sacrifice in some mere
@@ -847,7 +844,7 @@
 
 &lt;p&gt;So, why do I define it in terms of whether it's free software for
 &lt;em&gt;you&lt;/em&gt;?  The reason is that sometimes the same program can be
-free software for some people, and non-free for others.  Now, that
+free software for some people, and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> for others.  Now, that
 might seem like a paradoxical situation, so let me give you an example
 to show you how it happens.  A very big example &mdash; maybe the
 biggest ever &mdash; of this problem was the X Window System which was
@@ -882,7 +879,7 @@
 cooperation, to permit people to cooperate.  Remember, never force
 anyone to cooperate with any other person, but make sure that
 everybody's allowed to cooperate, everyone has the freedom to do so,
-if he or she wishes.  If millions of people were running non-free
+if he or she wishes.  If millions of people were running <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span>
 versions of GNU, that wouldn't be success at all. The whole thing
 would have been perverted into nothing like the goal.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -921,7 +918,7 @@
 
 &lt;p&gt;There are lots of people who don't appreciate the ideals of
 freedom.  And they'd be very glad to take the work that we have done,
-and use it to get a head start in distributing a non-free program and
+and use it to get a head start in distributing a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> program and
 tempting people to give up their freedom.  And the result would be
 &mdash; you know, if we let people do that &mdash; that we would be
 developing these free programs, and we'd constantly have to compete
@@ -935,7 +932,7 @@
 do that.  I, personally, would rather not do it at all.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;But both of these groups of people &mdash; both the ones like me
-who say, &ldquo;I don't want to help that non-free program to get a
+who say, &ldquo;I don't want to help that <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> program to get a
 foothold in our community&rdquo; and the ones that say, &ldquo;Sure,
 I'd work for them, but then they better pay me&rdquo; &mdash; both of
 us have a good reason to use the GNU General Public License.  Because
@@ -947,14 +944,17 @@
 software &mdash; license-wise.  There are the programs that are
 copylefted so that the license defends the freedom of the software for
 every user.  And there are the non-copylefted programs for which
-non-free versions are allowed.  Somebody &lt;em&gt;can&lt;/em&gt; take those
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> versions are 
allowed.  Somebody &lt;em&gt;can&lt;/em&gt; take those
 programs and strip off the freedom.  You may get that program in a
-non-free version.&lt;/p&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> version.&lt;/p&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;And that problem exists today.  There are still non-free versions
+&lt;p&gt;And that problem exists today.  There are still <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> versions
 of X Windows being used on our free operating systems.  There is even
 hardware &mdash; which is not really supported &mdash; except by a
-non-free version of X Windows.  And that's a major problem in our
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> version of X 
Windows.  And that's a major problem in our
 community.  Nonetheless, I wouldn't say that X Windows is a bad thing,
 you know. I'd say that the developers did not do the best possible
 thing that they could have done.  But they &lt;em&gt;did&lt;/em&gt; release a 
lot
@@ -1113,7 +1113,7 @@
 didn't get done by somebody else, we did it.  Because we knew that we
 wouldn't have a complete system without it.  And even if it was
 totally boring and unromantic, like &lt;code&gt;tar&lt;/code&gt;
-or &lt;code&gt;mv&lt;/code&gt;.  &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; We did it.  Or 
ld, you know
+or &lt;code&gt;mv&lt;/code&gt;.  &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; We did it.  Or 
<span class="removed"><del><strong>ld,</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;code&gt;ld&lt;/code&gt;,</em></ins></span> you 
know
 there's nothing very exciting in &lt;code&gt;ld&lt;/code&gt; &mdash; but I 
wrote
 one.  &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt; And I did make efforts to have it do a 
minimal
 amount of disk I/O so that it would be faster and handle bigger
@@ -1204,7 +1204,7 @@
 succeed more or less, which is really a fairly minor question for
 society.  And, if you look at the companies that package the GNU/Linux
 system for people to use, well, most of them call it Linux.  And they
-&lt;em&gt;all&lt;/em&gt; add non-free software to it.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;em&gt;all&lt;/em&gt; add <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software to it.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;See, the GNU GPL says that if you take code, and some code out of a
 GPL-covered program, and add some more code to make a bigger program,
@@ -1220,17 +1220,19 @@
 are two separate programs that communicate with each other at arm's
 length &mdash; like by sending messages to each other &mdash; then,
 they're legally separate, in general.  So, these companies, by adding
-non-free software to the system, are giving the users, philosophically
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software to the 
system, are giving the users, philosophically
 and politically, a very bad idea.  They're telling the users,
-&ldquo;It is OK to use non-free software.  We're even putting it on
+&ldquo;It is OK to use <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software.  We're even 
putting it on
 this as a bonus.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;If you look at the magazines about the use of the GNU/Linux system,
 most of them have a title like &ldquo;Linux-something or other&rdquo;.
 So they're calling the system Linux most of the time.  And they're
-filled with ads for non-free software that you could run on top of the
+filled with ads for <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software that you could run 
on top of the
 GNU/Linux system.  Now those ads have a common message.  They say:
-Non-free Software Is Good For You.  It's So Good That You Might Even
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>Non-free</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>Nonfree</em></ins></span> Software Is Good For 
You.  It's So Good That You Might Even
 &lt;em&gt;Pay&lt;/em&gt; To Get It.  &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;And they call these things &ldquo;value-added packages&rdquo;,
@@ -1245,10 +1247,11 @@
 &lt;p&gt;And then if you look at the trade shows &mdash; about the use of
 the, dedicated to the use of, the GNU/Linux system, they all call
 themselves &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; shows.  And they're filled with booths
-exhibiting non-free software, essentially putting the seal of approval
-on the non-free software.  So, almost everywhere you look in our
-community, the institutions are endorsing the non-free software,
-totalling negating the idea of freedom that GNU was developed for.
+exhibiting <span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software, essentially 
putting the seal of approval
+on the <span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software.  So, almost 
everywhere you look in our
+community, the institutions are endorsing the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software,
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>totalling</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>totally</em></ins></span> negating the idea of 
freedom that GNU was developed for.
 And the only place that people are likely to come across the idea of
 freedom is in connection with GNU, and in connection with free
 software, the term, free software.  So this is why I ask you: please
@@ -1417,7 +1420,7 @@
 run.  And those things would not, those records would not be lost,
 would not be inaccessible.  They were even complaining about this on
 NPR recently in citing free software as a solution.  And so, in
-effect, by using a non-free program to store your own data, you are
+effect, by using a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> program to store your own 
data, you are
 putting your head in a noose.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;So, I've talked about how free software affects most business.  But
@@ -1472,7 +1475,7 @@
 could have worked for them, if I had needed to do that.  Since I
 didn't need to, I felt it was good for the movement if I remained
 independent of any one company.  That way, I could say good and bad
-things about the various free software and non-free software
+things about the various free software and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software
 companies, without a conflict of interest.  I felt that I could serve
 the movement more.  But, if I had needed that to make a living, sure,
 I would have worked for them.  It's an ethical business to be in.  No
@@ -1493,7 +1496,7 @@
 one of the reasons it's important for the world to switch to free
 software.  And it also belies what Microsoft says when they say the
 GNU GPL is bad, because it makes it harder for them to raise capital
-to develop non-free software and take our free software and put our
+to develop <span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software and take our 
free software and put our
 code into their programs that they won't share with us.  Basically, we
 don't need to have them raising capital that way.  We'll get the job
 done anyway.  We are getting the job done.&lt;/p&gt;
@@ -1602,7 +1605,7 @@
 program, so it's all tied together.  That's their plan.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;Now, the interesting thing is that selling those services doesn't
-raise the ethical issue of free software or non-free software.  It
+raise the ethical issue of free software or <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> software.  It
 might be perfectly fine for them to have the business for those
 businesses selling those services over the net to exist.  However,
 what Microsoft is planning to do is to use them to achieve an even
@@ -1773,7 +1776,7 @@
 public information in proprietary formats?&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;STALLMAN&lt;/strong&gt;: Oh, it shouldn't be.  I mean, 
the
-government should never require citizens to use a non-free program to
+government should never require citizens to use a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> program to
 access, to communicate with the government in any way, in either
 direction.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -1802,7 +1805,7 @@
 system, and now, if you go to the store, and you can find versions of
 GNU/Linux there, most of them are called Linux, and they're not free.
 Oh, well, part of them is.  But then, there's Netscape Navigator, and
-maybe other non-free programs as well.  So, it's very hard to actually
+maybe other <span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> 
<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> programs as well.  
So, it's very hard to actually
 find a free system, unless you know what you're doing.  Or, of course,
 you can not install Netscape Navigator.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -1880,7 +1883,7 @@
 oversimplification.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;QUESTION&lt;/strong&gt;: Can you talk a little bit more 
about the
-thinking that went into the general public license?&lt;/p&gt;
+thinking that went into the <span class="removed"><del><strong>general public 
license?&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>General Public License?&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;STALLMAN&lt;/strong&gt;: Well, here's the &mdash; I'm 
sorry, I'm
 answering his question now. &lt;i&gt;[Laughter]&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
@@ -1910,9 +1913,9 @@
 copyleft, you are essentially saying: &lt;i&gt;[speaking meekly]&lt;/i&gt;
 &ldquo;Take my code.  Do what you want.  I don't say no.&rdquo; So,
 anybody can come along and say: &lt;i&gt;[speaking very firmly]&lt;/i&gt;
-&ldquo;Ah, I want to make a non-free version of this.  I'll just take
+&ldquo;Ah, I want to make a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> version of this.  I'll just 
take
 it.&rdquo; And, then, of course, they probably make some improvements,
-those non-free versions might appeal to users, and replace the free
+those <span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span> versions might appeal to 
users, and replace the free
 versions.  And then, what have you accomplished?  You've only made a
 donation to some proprietary software project.&lt;/p&gt;
 
@@ -1986,7 +1989,7 @@
 of free software.  It's good for us to cooperate with them.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;QUESTION&lt;/strong&gt;: Except, considering X, in 
particular,
-about two years ago, the X Consortium that was far into the non-free
+about two years ago, the X Consortium that was far into the <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>non-free</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree</em></ins></span>
 open source&hellip;&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;STALLMAN&lt;/strong&gt;: Well, actually it 
&lt;em&gt;wasn't&lt;/em&gt; open
@@ -2048,7 +2051,8 @@
 &lt;p&gt;But yes, I think all published software should be free software.
 And remember, when it's not free software, that's because of
 government intervention.  The government is intervening to make it
-non-free.  The government is creating special legal powers to hand out
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>non-free.</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>nonfree.</em></ins></span>  The government is 
creating special legal powers to hand out
 to the owners of the programs, so that they can have the police stop
 us from using the programs in certain ways.  So I would certainly like
 to end that. &lt;/p&gt;
@@ -2109,7 +2113,7 @@
 
 &lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
      files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
-     be under CC BY-ND 3.0 US.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
      without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
      Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
      document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
@@ -2124,17 +2128,17 @@
      There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
      Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
 
-&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2001, 2005, 2006, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2014</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2014, 2015</em></ins></span> Richard M. 
Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; 2001, 2005, 2006, 2014, <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>2015</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>2015, 2016</em></ins></span> Richard M. 
Stallman&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;p&gt;This page is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license"
-href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/"&gt;Creative
-Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"&gt;Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International 
License&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
 
 &lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
 
 &lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
 &lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
-$Date: 2015/09/15 05:45:27 $
+$Date: 2016/12/12 15:57:53 $
 &lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
 &lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;/div&gt;

Index: licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br-en.html
===================================================================
RCS file: licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br-en.html
diff -N licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br-en.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ licenses/po/copyleft.pt-br-en.html  12 Dec 2016 15:57:53 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,236 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.79 -->
+<title>What is Copyleft? - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Keywords" content="GNU, FSF, Free Software Foundation, 
Linux, Copyleft" />
+
+<!--#include virtual="/licenses/po/copyleft.translist" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+   
+<h2>What is Copyleft?</h2>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free
+(<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">in the sense of freedom, not
+&ldquo;zero price&rdquo;</a>), and requiring all modified and extended 
versions of
+the program to be free as well.</p>
+
+<p>
+The simplest way to make a program free software is to put it in the
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#PublicDomainSoftware">public
+domain</a>, uncopyrighted.  This allows people to
+share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded.  But
+it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into
+<a href="/philosophy/categories.html#ProprietarySoftware">proprietary
+software</a>.  They can make changes, many or few,
+and distribute the result as a proprietary product.  People who
+receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that
+the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away.</p>
+
+<p>
+In the <a href="/gnu/thegnuproject.html">GNU project</a>, our aim is
+to give <em>all</em> users the freedom to redistribute and change GNU
+software.  If middlemen could strip off the freedom, our code might &ldquo;have
+many users,&rdquo; but it would not give them freedom.  So instead of
+putting GNU software in the public domain, we &ldquo;copyleft&rdquo;
+it.  Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or
+without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and
+change it.  Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft also provides an
+<a href="/philosophy/pragmatic.html">incentive</a>
+for other programmers to add to free software.
+Important free programs such as the GNU C++ compiler exist
+only because of this.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft also helps programmers who want to contribute
+<a href="/prep/tasks.html">improvements</a> to
+<a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> get permission to
+do so.  These programmers often work for companies or universities
+that would do almost anything to get more money.  A programmer may
+want to contribute her changes to the community, but her employer may
+want to turn the changes into a proprietary software product.</p>
+
+<p>
+When we explain to the employer that it is illegal to distribute the
+improved version except as free software, the employer usually decides
+to release it as free software rather than throw it away.</p>
+
+<p>
+To copyleft a program, we first state that it is copyrighted; then we
+add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives
+everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the program's
+code, <em>or any program derived from it</em>, but only if the
+distribution terms are unchanged.  Thus, the code and the freedoms
+become legally inseparable.</p>
+
+<p>
+Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users'
+freedom; we use copyright to guarantee their freedom.  That's why we
+reverse the name, changing &ldquo;copyright&rdquo; into
+&ldquo;copyleft.&rdquo;</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a way of using of the copyright on the program.  It
+doesn't mean abandoning the copyright; in fact, doing so would make
+copyleft impossible.  The &ldquo;left&rdquo; in
+&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; is not a reference to the verb &ldquo;to
+leave&rdquo;&mdash;only to the direction which is the mirror image of
+&ldquo;right&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<p>
+Copyleft is a general concept, and you can't use a general concept
+directly; you can only use a specific implementation of the concept.
+In the GNU Project, the specific distribution terms that we use for
+most software are contained in the
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl.html">GNU General Public License (available in
+HTML</a>, <a href="/copyleft/gpl.txt">text</a>, and
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl.texi">Texinfo</a> format).  The GNU General
+Public License is often called the GNU GPL for short. There is also a
+<a href="/copyleft/gpl-faq.html">Frequently Asked Questions</a> page
+about the GNU GPL.  You can also read about
+<a href="/copyleft/why-assign.html">why the FSF gets copyright
+assignments from contributors</a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+An alternate form of copyleft, the <a href="/licenses/agpl.html">GNU
+Affero General Public License (AGPL) (available in
+HTML</a>, <a href="/licenses/agpl.txt">text</a>,
+and <a href="/licenses/agpl.texi">Texinfo</a> format), is designed for
+programs that are likely to be used on servers.  It ensures that
+modified versions used to implement services available to the public
+are released as source code to the public.</p>
+
+<p>
+A compromise form of copyleft, the <a href="/licenses/lgpl.html">GNU
+Lesser General Public License (LGPL) (available in HTML</a>, <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.txt">text</a>, and <a
+href="/licenses/lgpl.texi">Texinfo</a> format), applies to a few (but not
+all) GNU libraries. To learn more about properly using the LGPL, please
+read the article <a href="/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html"><cite>Why you
+shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library</cite></a>.</p>
+
+<p>
+The <a href="/copyleft/fdl.html">GNU Free Documentation License (FDL)
+(available in HTML</a>, <a href="/copyleft/fdl.txt">text</a> and
+<a href="/copyleft/fdl.texi">Texinfo)</a> is a form of copyleft intended
+for use on a manual, textbook or other document to assure everyone the
+effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
+modifications, either commercially or noncommercially.</p>
+
+<p>
+The appropriate license is included in many manuals and in each GNU
+source code distribution.</p>
+
+<p>
+All these licenses are designed so that you can easily apply them to
+your own works, assuming you are the copyright holder.  You don't have
+to modify the license to do this, just include a copy of the license
+in the work, and add notices in the source files that refer properly
+to the license.</p>
+
+<p>
+Using the same distribution terms for many different programs makes it
+easy to copy code between various different programs.  When they all
+have the same distribution terms, there is no problem.  The Lesser
+GPL, version 2, includes a provision that lets you alter the
+distribution terms to the ordinary GPL, so that you can copy code into
+another program covered by the GPL.  Version 3 of the Lesser GPL is
+built as an exception added to GPL version 3, making the compatibility
+automatic.</p>
+
+<p>
+If you would like to copyleft your program with the GNU GPL or the GNU
+LGPL, please see the <a href="/copyleft/gpl-howto.html">license
+instructions page</a> for advice.  Please note that you must use the entire
+text of the license you choose.  Each is an integral whole, and
+partial copies are not permitted.</p>
+
+<p>
+If you would like to copyleft your manual with the GNU FDL, please
+see the instructions at the
+<a href="/copyleft/fdl.html#addendum">end</a> of the FDL text, and
+the <a href="/copyleft/fdl-howto.html">GFDL instructions page</a>.  Again,
+partial copies are not permitted.</p>
+
+<p>
+It is a legal mistake to use a backwards C in a circle instead of a
+copyright symbol.  Copyleft is based legally on copyright, so the work
+should have a copyright notice.  A copyright notice requires either
+the copyright symbol (a C in a circle) or the word
+&ldquo;Copyright&rdquo;.</p>
+
+<p>
+A backwards C in a circle has no special legal significance, so it
+doesn't make a copyright notice.  It may be amusing in book covers,
+posters, and such, but
+<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyleft#Symbol";> be
+careful how you represent it in a web page!</a>
+</p>
+
+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+<div class="unprintable">
+
+<p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+<p><!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+        &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+
+        <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see <a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+        README</a>. -->
+Please see the <a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.</p>
+</div>
+
+<!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND 4.0.  Please do NOT change or remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. -->
+
+<p>Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
+2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2014, 2015, 2016 Free Software Foundation, 
Inc.</p>
+
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/";>Creative
+Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" -->
+
+<p class="unprintable">Updated:
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2016/12/12 15:57:53 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>



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