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Re: [Qemu-devel] [PATCH v5 01/45] Start documenting how postcopy works.
Re: [Qemu-devel] [PATCH v5 01/45] Start documenting how postcopy works.
Thu, 5 Mar 2015 14:21:19 +1100
On Wed, Feb 25, 2015 at 04:51:24PM +0000, Dr. David Alan Gilbert (git) wrote:
> From: "Dr. David Alan Gilbert" <address@hidden>
> Signed-off-by: Dr. David Alan Gilbert <address@hidden>
> docs/migration.txt | 189
> 1 file changed, 189 insertions(+)
> diff --git a/docs/migration.txt b/docs/migration.txt
> index 0492a45..c6c3798 100644
> --- a/docs/migration.txt
> +++ b/docs/migration.txt
> @@ -294,3 +294,192 @@ save/send this state when we are in the middle of a pio
> (that is what ide_drive_pio_state_needed() checks). If DRQ_STAT is
> not enabled, the values on that fields are garbage and don't need to
> be sent.
> += Return path =
> +In most migration scenarios there is only a single data path that runs
> +from the source VM to the destination, typically along a single fd (although
> +possibly with another fd or similar for some fast way of throwing pages
> +However, some uses need two way communication; in particular the Postcopy
> +needs to be able to request pages on demand from the source.
> +For these scenarios there is a 'return path' from the destination to the
> +qemu_file_get_return_path(QEMUFile* fwdpath) gives the QEMUFile* for the
> + Source side
> + Forward path - written by migration thread
> + Return path - opened by main thread, read by return-path thread
> + Destination side
> + Forward path - read by main thread
> + Return path - opened by main thread, written by main thread AND
> + thread (protected by rp_mutex)
> += Postcopy =
> +'Postcopy' migration is a way to deal with migrations that refuse to
> +its plus side is that there is an upper bound on the amount of migration
> +and time it takes, the down side is that during the postcopy phase, a
> failure of
> +*either* side or the network connection causes the guest to be lost.
> +In postcopy the destination CPUs are started before all the memory has been
> +transferred, and accesses to pages that are yet to be transferred cause
> +a fault that's translated by QEMU into a request to the source QEMU.
> +Postcopy can be combined with precopy (i.e. normal migration) so that if
> +doesn't finish in a given time the switch is made to postcopy.
> +=== Enabling postcopy ===
> +To enable postcopy (prior to the start of migration):
> +migrate_set_capability x-postcopy-ram on
> +The migration will still start in precopy mode, however issuing:
> +will now cause the transition from precopy to postcopy.
> +It can be issued immediately after migration is started or any
> +time later on. Issuing it after the end of a migration is harmless.
It's not quite clear to me what this means. Does
"migrate_start_postcopy" mean it will immediately transfer execution
and transfer any remaining pages postcopy, or does it just mean it
will start postcopying once the remaining data to transfer is small
What's the reason for this rather awkward two stage activation of
> +=== Postcopy device transfer ===
> +Loading of device data may cause the device emulation to access guest RAM
> +that may trigger faults that have to be resolved by the source, as such
> +the migration stream has to be able to respond with page data *during* the
> +device load, and hence the device data has to be read from the stream
> +before the device load begins to free the stream up. This is achieved by
> +'packaging' the device data into a blob that's read in one go.
> +Source behaviour
> +Until postcopy is entered the migration stream is identical to normal
> +precopy, except for the addition of a 'postcopy advise' command at
> +the beginning, to tell the destination that postcopy might happen.
> +When postcopy starts the source sends the page discard data and then
> +forms the 'package' containing:
> + Command: 'postcopy ram listen'
> + The device state
> + A series of sections, identical to the precopy streams device state
> + containing everything except postcopiable devices (i.e. RAM)
> + Command: 'postcopy ram run'
> +The 'package' is sent as the data part of a Command: 'CMD_PACKAGED', and the
> +contents are formatted in the same way as the main migration stream.
It seems to me the "ram listen", "ram run" and CMD_PACKAGED really
have to be used in conjuction this way, they don't really have any use
on their own. So why not make it all CMD_POSTCOPY_TRANSITION and have
the "listen" and "run" take effect implicitly at the beginning and end
of the device data.
> +Destination behaviour
> +Initially the destination looks the same as precopy, with a single thread
> +reading the migration stream; the 'postcopy advise' and 'discard' commands
> +are processed to change the way RAM is managed, but don't affect the stream
> + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
> +main -----DISCARD-CMD_PACKAGED ( LISTEN DEVICE DEVICE DEVICE RUN )
> +thread | |
> + | (page request)
> + | \___
> + v \
> +listen thread: --- page -- page -- page -- page -- page
> + a b c
> +On receipt of CMD_PACKAGED (1)
> + All the data associated with the package - the ( ... ) section in the
>- is read into memory (into a QEMUSizedBuffer), and the main thread
> +recurses into qemu_loadvm_state_main to process the contents of the package
> +which contains commands (3,6) and devices (4...)
> +On receipt of 'postcopy ram listen' - 3 -(i.e. the 1st command in the
> +a new thread (a) is started that takes over servicing the migration stream,
> +while the main thread carries on loading the package. It loads normal
> +background page data (b) but if during a device load a fault happens (5) the
> +returned page (c) is loaded by the listen thread allowing the main threads
> +device load to carry on.
> +The last thing in the CMD_PACKAGED is a 'RUN' command (6) letting the
> +CPUs start running.
> +At the end of the CMD_PACKAGED (7) the main thread returns to normal running
> +and is no longer used by migration, while the listen thread carries
> +on servicing page data until the end of migration.
> +=== Postcopy states ===
> +Postcopy moves through a series of states (see postcopy_state) from
> + Advise: Set at the start of migration if postcopy is enabled, even
> + if it hasn't had the start command; here the destination
> + checks that its OS has the support needed for postcopy, and
> + setup to ensure the RAM mappings are suitable for later postcopy.
> + (Triggered by reception of POSTCOPY_ADVISE command)
> + Listen: The first command in the package, POSTCOPY_LISTEN, switches
> + the destination state to Listen, and starts a new thread
> + (the 'listen thread') which takes over the job of receiving
> + pages off the migration stream, while the main thread carries
> + on processing the blob. With this thread able to process page
> + reception, the destination now 'sensitises' the RAM to detect
> + any access to missing pages (on Linux using the 'userfault'
> + system).
> + Running: POSTCOPY_RUN causes the destination to synchronise all
> + state and start the CPUs and IO devices running. The main
> + thread now finishes processing the migration package and
> + now carries on as it would for normal precopy migration
> + (although it can't do the cleanup it would do as it
> + finishes a normal migration).
> + End: The listen thread can now quit, and perform the cleanup of migration
> + state, the migration is now complete.
> +=== Source side page maps ===
> +The source side keeps two bitmaps during postcopy; 'the migration bitmap'
> +and 'sent map'. The 'migration bitmap' is basically the same as in
> +the precopy case, and holds a bit to indicate that page is 'dirty' -
> +i.e. needs sending. During the precopy phase this is updated as the CPU
> +dirties pages, however during postcopy the CPUs are stopped and nothing
> +should dirty anything any more.
> +The 'sent map' is used for the transition to postcopy. It is a bitmap that
> +has a bit set whenever a page is sent to the destination, however during
> +the transition to postcopy mode it is masked against the migration bitmap
> +(sentmap &= migrationbitmap) to generate a bitmap recording pages that
> +have been previously been sent but are now dirty again. This masked
> +sentmap is sent to the destination which discards those now dirty pages
> +before starting the CPUs.
> +Note that once in postcopy mode, the sent map is still updated; however,
> +its contents are not necessarily consistent with the pages already sent
> +due to the masking with the migration bitmap.
> +=== Destination side page maps ===
> +(Needs to be changed so we can update both easily - at the moment updates
> are done
> + with a lock)
> +The destination keeps a state for each page which is 'missing', 'received'
> +or 'requested'; these three states are encoded in a 2 bit state array.
> +Incoming requests from the kernel cause the state to transition from
> +to 'requested'. Received pages cause a transition from either 'missing' or
> +'requested' to 'received'; the kernel is notified on reception to wake up
> +any threads that were waiting for the page.
> +If the kernel requests a page that has already been 'received' the kernel is
> +notified without re-requesting.
> +This leads to four valid page states:
> +page states:
> + missing - page not yet received or requested
> + received - Page received
> + requested - page requested but not yet received
> +state transitions:
> + received -> missing (only during setup/discard)
> + missing -> received (normal incoming page)
> + requested -> received (incoming page previously requested)
> + missing -> requested (userfault request)
David Gibson | I'll have my music baroque, and my code
david AT gibson.dropbear.id.au | minimalist, thank you. NOT _the_ _other_
| _way_ _around_!
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- Re: [Qemu-devel] [PATCH v5 01/45] Start documenting how postcopy works.,
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