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www/education/draft edu-system-india.html

From: Dora Scilipoti
Subject: www/education/draft edu-system-india.html
Date: Mon, 04 Jul 2011 21:21:30 +0000

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Changes by:     Dora Scilipoti <dora>   11/07/04 21:21:30

Added files:
        education/draft: edu-system-india.html 

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        Adding article 'The Education System in India' by Dr. V. Sasi Kumar


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+<h2>The Education System in India</h2>
+<ul id="edu-navigation">
+  <li><a href="edu-contents.html">Education Contents</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-cases.html">Case Studies</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-resources.html">Educational Resources</a></li>
+  <li><a href="edu-projects.html">Education Projects</a></li>
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+<p class="edu-breadcrumb">
+<a href="education.html">Education</a> &rarr; The Education System in India</p>
+<p>by <strong>Dr. V. Sasi Kumar</strong></p>
+<p>In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which 
anyone who wished to study went to a teacher's (Guru) house and requested to be 
taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru's 
place and help in all activities at home. This not only created a strong tie 
between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything 
about running a house. The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, 
from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics. The 
student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught 
everything he could teach. All learning was closely linked to nature and to 
life, and not confined to memorising some information.</p>
+<p>The modern school system was brought to India, including the English 
language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay. The curriculum was 
confined to &ldquo;modern&rdquo; subjects such as science and mathematics, and 
subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary. Teaching 
was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the 
close relationship between the teacher and the student.</p>
+<p>The U.P. Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first 
Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, 
Central India and Gwalior. In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate 
Education, Rajputana, was established in response to the representation made by 
the Government of United Provinces. Later, boards were established in some of 
the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the Board was amended 
and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All schools in 
Delhi and some other regions came under the Board.</p>
+<p>Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 
6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This 
is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in 
article 45 of the constitution. But this objective remains far away even more 
than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears 
to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a 
Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and 
the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a 
role to make the government take such a step. The expenditure by the Government 
of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, 
which is recognised to be very low.</p> 
+<blockquote><p>&ldquo;In recent times, several major announcements were made 
for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most 
notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United 
Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) To 
progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) 
To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the 
quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over 
all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education 
due to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education a 
fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To 
universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha 
Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.&rdquo; 
+<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_india";>Wikipedia: Education 
in India</a>.</p></blockquote>
+<h3>The School System</h3>
+<p>As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state 
subject &mdash;that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies 
and implementing them. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to 
coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was 
changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in 
the so-called <em>concurrent list</em>. That is, school education policies and 
programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state 
governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are 
announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of 
Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the 
evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.
+There is a national organisation that plays a key role in developing policies 
and programmes, called the National Council for Educational Research and 
Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum Framework. Each state has 
its counterpart called the State Council for Educational Research and Training 
(SCERT). These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, 
curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states' 
departments of education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by 
the NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the 
education system.</p>
+<p>The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 
1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all 
children below 14 years before  the 21st Century. The government committed to 
earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for education, half of which 
would be spent on primary education. The expenditure on Education as a 
percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent 
in 1997-98.</p> 
+<p>The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), 
upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). 
The lower primary school is divided into five &ldquo;standards&rdquo;, upper 
primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. 
Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes 
in mother tongue) till the end of high school. There is some amount of 
specialisation possible at the higher secondary level. Students throughout the 
country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother 
tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams 
as discussed below.</p>
+<p>There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of these 
are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board 
of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central 
government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to 
any place in the country. A number of &ldquo;central schools&rdquo; (named 
Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban 
areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going 
from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference 
in what is being taught. One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, 
Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, 
in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are 
available. All of them follow textbooks written and published by the NCERT. In 
addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the 
country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and 
follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in 
what they teach in lower classes. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 
21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population 
+<p>The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education 
(ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge 
School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference held in 1952 under the 
Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister for Education. The 
main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas 
Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. In 
October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian 
Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to 
administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate's 
Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its 
examination to the needs of the country. The inaugural meeting of the Council 
was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council was registered as 
a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council was listed in 
the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting public examinations. 
Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this 
Council. All these are private schools and generally cater to children from 
wealthy families.</p>
+<p>Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in 
schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years 
of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher 
secondary). Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in 
this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to 
perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end 
of 10 years.</p>
+<h3>Exclusive Schools</h3>
+<p>In addition to the above, there are a relatively small number of schools 
that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior Cambridge, though 
this was largely superceded by the ICSE stream elsewhere. Some of these schools 
also offer the students the opportunity to sit for the ICSE examinations. These 
are usually very expensive residential schools where some of the Indians 
working abroad send their children. They normally have fabulous infrastructure, 
low student-teacher ratio and very few students. Many of them have teachers 
from abroad. There are also other exclusive schools such as the Doon School in 
Dehradun that take in a small number of students and charge exorbitant fees.</p>
+<p>Apart from all of these, there are a handful of schools around the country, 
such as the Rishi Valley school in Andhra Pradesh, that try to break away from 
the normal education system that promotes rote learning and implement 
innovative systems such as the Montessori method. Most such schools are 
expensive, have high teacher-student ratios and provide a learning environment 
in which each child can learn at his/her own pace. It would be interesting and 
instructive to do a study on what impact the kind of school has had on the life 
of their alumni.</p>
+<h3>State Schools</h3>
+<p>Each state in the country has its own Department of Education that runs its 
own school system with its own textbooks and evaluation system. As mentioned 
earlier, the curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation method are largely decided by 
the SCERT in the state, following the national guidelines prescribed by the 
+<p>Each state has three kinds of schools that follow the state curriculum. The 
government runs its own schools in land and buildings owned by the government 
and paying the staff from its own resources. These are generally known as 
<em>government schools</em>. The fees are quite low in such schools. Then there 
are privately owned schools with their own land and buildings. Here the fees 
are high and the teachers are paid by the management. Such schools mostly cater 
to the urban middle class families. The third kind consists of schools that are 
provided grant-in-aid by the government, though the school was started by a 
private agency in their own land and buildings. The grant-in-aid is meant to 
help reduce the fees and make it possible for poor families to send their 
children. In some states like Kerala, these schools are very similar to 
government schools since the teachers are paid by the government and the fees 
are the same as in government schools.</p>
+<h3>The Case of Kerala</h3>
+<p>The state of Kerala, a small state in the South Western coast of India, has 
been different from the rest of the country in many ways for the last few 
decades. It has, for instance, the highest literacy rate among all states, and 
was declared the first fully literate state about a decade back. Life 
expectancy, both male and female, is very high, close to that of the developed 
world. Other parameters such as fertility rate, infant and child mortality are 
among the best in the country, if not the best. The total fertility rate has 
been below the replacement rate of 2.1 for the last two decades. Probably as a 
side-effect of economic and social development, suicide rates and alcoholism 
are also very high. Government policies also have been very different from the 
rest of the country, leading to the development model followed in Kerala, with 
high expenditure in education and welfare, coming to be known as the ``Kerala 
Model'' among economists.</p>
+<p>Kerala has also always shown interest in trying out ways of improving its 
school education system. Every time the NCERT came up with new ideas, it was 
Kerala that tried it out first. The state experimented with the District 
Primary Education Programme (DPEP) with gusto, though there was opposition to 
it from various quarters, and even took it beyond primary classes. The state 
was the first in the country to move from the traditional behaviourist way of 
teaching to a social constructivist paradigm. It was mentioned in the National 
Curriculum Framework of NCERT in the year 2000, and Kerala started trying it 
out the next year. The transaction in the classroom and the evaluation 
methodology were changed. Instead of direct questions that could be answered 
only through memorising the lessons, indirect questions and open ended 
questions were included so that the student needed to think before answering, 
and the answers could be subjective to some extent. This meant that the 
students had to digest what they studied and had to be able to use their 
knowledge in a specific situation to answer the questions. At the same time, 
the new method took away a lot of pressure and the children began to find 
examinations interesting and enjoyable instead of being stressful. A 
Comprehensive and Continuous Evaluation (CCE) system was introduced along with 
this, which took into consideration the overall personality of the student and 
reduced the dependence on a single final examination for deciding promotion to 
the next class. At present, the CBSE also has implemented CCE, but in a more 
flexible manner.</p>
+<p>Kerala was also the first state in the country to introduce Information 
Technology as a subject of study at the High School level. It was started in 
class 8 with the textbook introducing Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. 
But within one year the government was forced to include Free Software also in 
the curriculum. Eventually, from the year 2007, only GNU/Linux was taught in 
the schools, and all computers in schools had only GNU/Linux installed. At that 
time, perhaps even today, this was the largest installation of GNU/Linux in 
schools, and made headlines even in other countries. Every year, from 2007 
onwards, about 500,000 children pass out of the schools learning the concepts 
behind Free Software and the GNU/Linux operating system and applications. The 
state is now moving towards IT Enabled Education. Eventually, IT will not be 
taught as a separate subject. Instead, all subjects will be taught with the 
help of IT so that the children will, on the one hand, learn IT skills and, on 
the other, make use of applications and resources in the Internet to study 
their subjects. Teachers and students have already started using applications 
such as Dr. Geo, Geogebra, and Ktechlab for studying geometry and electronics. 
Applications like Sunclock, Kalzium and Ghemical are also popular among 
teachers and students.</p>
+<p>The initiative taken by Kerala is now influencing other states and even the 
policies of the Government of India. States like Karnataka and Gujarat are now 
planning to introduce Free Software in their schools, and some other states 
like Maharashtra are examining the option. The new education policy of the 
Government of India speaks about constructivism, IT enabled education, Free and 
Open Source Software and sharing educational resources. Once a few of the 
larger states successfully migrate to Free Software, it is hoped that the 
entire country would follow suit in a relatively short time. When that happens, 
India could have the largest user base of GNU/Linux and Free Software in 
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+       <p>Please see the <a 
href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations README</a> for 
information on coordinating and submitting translations of this article.</p>
+       <p>Copyright &copy; 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</p>
+       <p>Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article are 
permitted worldwide, without royalty, in any medium, provided this notice, and 
the copyright notice, are preserved.</p>
+       <p>Updated:
+       <!-- timestamp start -->$Date: 2011/07/04 21:21:26 $<!-- timestamp end 
+       </p>
+<div id="translations">
+       <h4><a 
href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations</a> of this 
+       <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical by language code. Comment what 
the language is for each type, i.e. de is German. Write the language name in 
its own language (Deutsch) in the text. If you add a new language here, please 
advise address@hidden and add it to - 
/home/www/html/server/standards/README.translations.html - one of the lists 
under the section "Translations Underway" - if there is a translation team, you 
also have to add an alias to mail.gnu.org:/com/mailer/aliases Please also check 
you have the language code right; see: 
http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php If the 2-letter ISO 
639-1 code is not available, use the 3-letter ISO 639-2. Please use W3C 
normative character entities. See also '(web-trans)Capitalization': 
+       <!-- ZCZC START MARK by RMS46 031117 -->
+       <ul class="translations-list">
+               <!-- English -->
+               <li><a 
+       </ul>

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