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www/gnu manifesto.html


From: Karl Berry
Subject: www/gnu manifesto.html
Date: Tue, 23 Mar 2010 01:10:48 +0000

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Karl Berry <karl>       10/03/23 01:10:48

Modified files:
        gnu            : manifesto.html 

Log message:
        attempt to fix footnote references, #560306

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/gnu/manifesto.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.42&r2=1.43

Patches:
Index: manifesto.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/gnu/manifesto.html,v
retrieving revision 1.42
retrieving revision 1.43
diff -u -b -r1.42 -r1.43
--- manifesto.html      4 Mar 2010 17:29:12 -0000       1.42
+++ manifesto.html      23 Mar 2010 01:10:45 -0000      1.43
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
 <p>
    GNU, which stands for Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete
 Unix-compatible software system which I am writing so that I can give
-it away free to everyone who can use it. <a href="#f1">(1)</a> Several
+it away free to everyone who can use it.<a href="#f1">(1)</a> Several
 other volunteers are helping me.  Contributions of time, money,
 programs and equipment are greatly needed.</p>
 
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@
 decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I
 will be able to get along without any software that is not free.  I
 have resigned from the AI lab to deny MIT any legal excuse to prevent
-me from giving GNU away <a href="#f2a">(2a)</a>.</p>
+me from giving GNU away.<a href="#f2a">(2)</a></p>
 
 <h3>Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix</h3>
 
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@
 
 <p>
    Once GNU is written, everyone will be able to obtain good system
-software free, just like air.<a href="#f2">(2)</a></p>
+software free, just like air.<a href="#f2">(3)</a></p>
 
 <p>
    This means much more than just saving everyone the price of a Unix
@@ -236,7 +236,7 @@
 <p>
    If people would rather pay for GNU plus service than get GNU free
 without service, a company to provide just service to people who have
-obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.<a href="#f3">(3)</a></p>
+obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.<a href="#f3">(4)</a></p>
 
 <p>
    We must distinguish between support in the form of real programming
@@ -289,7 +289,7 @@
    On the other hand, if many people get GNU from their friends, and
 such companies don't succeed, this will show that advertising was not
 really necessary to spread GNU.  Why is it that free market advocates
-don't want to let the free market decide this?<a href="#f4">(4)</a></p>
+don't want to let the free market decide this?<a href="#f4">(5)</a></p>
 
 <p>
 <strong>&ldquo;My company needs a proprietary operating system to get
@@ -307,7 +307,7 @@
 
 <p>
    I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many
-manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.<a href="#f5">(5)</a></p>
+manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.<a href="#f5">(6)</a></p>
 
 <p>
 <strong>&ldquo;Don't programmers deserve a reward for their
@@ -369,7 +369,8 @@
 
 <p>
    Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software.
-It is the most common basis <a href="#f8">(8)</a> because it brings in the 
most money.  If it
+It is the most common basis<a href="#f8">(7)</a> because it brings in
+the most money.  If it
 were prohibited, or rejected by the customer, software business would
 move to other bases of organization which are now used less often.
 There are always numerous ways to organize any kind of business.</p>
@@ -393,7 +394,7 @@
 
 <p>
    People who have studied the issue of intellectual property
-rights<a href="#f6">(6)</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say that there
+rights<a href="#f6">(8)</a> carefully (such as lawyers) say that there
 is no intrinsic right to intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed
 intellectual property rights that the government recognizes were
 created by specific acts of legislation for specific purposes.</p>
@@ -520,7 +521,7 @@
 
 <p>
    People with new ideas could distribute programs as
-freeware<a href="#f7">(7)</a>, asking for donations from satisfied
+freeware<a href="#f7">(9)</a>, asking for donations from satisfied
 users, or selling hand-holding services.  I have met people who are
 already working this way successfully.</p>
 
@@ -579,6 +580,9 @@
 
 <h4>Footnotes</h4>
 
+<!-- The anchors do not match the actual footnote numbers because of
+     revisions over time.  And if a new footnote is added, the references
+     to existing footnotes that follow the new one must be changed.  -->
 <ol>
 <li><a name="f1"></a>The wording here was careless.  The intention
 was that nobody would have to pay for <b>permission</b> to use the GNU
@@ -595,19 +599,19 @@
 the better.  The important thing is that everyone who has a copy has
 the freedom to cooperate with others in using it.</li>
 
-<li><a name="f2"></a>This is another place I failed to distinguish
-carefully between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free&rdquo;.
-The statement as it stands is not false&mdash;you can get copies of GNU
-software at no charge, from your friends or over the net.  But it does
-suggest the wrong idea.</li>
-
-<li><a name="f2a"></a>The expression ``give away'' is another
+<li><a name="f2a"></a>The expression &ldquo;give away&rdquo; is another
 indication that I had not yet clearly separated the issue of price
 from that of freedom.  We now recommend avoiding this expression when
 talking about free software.  See
 <a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#GiveAwaySoftware">
 <q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more explanation.</li>
 
+<li><a name="f2"></a>This is another place I failed to distinguish
+carefully between the two different meanings of &ldquo;free&rdquo;.
+The statement as it stands is not false&mdash;you can get copies of GNU
+software at no charge, from your friends or over the net.  But it does
+suggest the wrong idea.</li>
+
 <li><a name="f3"></a>Several such companies now exist.</li>
 
 <li><a name="f4"></a> Although it is a
@@ -620,6 +624,16 @@
 <li><a name="f5"></a>A group of computer companies pooled funds
 around 1991 to support maintenance of the GNU C Compiler.</li>
 
+<li><a name="f8"></a>I think I was mistaken in saying that proprietary
+software was the most common basis for making money in software.
+It seems that actually the most common business model was and is
+development of custom software.  That does not offer the possibility
+of collecting rents, so the business has to keep doing real work
+in order to keep getting income.  The custom software business would
+continue to exist, more or less unchanged, in a free software world.
+Therefore, I no longer expect that most paid programmers would earn less
+in a free software world.</li>
+
 <li><a name="f6"></a>In the 1980s I had not yet realized how confusing
 it was to speak of &ldquo;the issue&rdquo; of &ldquo;intellectual
 property&rdquo;.  That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the
@@ -639,15 +653,6 @@
 <a href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#Freeware">
 <q>Confusing Words and Phrases</q></a> for more explanation.</li>
 
-<li><a name="f8"></a>I think I was mistaken in saying that proprietary
-software was the most common basis for making money in software.
-It seems that actually the most common business model was and is
-development of custom software.  That does not offer the possibility
-of collecting rents, so the business has to keep doing real work
-in order to keep getting income.  The custom software business would
-continue to exist, more or less unchanged, in a free software world.
-Therefore, I no longer expect that most paid programmers would earn less
-in a free software world.</li>
 </ol>
 
 </div>
@@ -688,7 +693,7 @@
 <p>
 Updated:
 <!-- timestamp start -->
-$Date: 2010/03/04 17:29:12 $
+$Date: 2010/03/23 01:10:45 $
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>
 </div>




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