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Re: [PATCH] hw/core: Fix data type in do_nmi()


From: Greg Kurz
Subject: Re: [PATCH] hw/core: Fix data type in do_nmi()
Date: Mon, 9 Dec 2019 11:55:03 +0100

On Mon, 9 Dec 2019 20:12:09 +1100
Gavin Shan <address@hidden> wrote:

> On 12/9/19 7:36 PM, Greg Kurz wrote:
> > On Sun, 8 Dec 2019 00:14:00 +1100
> > Gavin Shan <address@hidden> wrote:
> > 
> >> On 12/7/19 3:50 AM, Greg Kurz wrote:
> >>> On Fri,  6 Dec 2019 17:36:42 +1100
> >>> Gavin Shan <address@hidden> wrote:
> >>>
> >>>> object_dynamic_cast() should return machine (or GPIO) state instad of NMI
> >>>> state in do_nmi(). So it's wrong to convert it to NMI state 
> >>>> unconditionally.
> >>>>
> >>>
> >>> object_dynamic_cast() returns either its first argument if it can be cast
> >>> to the given typename or NULL. Since the x86, ccw and spapr machines and
> >>> the PowerMac GPIO implement the NMI interface, nothing is wrong here.
> >>>
> >>> The do_nmi() function is called for all objects in the QOM tree and simply
> >>> filters out the ones that don't implement the NMI interface.
> >>>
> >>> I do agree that this isn't super obvious though. It would be clearer to
> >>> do the filtering in the foreach() function. Something like:
> >>>
> >>> https://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/1182232/
> >>>
> >>
> >> Greg, Thanks for the review and comments. I think we're talking about
> >> different issues. I do agree it's worthy to simplify the code with the
> >> object_child_foreach_type(), but later.
> >>
> >> When we have below parameters to qemu, object_dynamic_cast(o, TYPE_NMI)
> >> returns object of "pc-q35-4.2-machine", which is passed to the subquent
> >> NMIClass::nmi_monitor_handler(). However, the function expects a NMIState
> >> from its prototype as below. This patch changes the prototype to fill the
> >> gap.
> >>
> >>      void (*nmi_monitor_handler)(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error **errp);
> >>
> > 
> > Hmm... the "pc-q35-4.2-machine" type inherits from the TYPE_PC_MACHINE,
> > which in turns inherits from TYPE_X86_MACHINE, which implements the
> > TYPE_NMI interface. It thus seems okay to pass this object to x86_nmi().
> > 
> > What are you trying to fix here ?
> > 
> 
> There is no valid instance associated with interface class. For this specific
> case, there is no NMIState instance. I don't understand how we can pass a
> valid NMIState to the function.

Ah I get it. Please read the include/qom/object.h to understand what QOM
interfaces are about. Especially this paragraph:

 * # Interfaces #
 *
 * Interfaces allow a limited form of multiple inheritance.  Instances are
 * similar to normal types except for the fact that are only defined by
 * their classes and never carry any state.  You can dynamically cast an object
 * to one of its #Interface types and vice versa.

> Furthermore, below code returns "pc-q35-4.2-machine"
> object instead of NMIState. It's not safe to do the forced conversion here.
> 
>     /* It returns "pc-q35-4.2-machine" instance */
>     NMIState *n = (NMIState *) object_dynamic_cast(o, TYPE_NMI);
>       :
>     nc->nmi_monitor_handler(n, ns->cpu_index, &ns->err);

As explained in my previous mail, this _forced conversion_ is the current
way to implement object_child_foreach_type(). It is ugly and confusing for
newcomers but it is safe since the pointer is either TYPE_NMI or NULL, in
which case the handler isn't called.

> 
> 
> If "struct NMIState" is declared and the data struct is written in the 
> function.
> We will run into data corruption if I'm correct.
> 

The 'struct NMIState' isn't defined on purpose, but I agree this isn't 
documented
anywhere except in this changelog:

commit 00ed3da9b5c2e66e796a172df3e19545462b9c90
Author: David Gibson <address@hidden>
Date:   Tue Sep 24 16:00:33 2019 +1000

    xics: Minor fixes for XICSFabric interface
    
    Interface instances should never be directly dereferenced.  So, the common
    practice is to make them incomplete types to make sure no-one does that.
    XICSFrabric, however, had a dummy type which is less safe.
    
    We were also using OBJECT_CHECK() where we should have been using
    INTERFACE_CHECK().
    
    Signed-off-by: David Gibson <address@hidden>
    Reviewed-by: Greg Kurz <address@hidden>
    Reviewed-by: C├ędric Le Goater <address@hidden>

Maybe the NMIState naming was a poor choice since there's no associated
state with QOM interfaces. But we do want to keep a typedef though: it
is more precise and hence safer to pass an NMIState * than an Object *.

> I'm pasting the message I had. Hope this helps for understanding the issue:
> 
> --- a/hw/core/nmi.c
> +++ b/hw/core/nmi.c
> @@ -42,6 +42,10 @@ static int do_nmi(Object *o, void *opaque)
>       if (n) {
>           NMIClass *nc = NMI_GET_CLASS(n);
>   
> +       fprintf(stdout, "%s: o=%s, n=%s\n",
> +                __func__, object_get_typename(OBJECT(o)),
> +                object_get_typename(OBJECT(n)));
> +
> 

object_get_typename() returns the type of the instance, which is either
a machine or a GPIO in the current code base. This is different from
object_dynamic_cast() which just tells if a given object can be cast
to a give type (either regular QOM type or QOM interface).

It is up to the various NMIClass::nmi_monitor_handler() to make sure
they're being passed the right object.

macio_gpio_nmi() explicitly does that with MACIO_GPIO(n). The other
ones only need to access the CPU state and end up checking it is
valid: s390_nmi() checks S390_CPU(cs), x86_nmi() checks X86_CPU(cs)
and

spapr_nmi()
 ->async_run_on_cpu()
   ->spapr_do_system_reset_on_cpu()
     ->ppc_cpu_do_system_reset() checks POWERPC_CPU(cs)

but they could maybe assert(object_dynamic_cast()) as well for
clarity.

> 
> # QEMU 4.1.93 monitor - type 'help' for more information
> (qemu) nmi
> do_nmi: o=pc-q35-4.2-machine, n=pc-q35-4.2-machine
> 
> 
> >>      Changed to:
> >>
> >>      void (*nmi_monitor_handler)(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error 
> >> **errp);
> >>
> >>      ~/sandbox/src/qemu/qemu.main.x86/x86_64-softmmu/qemu-system-x86_64    
> >>           \
> >>      --enable-kvm -machine type=q35,accel=kvm,kernel-irqchip=on -cpu host 
> >> -smp 2 -m 1G    \
> >>      -monitor none -serial mon:stdio -nographic -s                         
> >>                \
> >>      -bios ~/sandbox/src/firmware/seabios/out/bios.bin                     
> >>                \
> >>      -kernel ~/sandbox/src/linux/linux.main.x86/arch/x86/boot/bzImage      
> >>                \
> >>      -initrd ~/sandbox/src/util/buildroot/output/images/rootfs.cpio.xz     
> >>                \
> >>      -append "earlyprintk=ttyS0 console=ttyS0 debug"                       
> >>                \
> >>      -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=unet,mac=52:54:00:f1:26:a6              
> >>                \
> >>      -netdev user,id=unet,hostfwd=tcp::50959-:22                           
> >>                \
> >>      -drive file=~/sandbox/images/vm.img,if=none,format=raw,id=nvme0       
> >>                \
> >>      -device nvme,drive=nvme0,serial=foo                                   
> >>                \
> >>      -drive file=~/sandbox/images/vm1.img,if=none,format=raw,id=nvme1      
> >>                \
> >>      -device nvme,drive=nvme1,serial=foo1
> >>
> >>>> This changes the prototype of NMIClass::nmi_monitor_handler() to accept
> >>>> the parent object of NMI state instead of itself. With this, he parent 
> >>>> object
> >>>> is passed to the function, to avoid potential data corruption.
> >>>>
> >>>> Signed-off-by: Gavin Shan <address@hidden>
> >>>> ---
> >>>>    hw/core/nmi.c              | 8 ++++----
> >>>>    hw/i386/x86.c              | 2 +-
> >>>>    hw/misc/macio/gpio.c       | 6 +++---
> >>>>    hw/ppc/spapr.c             | 2 +-
> >>>>    hw/s390x/s390-virtio-ccw.c | 2 +-
> >>>>    include/hw/nmi.h           | 2 +-
> >>>>    6 files changed, 11 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
> >>>>
> >>>> diff --git a/hw/core/nmi.c b/hw/core/nmi.c
> >>>> index 481c4b3c7e..554708d0db 100644
> >>>> --- a/hw/core/nmi.c
> >>>> +++ b/hw/core/nmi.c
> >>>> @@ -37,13 +37,13 @@ static void nmi_children(Object *o, struct do_nmi_s 
> >>>> *ns);
> >>>>    static int do_nmi(Object *o, void *opaque)
> >>>>    {
> >>>>        struct do_nmi_s *ns = opaque;
> >>>> -    NMIState *n = (NMIState *) object_dynamic_cast(o, TYPE_NMI);
> >>>> +    Object *parent = object_dynamic_cast(o, TYPE_NMI);
> >>>>    
> >>>> -    if (n) {
> >>>> -        NMIClass *nc = NMI_GET_CLASS(n);
> >>>> +    if (parent) {
> >>>> +        NMIClass *nc = NMI_GET_CLASS(parent);
> >>>>    
> >>>>            ns->handled = true;
> >>>> -        nc->nmi_monitor_handler(n, ns->cpu_index, &ns->err);
> >>>> +        nc->nmi_monitor_handler(parent, ns->cpu_index, &ns->err);
> >>>>            if (ns->err) {
> >>>>                return -1;
> >>>>            }
> >>>> diff --git a/hw/i386/x86.c b/hw/i386/x86.c
> >>>> index 394edc2f72..b98204f104 100644
> >>>> --- a/hw/i386/x86.c
> >>>> +++ b/hw/i386/x86.c
> >>>> @@ -190,7 +190,7 @@ const CPUArchIdList 
> >>>> *x86_possible_cpu_arch_ids(MachineState *ms)
> >>>>        return ms->possible_cpus;
> >>>>    }
> >>>>    
> >>>> -static void x86_nmi(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>> +static void x86_nmi(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>>    {
> >>>>        /* cpu index isn't used */
> >>>>        CPUState *cs;
> >>>> diff --git a/hw/misc/macio/gpio.c b/hw/misc/macio/gpio.c
> >>>> index 6cca6b27d6..6b4dfcc188 100644
> >>>> --- a/hw/misc/macio/gpio.c
> >>>> +++ b/hw/misc/macio/gpio.c
> >>>> @@ -196,10 +196,10 @@ static void macio_gpio_reset(DeviceState *dev)
> >>>>        macio_set_gpio(s, 1, true);
> >>>>    }
> >>>>    
> >>>> -static void macio_gpio_nmi(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>> +static void macio_gpio_nmi(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>>    {
> >>>> -    macio_set_gpio(MACIO_GPIO(n), 9, true);
> >>>> -    macio_set_gpio(MACIO_GPIO(n), 9, false);
> >>>> +    macio_set_gpio(MACIO_GPIO(parent), 9, true);
> >>>> +    macio_set_gpio(MACIO_GPIO(parent), 9, false);
> >>>>    }
> >>>>    
> >>>>    static void macio_gpio_class_init(ObjectClass *oc, void *data)
> >>>> diff --git a/hw/ppc/spapr.c b/hw/ppc/spapr.c
> >>>> index e076f6023c..3b92e4013d 100644
> >>>> --- a/hw/ppc/spapr.c
> >>>> +++ b/hw/ppc/spapr.c
> >>>> @@ -3377,7 +3377,7 @@ void spapr_do_system_reset_on_cpu(CPUState *cs, 
> >>>> run_on_cpu_data arg)
> >>>>        ppc_cpu_do_system_reset(cs);
> >>>>    }
> >>>>    
> >>>> -static void spapr_nmi(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>> +static void spapr_nmi(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>>    {
> >>>>        CPUState *cs;
> >>>>    
> >>>> diff --git a/hw/s390x/s390-virtio-ccw.c b/hw/s390x/s390-virtio-ccw.c
> >>>> index d3edeef0ad..a49952a8b9 100644
> >>>> --- a/hw/s390x/s390-virtio-ccw.c
> >>>> +++ b/hw/s390x/s390-virtio-ccw.c
> >>>> @@ -431,7 +431,7 @@ static void s390_hot_add_cpu(MachineState *machine,
> >>>>        s390x_new_cpu(object_class_get_name(oc), id, errp);
> >>>>    }
> >>>>    
> >>>> -static void s390_nmi(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>> +static void s390_nmi(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error **errp)
> >>>>    {
> >>>>        CPUState *cs = qemu_get_cpu(cpu_index);
> >>>>    
> >>>> diff --git a/include/hw/nmi.h b/include/hw/nmi.h
> >>>> index a1e128724e..75afa67790 100644
> >>>> --- a/include/hw/nmi.h
> >>>> +++ b/include/hw/nmi.h
> >>>> @@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ typedef struct NMIState NMIState;
> >>>>    typedef struct NMIClass {
> >>>>        InterfaceClass parent_class;
> >>>>    
> >>>> -    void (*nmi_monitor_handler)(NMIState *n, int cpu_index, Error 
> >>>> **errp);
> >>>> +    void (*nmi_monitor_handler)(Object *parent, int cpu_index, Error 
> >>>> **errp);
> >>>>    } NMIClass;
> >>>>    
> >>>>    void nmi_monitor_handle(int cpu_index, Error **errp);
> >>>
> 
> Regards,
> Gavin
> 




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