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Re: [Tinycc-devel] Question about tcc (C67) assembler code.

From: Dave Dodge
Subject: Re: [Tinycc-devel] Question about tcc (C67) assembler code.
Date: Thu, 15 Dec 2005 18:54:56 -0500
User-agent: Mutt/1.4.2i

On Thu, Dec 15, 2005 at 02:35:54PM -0700, Kim Lux wrote:
> What are the "<<23"s about ?
>       C67_g((0 << 29) |       //creg
>             (0 << 28) |       //inv
>             (C67_map_regn(c) << 23) | //dst
>             (C67_map_regn(b) << 18) | //src2 (possible x path)
>             (C67_map_regn(a) << 13) | //src1 
>             (xpath << 12) |   //x cross path if opposite sides
>             (0x7b << 5) |     //opcode
>             (0x6 << 2) |      //opcode fixed
>             (C67_map_regs(c) << 1) |  //side of dest
>             (0 << 0));        //parallel

I don't know anything about C67, but this appears to be a simple
bitfield packing function.  I assume C67_map_regn(c) returns a 5-bit
value in the range [0,31], which is then shifted 23 bits so that it
ends up in bits 24-28 of the resulting machine word.

> If one is writing a new assembler, should it be done in the same way ?

That probably depends on the machine architecture.  Each system will
have its own special issues and requirements.  C67 looks like a simple
design with 32-bit instructions and not a lot of variation in the
instruction formats.  Other architectures are not so simple, for

  - i386 has variable-length instructions and (if you include support
    for later models) a gigantic instruction set.  The instruction set
    manual for i686 fills something like two 700-page books.

  - SPARC has "delay slots" that can cause the instruction after a
    branch to be executed even when the branch is taken; this may
    require instructions to be emitted out-of-order.

  - Itanium2 requires instructions to be emitted in bundles: each 128
    bits contains 3 41-bit instructions and one 5-bit template
    describing the execution units involved.  This gets complicated
    and the compiler is responsible for scheduling access to the CPU's

                                                  -Dave Dodge

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