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www/server/staging/translations README.translat...

From: Joerg Kohne
Subject: www/server/staging/translations README.translat...
Date: Mon, 19 Dec 2011 18:11:25 +0000

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Joerg Kohne <joeko>     11/12/19 18:11:25

Added files:
        server/staging/translations: README.translations.html 

Log message:
        Current proposal (2012-12-16), moved from /de/ repository


Index: README.translations.html
RCS file: README.translations.html
diff -N README.translations.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ README.translations.html    19 Dec 2011 18:11:17 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,445 @@
+<!--#include virtual="/server/html5-header.html" -->
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.63 -->
+<title>Guide to Translating Web Pages on www.gnu.org 
+- GNU Project - Free  Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
+  <style type="text/css">
+del { background-color:#FFDDDD; margin:0px;}
+ins { background-color:#FFFF66; margin:0px;}
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/standards/po/README.translations.translist" -->
+<h2 id="guide" class="section">Guide to Translating Web Pages on
+<p>Draft: 2011-11-14 | Last update:
+<p><a href="/graphics/atypinggnu.html"><img style="float: right;"
+src="/graphics/gnu-type-sm.jpg" alt="A Typing GNU"
+title="A Typing GNU Hacker" /></a></p>
+<!--h3 id="general">General Guide</h3-->
+<h3 id="intro">Introduction</h3>
+<p>Translating gnu.org with its many articles and keeping them updated is a
+complex task which requires careful organization. Translators are grouped
+into teams, one for each language, and each team normally has a
+coordinator. However, there are some languages for which no team has been
+formed yet, and sometimes a team lacks a coordinator.</p>
+<p>Team Coordinators use software tools to update pages efficiently for
+partial changes. One of these tools is a program called <strong>GNUnited
+Nations</strong> (GNUN) that makes it very easy to maintain and keep track
+of translations that need to be updated; it was developed ad hoc by our
+current GNU Translations Manager Yavor Doganov.</p>
+<p>The Translations Manager is the person in charge of the overall
+organization of teams and is generally involved in training new Team
+<p>As a Team Member, you can contribute to translations without knowing
+anything about GNUN, but you can help at more levels if you know how to use
+<h3 id="who">Who can help</h3>
+<p>All teams are always looking for new volunteers. Basically, there is a
+task for everyone in the translation process: we need people with good
+language skills, as well as people with good technical skills or willing to
+learn some simple technical skills.</p>
+  <li><p>If you have a deep understanding of written English and a rich
+    command of your native language, you can certainly engage in
+    translation, or do proof-reading. Writing good English is not
+  necessary.</p></li>
+  <li><p>If your understanding of English is not first class, or if you don't
+    know English at all but have a good mastery of your mother tongue, you
+    can help review other people's translations to make sure they read well
+    and have a good style.</p></li>
+  <li><p>If you are a native English speaker, and you can read another
+    language, even if not quickly and easily, you can still help improve
+    translations in that language. Translators sometimes misunderstand
+    English idioms and expressions and write translations that are
+    misleading or even incorrect. These errors are obvious to the native
+    English speaker&mdash;you can indicate possible errors and explain the
+    intended meaning, and others can retranslate that part.</p></li>
+  <li><p>If you are inclined or willing to go for the more technical side of
+    the translation process, you can help further; for example, by
+    preparing translated texts for publication.</p></li>
+<h3 id="how">How to Participate</h3>
+  <dt>As a Team Member</dt>
+    <dd>Please read the <a href="#general-guide">General Guide for
+      Translations</a> below and then contact the relevant <a
+      href="#teams">translation team</a>. Each team has its own system of
+      organizing the work. Thus, to join an existing team, you need to get
+      detailed information from that team. The Team Coordinator will be
+      able to guide you through their specific methods. If you don't get an
+      answer from the team in two weeks, write to the Translations Manager
+      <a
+      href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+    </dd>
+  <dt>As an Occasional Contributor</dt>
+    <dd>If you just want to submit a new translation and are not interested
+      in collaborating regularly, follow the <a
+      href="#general-guide">General Guide for Translations</a> below and
+      then send your translation to the appropriate <a href="#teams">Team
+      Coordinator</a> if there is one, or to the Translations Manager <a
+      href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>
+      if there is no team or coordinator for your language.</dd>
+  <dt>As a Team Coordinator</dt>
+    <dd>If you would like to form a new team or become a Team Coordinator,
+      please read this entire page and then get in touch with the
+      Translations Manager <a
+      href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</dd>
+<h3 id="general-guide">General Guide for Translations</h3>
+<p>Here are our specific goals for our translated pages.</p>
+<h4 id="accuracy">Accuracy</h4>
+<p>In order to produce a translation which is accurate and faithful to the
+original, you need to be familiar with the basic concepts of the GNU
+Project and the specific terminology used in gnu.org:</p>
+  <li><p>&ldquo;Copyleft&rdquo; is a term that can be difficult to translate in
+    some languages. It is a pun on the word &ldquo;Copyright&rdquo; based on 
+    two meanings of &ldquo;right&rdquo;: ethical and directional. You can read 
+    article <a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html">What is Copyleft?</a> to
+    learn more about it and see how it has been translated into other
+    languages. You will see that in most cases it has not been translated
+    at all, so if you can't find a good translation for it in your
+    language, the only option may be to use the English word.</p></li>
+  <li><p>See the <a href="/philosophy/fs-translations.html">Translations of
+    the Term  &ldquo;Free Software&rdquo;</a> in several languages.</p></li>
+  <li><p>You can learn more about specific terms and the GNU philosophy by
+    reading some articles such as the following, among others that you may
+    find useful:</p>
+    <ul>
+      <li><a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">What is Free Software?</a></li>
+      <li><a href="/philosophy/categories.html">Categories of Free and
+        Nonfree Software</a></li>
+      <li><a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html">Words to Avoid</a></li>
+      <li><a href="/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html">What's in a Name?</a></li>
+      <li><a href="/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html">Open
+        Source Misses the Point of Free Software</a></li>
+    </ul>
+  </li> 
+  <li><p>When translating &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix&rdquo;, please ensure that the
+    translation remains recursive. If a recursive translation cannot be
+    conceived, use the following format (this is an example for Swedish):
+    &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix (<span xml:lang="sv" lang="sv">GNU &auml;r inte
+    Unix</span>)&rdquo;.</p></li>
+<h4 id="translators-manual">Translators Manual</h4>
+<p>You may also want to read the <a
+href="/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/">GNU Web Translators
+Manual</a> if you wish to have a better understanding of how our
+translation system works. But please talk to the team first; most probably
+you will not be required to read it in order to start helping.</p>
+<h4 id="what">What to Translate</h4>
+<p>All essays and articles in the following directories should be
+translated in all available languages, but you should first browse our <a
+href="/server/standards/translations/priorities.html">Web Translation
+  <li><code>copyleft/</code></li>
+  <li><code>education/</code></li>
+  <li><code>gnu/</code></li>
+  <li><code>licenses/</code></li>
+  <li><code>philosophy/</code></li>
+<p>Again, please coordinate with your language team before starting any
+work, to get clear instructions on how to proceed and to avoid duplicating
+<p><em><strong>Note:</strong></em> The material in the
+<code>software/</code> directory pertains to individual GNU packages. If
+you would like to translate something in that directory, please talk with
+the maintainers of the package to see what they would like to do.</p>
+<h3 id="coordinator-guide">Guide for Team Coordinators</h3>
+<p><em>If there is no team established for your language or a new Team
+Coordinator is needed, we will be grateful if you undertake that task. To
+volunteer, write to the Translations Manager <a
+but please first read the following explanation of what a Team Coordinator
+does specifically, apart from what has been described in the General
+<p>[option 1:]</p>
+<p>If there is no team established for your language or a new Team
+Coordinator is needed, we will be grateful if you undertake that task. <ins>To
+volunteer, please first read the Guide for Team Coordinators in addition 
+to the General Guide. If you are interested, write to the Translations Manager 
+<p>[option 2:]</p>
+<p><ins>For the case there</ins>[If there]<ins> is no team established for 
+your language or a new Team Coordinator is needed, you will be welcome to 
+undertake that task. To volunteer, please first read the following 
+explanation[statement], in addition to the General Guide.</ins></p>
+  <li>First, let's look at the tools that we use in our website to process
+    translations and to keep them updated.</li>
+<h4 id="tools">Tools to Help Translators</h4>
+<p>We use .po (Portable Object) files to process and maintain translations.
+A .po file contains the original text and its translation, divided in
+paragraphs. We do it this way so that, when there is a change in the
+English version of a page, our system will generate an updated .po file
+showing the strings that have changed. The translator then updates the
+translation of those strings.</p>
+<p>To edit a .po file, use <a href="/software/emacs/">GNU Emacs</a> (install
+<em>gettext-el</em> to automatically switch to PO mode) or any .po file
+<p>How is the .po file used? GNUnited Nations (GNUN), a build system for
+www.gnu.org translations, generates a .pot file (.po template) of an
+original HTML article; whenever there is a change in the original article,
+the .pot file is regenerated to merge the changes. Finally, it regenerates
+the translations in HTML format. For further information see <a
+href="/software/gnun/">GNUnited Nations (GNUN)</a>.</p>
+<h4 id="keeping-current">Keeping Translations Current</h4>
+<p>For all translations to be kept current, if you decide to become a Team
+Coordinator, you should subscribe to the <a
+mailing list. Then you will be sent one email for each page that is
+modified in <em>CVS</em> (for the www module). The traffic is around 4-5
+mails per day, more on weekends. It's suggested that you burst through them
+about once a week to make sure the translations are current. You may also
+use &ldquo;<em><code>make report TEAM=LANG</code></em>&rdquo; if you have <a
+href="/software/gnun/">GNUN</a> installed.</p>
+  <li>A coordinator should also read and be well acquainted with the
+    following documentation:</li>
+  <li><a href="/software/trans-coord/manual/web-trans/">GNU Web Translators
+    Manual</a>.</li>
+  <li><a href="/software/trans-coord/manual/gnun/">GNUnited Nations (GNUN)
+    Manual</a>,</li>
+  <li><a href="/server/standards/readme_index.html">GNU Web Site
+    Guidelines: For Volunteers</a></li>
+  <li><a href="/server/fsf-html-style-sheet.html">GNU Web Site Guidelines:
+    HTML Style Sheet</a>.</li>
+<p>After you have read at least the first two manuals and this entire page,
+please contact the Translations Manager <a
+for further assistance.</p>
+<h3 id="teams">Translation Teams</h3>
+<span id="TranslationsUnderway"><!--Some docs refer to this anchor--></span> 
+<p>Volunteers to establish new teams are more than welcome and will be
+assisted during the learning process.</p>
+<p>Contact the Translations Manager <a
+if you would like to form a new team or become a Team Coordinator and be
+listed as the translation Team Coordinator for your language.</p>
+<p>In the following list, the language code is followed by the name of the
+language, and by the name and contact details of the translation Team
+  <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical-->
+  <li><code>ar</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-ar";>Arabic</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>az</code> - Azerbaijani (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/igrar";>Igrar Huseynov</a> - New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>bg</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-bg";>Bulgarian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/yavor";>Yavor Doganov</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>bn</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-bn";>Bengali</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/suzan";>Khandakar Mujahidul
+    Islam</a> - New coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>ca</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ca";>Catalan</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/puigpe";>Miquel Puigpelat</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>cs</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-cs";>Czech</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>da</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-da";>Danish</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/erikg";>Erik Gravgaard</a> - New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>de</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-de";>German</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/joeko";>Joerg Kohne</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>el</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-el";>Greek</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/gzarkadas";>Georgios Zarkadas</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>eo</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-eo";>Esperanto</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/civodul";>Ludovic Court&egrave;s</a> -
+    New coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>es</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-es";>Spanish</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/xavi_";>Xavier Reina</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>fa</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fa";>Farsi/Persian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/esmaeeli";>Abbas Esmaeeli
+    Some&lsquo;eh</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>fi</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fi";>Finnish</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/solarius";>Ville</a> - New
+    coordinator needed)</li>
+  <li><code>fr</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-fr";>French</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/barbier";>Denis Barbier</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>he</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-he";>Hebrew</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>id</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-id";>Indonesian</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>it</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-it";>Italian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/pescetti";>Andrea Pescetti</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>ja</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ja";>Japanese</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/mhatta";>Masayuki Hatta</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>ko</code> - Korean (Song Chang-hun <a
+    href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a> - New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>ku</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ku";>Kurdish</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>ml</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ml";>Malayalam</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>nb</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-nb";>Norwegian Bokm&aring;l</a>
+    (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/att";>Andreas Tolfsen</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>nl</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-nl";>Dutch</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/tuijldert";>Tom Uijldert</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>nn</code> - Norwegian Nynorsk (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/att";>Andreas Tolfsen</a>,
+    permanent coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>pl</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-pl";>Polish</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jsowoc";>Jan Owoc</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>pt</code> - Portuguese (New coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>pt-br</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-pt-br";>Brazilian
+    Portuguese</a> (New coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>ro</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ro";>Romanian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/buzdugan";>Laurentiu Buzdugan</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>ru</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-ru";>Russian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/jimcrow";>Anatoly A. Kazantsev</a>,
+    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/ineiev";>Pavel Kharitonov</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>sk</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/www-sk";>Slovak</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/dominiks";>Dominik Smatana</a> -
+    New coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>sq</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-sq";>Albanian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/beso";>Besnik Bleta</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>sr</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-sr";>Serbian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/Ctpajgep";>Strahinya Radich</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>ta</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-ta";>Tamil</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/amachutechie";>Sri Ramadoss</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>th</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-th";>Thai</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>tl</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-tl";>Tagalog</a> (New
+    coordinator needed) </li>
+  <li><code>tr</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-tr";>Turkish</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/exalted";>Ali Servet D&ouml;nmez</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>uk</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-uk";>Ukrainian</a> (<a
+    href="https://savannah.nongnu.org/users/sudyr";>Evgeniy Sudyr</a>) </li>
+  <li><code>zh-cn</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn";>Simplified
+    Chinese</a> (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/monnand";>Nan
+    Deng</a>, <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/zeuux";>Bill Xu</a>,
+    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/chxiaobin";>Chen Xiaobin</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>zh-tw</code> - <a
+    href="https://savannah.gnu.org/projects/www-zh-cn";>Traditional
+    Chinese</a> (<a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/monnand";>Nan
+    Deng</a>, <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/zeuux";>Bill Xu</a>,
+    <a href="https://savannah.gnu.org/users/chxiaobin";>Chen Xiaobin</a>)
+  </li>
+  <li><code>??</code> - Not available? Then this line is reserved for
+  you.</li>
+  <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical. -->
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> <em>English (<code>en</code>)</em> is a special
+  case. The bulk of the site is written in English, which is the de-facto
+  language of the GNU Project. We <em>occasionally</em> need original
+  documents written in other languages translated into English. It is best
+  to notify the team coordinator of your language that you volunteer,
+  because we always contact them first. If there is no team coordinator and
+  you are willing to help with this, please contact <a
+  href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;
+  </a>.</p>
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --> 
+<div id="footer">
+<p>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a
+href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>. There are also <a
+href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a> the FSF. <br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to <a
+<p>Please see the <a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations README</a>
+for information on coordinating and submitting translations of this
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+<p>This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/us/";>Creative Commons
+Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License</a>.</p>
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/12/19 18:11:17 $
+<!-- timestamp end --></p>

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