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Re: [RFC PATCH 0/9] Introduce mediate ops in vfio-pci

From: Jason Wang
Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH 0/9] Introduce mediate ops in vfio-pci
Date: Thu, 5 Dec 2019 21:05:54 +0800
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:60.0) Gecko/20100101 Thunderbird/60.8.0

On 2019/12/5 下午4:51, Yan Zhao wrote:
On Thu, Dec 05, 2019 at 02:33:19PM +0800, Jason Wang wrote:

On 2019/12/5 上午11:24, Yan Zhao wrote:
For SRIOV devices, VFs are passthroughed into guest directly without host
driver mediation. However, when VMs migrating with passthroughed VFs,
dynamic host mediation is required to  (1) get device states, (2) get
dirty pages. Since device states as well as other critical information
required for dirty page tracking for VFs are usually retrieved from PFs,
it is handy to provide an extension in PF driver to centralizingly control
VFs' migration.

Therefore, in order to realize (1) passthrough VFs at normal time, (2)
dynamically trap VFs' bars for dirty page tracking and

A silly question, what's the reason for doing this, is this a must for dirty
page tracking?

For performance consideration. VFs' bars should be passthoughed at
normal time and only enter into trap state on need.

Right, but how does this matter for the case of dirty page tracking?

   (3) centralizing
VF critical states retrieving and VF controls into one driver, we propose
to introduce mediate ops on top of current vfio-pci device driver.

                                     _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
   __________   register mediate ops|  ___________     ___________    |
|          |<-----------------------|     VF    |   |           |
| vfio-pci |                      | |  mediate  |   | PF driver |   |
|__________|----------------------->|   driver  |   |___________|
       |            open(pdev)      |  -----------          |         |
       |                                                    |
       |                            |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|_ _ _ _ _|
      \|/                                                  \|/
-----------                                         ------------
|    VF   |                                         |    PF    |
-----------                                         ------------

VF mediate driver could be a standalone driver that does not bind to
any devices (as in demo code in patches 5-6) or it could be a built-in
extension of PF driver (as in patches 7-9) .

Rather than directly bind to VF, VF mediate driver register a mediate
ops into vfio-pci in driver init. vfio-pci maintains a list of such
mediate ops.
(Note that: VF mediate driver can register mediate ops into vfio-pci
before vfio-pci binding to any devices. And VF mediate driver can
support mediating multiple devices.)

When opening a device (e.g. a VF), vfio-pci goes through the mediate ops
list and calls each vfio_pci_mediate_ops->open() with pdev of the opening
device as a parameter.
VF mediate driver should return success or failure depending on it
supports the pdev or not.
E.g. VF mediate driver would compare its supported VF devfn with the
devfn of the passed-in pdev.
Once vfio-pci finds a successful vfio_pci_mediate_ops->open(), it will
stop querying other mediate ops and bind the opening device with this
mediate ops using the returned mediate handle.

Further vfio-pci ops (VFIO_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO ioctl, rw, mmap) on the
VF will be intercepted into VF mediate driver as
vfio_pci_mediate_ops->mmap, and get customized.
For vfio_pci_mediate_ops->rw and vfio_pci_mediate_ops->mmap, they will
further return 'pt' to indicate whether vfio-pci should further
passthrough data to hw.

when vfio-pci closes the VF, it calls its vfio_pci_mediate_ops->release()
with a mediate handle as parameter.

The mediate handle returned from vfio_pci_mediate_ops->open() lets VF
mediate driver be able to differentiate two opening VFs of the same device
id and vendor id.

When VF mediate driver exits, it unregisters its mediate ops from

In this patchset, we enable vfio-pci to provide 3 things:
(1) calling mediate ops to allow vendor driver customizing default
region info/rw/mmap of a region.
(2) provide a migration region to support migration

What's the benefit of introducing a region? It looks to me we don't expect
the region to be accessed directly from guest. Could we simply extend device
fd ioctl for doing such things?

You may take a look on mdev live migration discussions in

or previous discussion at
which has kernel side implemetation 

generaly speaking, qemu part of live migration is consistent for
vfio-pci + mediate ops way or mdev way.

So in mdev, do you still have a mediate driver? Or you expect the parent to implement the region?

The region is only a channel for
QEMU and kernel to communicate information without introducing IOCTLs.

Well, at least you introduce new type of region in uapi. So this does not answer why region is better than ioctl. If the region will only be used by qemu, using ioctl is much more easier and straightforward.

(3) provide a dynamic trap bar info region to allow vendor driver
control trap/untrap of device pci bars

This vfio-pci + mediate ops way differs from mdev way in that
(1) medv way needs to create a 1:1 mdev device on top of one VF, device
specific mdev parent driver is bound to VF directly.
(2) vfio-pci + mediate ops way does not create mdev devices and VF
mediate driver does not bind to VFs. Instead, vfio-pci binds to VFs.

The reason why we don't choose the way of writing mdev parent driver is
(1) VFs are almost all the time directly passthroughed. Directly binding
to vfio-pci can make most of the code shared/reused.

Can we split out the common parts from vfio-pci?

That's very attractive. but one cannot implement a vfio-pci except
export everything in it as common part :)

Well, I think there should be not hard to do that. E..g you can route it back to like:

vfio -> vfio_mdev -> parent -> vfio_pci

   If we write a
vendor specific mdev parent driver, most of the code (like passthrough
style of rw/mmap) still needs to be copied from vfio-pci driver, which is
actually a duplicated and tedious work.

The mediate ops looks quite similar to what vfio-mdev did. And it looks to
me we need to consider live migration for mdev as well. In that case, do we
still expect mediate ops through VFIO directly?

(2) For features like dynamically trap/untrap pci bars, if they are in
vfio-pci, they can be available to most people without repeated code
copying and re-testing.
(3) with a 1:1 mdev driver which passthrough VFs most of the time, people
have to decide whether to bind VFs to vfio-pci or mdev parent driver before
it runs into a real migration need. However, if vfio-pci is bound
initially, they have no chance to do live migration when there's a need

We can teach management layer to do this.

No. not possible as vfio-pci by default has no migration region and
dirty page tracking needs vendor's mediation at least for most
passthrough devices now.

I'm not quite sure I get here but in this case, just tech them to use the driver that has migration support?




In this patchset,
- patches 1-4 enable vfio-pci to call mediate ops registered by vendor
    driver to mediate/customize region info/rw/mmap.

- patches 5-6 provide a standalone sample driver to register a mediate ops
    for Intel Graphics Devices. It does not bind to IGDs directly but decides
    what devices it supports via its pciidlist. It also demonstrates how to
    dynamic trap a device's PCI bars. (by adding more pciids in its
    pciidlist, this sample driver actually is not necessarily limited to
    support IGDs)

- patch 7-9 provide a sample on i40e driver that supports Intel(R)
    Ethernet Controller XL710 Family of devices. It supports VF precopy live
    migration on Intel's 710 SRIOV. (but we commented out the real
    implementation of dirty page tracking and device state retrieving part
    to focus on demonstrating framework part. Will send out them in future
    patch 7 registers/unregisters VF mediate ops when PF driver
    probes/removes. It specifies its supporting VFs via

    patch 8 reports device cap of VFIO_PCI_DEVICE_CAP_MIGRATION and
    provides a sample implementation of migration region.
    The QEMU part of vfio migration is based on v8
    We do not based on recent v9 because we think there are still opens in
    dirty page track part in that series.

    patch 9 reports device cap of VFIO_PCI_DEVICE_CAP_DYNAMIC_TRAP_BAR and
    provides an example on how to trap part of bar0 when migration starts
    and passthrough this part of bar0 again when migration fails.

Yan Zhao (9):
    vfio/pci: introduce mediate ops to intercept vfio-pci ops
    vfio/pci: test existence before calling region->ops
    vfio/pci: register a default migration region
    vfio-pci: register default dynamic-trap-bar-info region
    samples/vfio-pci/igd_dt: sample driver to mediate a passthrough IGD
    sample/vfio-pci/igd_dt: dynamically trap/untrap subregion of IGD bar0
    i40e/vf_migration: register mediate_ops to vfio-pci
    i40e/vf_migration: mediate migration region
    i40e/vf_migration: support dynamic trap of bar0

   drivers/net/ethernet/intel/Kconfig            |   2 +-
   drivers/net/ethernet/intel/i40e/Makefile      |   3 +-
   drivers/net/ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e.h        |   2 +
   drivers/net/ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e_main.c   |   3 +
   .../ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e_vf_migration.c   | 626 ++++++++++++++++++
   .../ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e_vf_migration.h   |  78 +++
   drivers/vfio/pci/vfio_pci.c                   | 189 +++++-
   drivers/vfio/pci/vfio_pci_private.h           |   2 +
   include/linux/vfio.h                          |  18 +
   include/uapi/linux/vfio.h                     | 160 +++++
   samples/Kconfig                               |   6 +
   samples/Makefile                              |   1 +
   samples/vfio-pci/Makefile                     |   2 +
   samples/vfio-pci/igd_dt.c                     | 367 ++++++++++
   14 files changed, 1455 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
   create mode 100644 drivers/net/ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e_vf_migration.c
   create mode 100644 drivers/net/ethernet/intel/i40e/i40e_vf_migration.h
   create mode 100644 samples/vfio-pci/Makefile
   create mode 100644 samples/vfio-pci/igd_dt.c

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