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www/education edu-cases-india.html edu-contents...

From: Dora Scilipoti
Subject: www/education edu-cases-india.html edu-contents...
Date: Thu, 21 Jul 2011 12:13:41 +0000

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Dora Scilipoti <dora>   11/07/21 12:13:41

Modified files:
        education      : edu-cases-india.html edu-contents.html 
Added files:
        education      : edu-system-india.html 

Log message:
        Adding article 'The Education System in India' and links to it on other 


Index: edu-cases-india.html
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+++ edu-cases-india.html        21 Jul 2011 12:13:19 -0000      1.4
@@ -28,12 +28,22 @@
    <a href="/education/education.html">Education</a>&rarr; 
    <a href="/education/edu-cases.html">Case Studies</a>&rarr; India</p>
-<p>Below are listed some of the educational institutions in India who 
-are using Free Software.</p>
+<p>An <a href="/education/edu-system-india.html">article</a> by Indian
+scientist Dr. V. Sasi Kumar which explains in detail how the education 
+system is structured in India, with significant notes on its development 
+throughout history. The article also covers the case of Kerala, the
+state in India which successfully implemented Free Software in thousands 
+of schools thanks to the government's project 
+<a href="https://www.itschool.gov.in/";>address@hidden</a>.</p>
 <p>Some notions on the
 <a href= "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_India";>education
-system of India</a> can be found in Wikipedia.</p>
+system of India</a> can also be found in Wikipedia.</p>
+<p>Below are listed some of the educational institutions in India who 
+are using Free Software.</p>
                <!-- Add new entries of educational institutions in this 
country in 
 alphabetical order by the name of the institution -->
@@ -49,8 +59,9 @@
 Secondary School Irimpanam (VHSS Irimpanam)</a>
 <p>One of the several thousand schools that are using exclusively Free
-Software as the result of a project carried out by the government in 
-the state of Kerala.</p>
+Software as the result of a 
+<a href= "https://www.itschool.gov.in/";>project</a>
+carried out by the government in the state of Kerala.</p>
 <a href=" /education/edu-cases.html">Back to Case Studies</a>
@@ -86,7 +97,7 @@
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-$Date: 2011/07/16 12:15:06 $
+$Date: 2011/07/21 12:13:19 $
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Index: edu-contents.html
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@@ -88,6 +88,9 @@
                <li><a href="/education/edu-why.html">Reasons Why</a> 
 institutions should use and teach exclusively Free Software.</li>
+  <li><a href="/education/edu-system-india.html">The Education System in
 <!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general,
@@ -123,7 +126,7 @@
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2011/07/16 12:15:09 $
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Index: education.html
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@@ -96,10 +96,13 @@
 <p>Learn about the <a href="/education/edu-why.html">Reasons Why</a> 
 educational institutions should use and teach exclusively Free Software.</p>
-<p>An article by Richard Stallman on the subject:
+<p>An article by Richard Stallman:
 <a href="/philosophy/schools.html">Why Schools Should Exclusively Use 
 Free Software</a></p>
+<p>An article by Dr. V. Sasi Kumar on the
+<a href="/education/edu-system-india.html">education system in India.</a></p>
@@ -137,7 +140,7 @@
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-$Date: 2011/07/16 12:15:00 $
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Index: edu-system-india.html
RCS file: edu-system-india.html
diff -N edu-system-india.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ edu-system-india.html       21 Jul 2011 12:13:19 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,400 @@
+<!-- Parent-Version: 1.57 -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" -->
+<title>The Education System in India - GNU Project - Free Software 
+<!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" -->
+<div id="education-content">
+<h2>The Education System in India</h2>
+<!-- begin edu navigation bar -->
+<ul id="edu-navigation">
+  <li><a href="edu-contents.html">Education Contents</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-cases.html">Case Studies</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-resources.html">Educational Resources</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-projects.html">Education Projects</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-faq.html">FAQ</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-team.html">The Team</a></li>
+<!-- end edu navigation bar -->
+</div> <!-- id="edu-content" -->
+<p class="edu-breadcrumb">
+<a href="/education/education.html">Education</a> &rarr; In Depth</p>
+<p>by <strong>Dr. V. Sasi Kumar</strong><a href="#sasi">(1)</a></p>
+<h3>In the Beginning</h3>
+<p>In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which 
+anyone who wished to study went to a teacher's (Guru) house and 
+requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would 
+then stay at the guru's place and help in all activities at home. This 
+not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but 
+also taught the student everything about running a house. The guru 
+taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy 
+scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics. The student stayed as 
+long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything 
+he could teach. All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, 
+and not confined to memorizing some information.</p>
+<p>The modern school system was brought to India, including the English 
+language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The 
+curriculum was confined to &ldquo;modern&rdquo; subjects such as science 
+and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were 
+considered unnecessary. Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link 
+with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the 
+teacher and the student.</p>
+<p>The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and 
+Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 
+1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 
+1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, 
+was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. 
+But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and 
+it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All schools 
+in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the 
+function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and 
+examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are 
+thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in 
+many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.</p>
+<p>Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group 
+of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of 
+India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a 
+directive policy in article 45 of the constitution. But this objective 
+remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the 
+recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this 
+lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian 
+citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of 
+skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make 
+the government take such a step. The expenditure by the Government of 
+India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, 
+which is recognized to be very low.</p> 
+<blockquote><p>&ldquo;In recent times, several major announcements were 
+made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in 
+India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme 
+(NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. The 
+announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on 
+education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in 
+expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, 
+there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central 
+government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due 
+to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education a 
+fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To 
+universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva 
+Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.&rdquo; 
+<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_india";>Wikipedia: 
+Education in India</a>.</p></blockquote>
+<h3>The School System</h3>
+<p>India is divided into 28 states and 7 so-called &ldquo;Union 
+Territories&rdquo;. The states have their own elected governments while 
+the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, 
+with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union 
+Territory. As per the constitution of India, school education was 
+originally a state subject &mdash;that is, the states had complete 
+authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the 
+Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on 
+the standards of higher education. This was changed with a 
+constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the 
+so-called <em>concurrent list</em>. That is, school education policies 
+and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the 
+state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. 
+Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central 
+Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a 
+lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and 
+<p>There is a national organization that plays a key role in developing 
+policies and programmes, called the National Council for Educational 
+Research and Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum 
+Framework. Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for 
+Educational Research and Training (SCERT). These are the bodies that 
+essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical 
+schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states' departments of 
+education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by the 
+NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the 
+education system.</p>
+<p>The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action 
+(POA) 1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory 
+quality for all children below 14 years before  the 21st Century. The 
+government committed to earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 
+for education, half of which would be spent on primary education. The 
+expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per 
+cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent in 1997-98.</p> 
+<p>The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 
+10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 
+and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five 
+upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher 
+secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely 
+(except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high 
+school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher 
+secondary level. Students throughout the country have to learn three 
+languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in 
+regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as 
+discussed below.</p>
+<p>There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of 
+these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the 
+Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for 
+children of central government employees who are periodically 
+transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number 
+of &ldquo;central schools&rdquo; (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been 
+established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and 
+they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to 
+another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is 
+being taught. One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, 
+Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in 
+English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also 
+if seats are available. All of them follow textbooks written and 
+published by the NCERT. In addition to these government-run schools, a 
+number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though 
+they may use different text books and follow different teaching 
+schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in 
+lower classes. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 21 other 
+countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there.</p>
+<p>The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary 
+Education (ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for 
+the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference 
+held in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then 
+Minister for Education. The main purpose of the conference was to 
+consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate 
+Examination by an All India Examination. In October 1956 at the meeting 
+of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was 
+adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the 
+University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate's Examination in 
+India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its 
+examination to the needs of the country. The inaugural meeting of the 
+Council was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council 
+was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. 
+The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body 
+conducting public examinations. Now a large number of schools across the 
+country are affiliated to this Council. All these are private schools 
+and generally cater to children from wealthy families.</p>
+<p>Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in 
+schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 
+years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years 
+(after higher secondary). Admission to the 11th class is normally based 
+on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot 
+of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to 
+remove the examination at the end of 10 years.</p>
+<h3>Exclusive Schools</h3>
+<p>In addition to the above, there are a relatively small number of 
+schools that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior 
+Cambridge, though this was largely superseded by the ICSE stream 
+elsewhere. Some of these schools also offer the students the opportunity 
+to sit for the ICSE examinations. These are usually very expensive 
+residential schools where some of the Indians working abroad send their 
+children. They normally have fabulous infrastructure, low student-teacher 
+ratio and very few students. Many of them have teachers from abroad. 
+There are also other exclusive schools such as the Doon School in 
+Dehradun that take in a small number of students and charge exorbitant 
+<p>Apart from all of these, there are a handful of schools around the 
+country, such as the Rishi Valley school in Andhra Pradesh, that try to 
+break away from the normal education system that promotes rote learning 
+and implement innovative systems such as the Montessori method. Most 
+such schools are expensive, have high teacher-student ratios and provide 
+a learning environment in which each child can learn at his/her own pace. 
+It would be interesting and instructive to do a study on what impact the 
+kind of school has had on the life of their alumni.</p>
+<h3>State Schools</h3>
+<p>Each state in the country has its own Department of Education that 
+runs its own school system with its own textbooks and evaluation system. 
+As mentioned earlier, the curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation method are 
+largely decided by the SCERT in the state, following the national 
+guidelines prescribed by the NCERT.</p>
+<p>Each state has three kinds of schools that follow the state 
+curriculum. The government runs its own schools in land and buildings 
+owned by the government and paying the staff from its own resources. 
+These are generally known as <em>government schools</em>. The fees are 
+quite low in such schools. Then there are privately owned schools with 
+their own land and buildings. Here the fees are high and the teachers 
+are paid by the management. Such schools mostly cater to the urban 
+middle class families. The third kind consists of schools that are 
+provided grant-in-aid by the government, though the school was started 
+by a private agency in their own land and buildings. The grant-in-aid is 
+meant to help reduce the fees and make it possible for poor families to 
+send their children. In some states like Kerala, these schools are very 
+similar to government schools since the teachers are paid by the 
+government and the fees are the same as in government schools.</p>
+<h3>The Case of Kerala</h3>
+<p>The state of Kerala, a small state in the South Western coast of 
+India, has been different from the rest of the country in many ways for 
+the last few decades. It has, for instance, the highest literacy rate 
+among all states, and was declared the first fully literate state about 
+a decade back. Life expectancy, both male and female, is very high, 
+close to that of the developed world. Other parameters such as fertility 
+rate, infant and child mortality are among the best in the country, if 
+not the best. The total fertility rate has been below the replacement 
+rate of 2.1 for the last two decades. Probably as a side-effect of 
+economic and social development, suicide rates and alcoholism are also 
+very high. Government policies also have been very different from the 
+rest of the country, leading to the development model followed in Kerala, 
+with high expenditure in education and welfare, coming to be known as 
+the &ldquo;Kerala Model&ldquo; among economists.</p>
+<p>Kerala has also always shown interest in trying out ways of improving 
+its school education system. Every time the NCERT came up with new ideas, 
+it was Kerala that tried it out first. The state experimented with the 
+District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) with gusto, though there was 
+opposition to it from various quarters, and even took it beyond primary 
+classes. The state was the first in the country to move from the 
+traditional behaviorist way of teaching to a social constructivist 
+paradigm. It was mentioned in the National Curriculum Framework of NCERT 
+in the year 2000, and Kerala started trying it out the next year. The 
+transaction in the classroom and the evaluation methodology were changed. 
+Instead of direct questions that could be answered only through 
+memorizing the lessons, indirect questions and open ended questions were 
+included so that the student needed to think before answering, and the 
+answers could be subjective to some extent. This meant that the students 
+had to digest what they studied and had to be able to use their 
+knowledge in a specific situation to answer the questions. At the same 
+time, the new method took away a lot of pressure and the children began 
+to find examinations interesting and enjoyable instead of being 
+stressful. A Comprehensive and Continuous Evaluation (CCE) system was 
+introduced along with this, which took into consideration the overall 
+personality of the student and reduced the dependence on a single final 
+examination for deciding promotion to the next class. At present, the 
+CBSE also has implemented CCE, but in a more flexible manner.</p>
+<p>Kerala was also the first state in the country to introduce 
+Information Technology as a subject of study at the High School level. 
+It was started in class 8 with the textbook introducing Microsoft 
+Windows and Microsoft Office. But within one year the government was 
+forced to include Free Software also in the curriculum by protests from 
+Free Software enthusiasts and a favorable stance taken by a school 
+teachers association that had the majority of government teachers as its 
+members. Eventually, from the year 2007, only GNU/Linux was taught in 
+the schools, and all computers in schools had only GNU/Linux installed. 
+At that time, perhaps even today, this was the largest installation of 
+GNU/Linux in schools, and made headlines even in other countries. Every 
+year, from 2007 onwards, about 500,000 children pass out of the schools 
+learning the concepts behind Free Software and the GNU/Linux operating 
+system and applications. The state is now moving towards IT Enabled 
+Education. Eventually, IT will not be taught as a separate subject. 
+Instead, all subjects will be taught with the help of IT so that the 
+children will, on the one hand, learn IT skills and, on the other, make 
+use of educational applications (such as those mentioned below) and 
+resources in the Internet (such as textual material from sites like 
+Wikipedia, images, animations and videos) to study their subjects and to 
+do exercises. Teachers and students have already started using 
+applications such as <a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/drgeo/";>
+Dr. Geo</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoGebra";>
+GeoGebra</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KTechLab";>
+KtechLab</a> for studying geometry and electronics. Applications like 
+<a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/sunclock/";>
+Sunclock</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalzium";>
+Kalzium</a> and <a href="http://directory.fsf.org/project/sunclock/";>
+Ghemical</a> are also popular among teachers and students.</p>
+<p>The initiative taken by Kerala is now influencing other states and 
+even the policies of the Government of India. States like Karnataka and 
+Gujarat are now planning to introduce Free Software in their schools, 
+and some other states like Maharashtra are examining the option. The new 
+education policy of the Government of India speaks about constructivism, 
+IT enabled education, Free Software and sharing educational resources. 
+Once a few of the larger states successfully migrate to Free Software, 
+it is hoped that the entire country would follow suit in a relatively 
+short time. When that happens, India could have the largest user base of 
+GNU/Linux and Free Software in general.</p>
+http://varnam.org/blog/2007/08/the_story_behind_macaulays_edu<br />
+<hr />
+<a id="sasi"></a><a href="http://swatantryam.blogspot.com/";>V. Sasi Kumar</a> 
is a doctor 
+in physics and a member of the FSF India Board of Directors. He advocates 
+for Free Software and freedom of knowledge.
+<!-- If needed, change the copyright block at the bottom. In general,
+     all pages on the GNU web server should have the section about
+     verbatim copying.  Please do NOT remove this without talking
+     with the webmasters first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the document
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+</div><!-- for id="content", starts in the include above -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" -->
+<div id="footer">
+<p>Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.
+There are also <a href="/contact/">other ways to contact</a>
+the FSF.<br />
+Please send broken links and other corrections or suggestions to
+<a href="mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+<p>Please see the <a
+README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting translations
+of this article.</p>
+<p>Copyright &copy; 2011 Dr. V. Sasi Kumar.</p>
+<p><!--TRANSLATORS: Please note that the license here is CC-BY-SA -->
+This page is licensed under a <a rel="license"
+Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License</a>.</p>
+<!-- timestamp start -->
+$Date: 2011/07/21 12:13:19 $
+<!-- timestamp end -->
+<div id="translations">
+<h4>Translations of this page</h4>
+<!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code.
+     Comment what the language is for each type, i.e. de is German.
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+     If you add a new language here, please
+     advise address@hidden and add it to
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+      - one of the lists under the section "Translations Underway"
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+     Please also check you have the language code right; see:
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+     Please use W3C normative character entities.
+     See also '(web-trans)Capitalization':
+     -->
+<ul class="translations-list">
+<!-- English -->
+<li><a href="/education/edu-system-india.html">English</a>&nbsp;[en]</li>

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