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[PATCH for-5.1 4/4] docs/system: Document the arm virt board

From: Peter Maydell
Subject: [PATCH for-5.1 4/4] docs/system: Document the arm virt board
Date: Mon, 13 Jul 2020 18:57:46 +0100

Document the arm 'virt' board, which has been undocumented
for far too long given that it is the main recommended board
type for arm guests.

Signed-off-by: Peter Maydell <peter.maydell@linaro.org>
 docs/system/arm/virt.rst   | 157 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 docs/system/target-arm.rst |   1 +
 MAINTAINERS                |   1 +
 3 files changed, 159 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 docs/system/arm/virt.rst

diff --git a/docs/system/arm/virt.rst b/docs/system/arm/virt.rst
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..6a7823d8bca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/system/arm/virt.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,157 @@
+'virt' generic virtual platform (``virt``)
+The `virt` board is a platform which does not correspond to any
+real hardware; it is designed for use in virtual machines.
+It is the recommended board type if you simply want to run
+a guest such as Linux and do not care about reproducing the
+idiosyncrasies and limitations of a particular bit of real-world
+This is a "versioned" board model, so as well as the ``virt`` machine
+type itself (which may have improvements, bugfixes and other minor
+changes between QEMU versions) a version is provided that guarantees
+to have the same behaviour as that of previous QEMU releases, so
+that VM migration will work between QEMU versions. For instance the
+``virt-5.0`` machine type will behave like the ``virt`` machine from
+the QEMU 5.0 release, and migration should work between ``virt-5.0``
+of the 5.0 release and ``virt-5.0`` of the 5.1 release. Migration
+is not guaranteed to work between different QEMU releases for
+the non-versioned ``virt`` machine type.
+Supported devices
+The virt board supports:
+- Flash memory
+- One PL011 UART
+- An RTC
+- The fw_cfg device that allows a guest to obtain data from QEMU
+- A PL061 GPIO controller
+- An optional SMMUv3 IOMMU
+- hotpluggable DIMMs
+- hotpluggable NVDIMs
+- 32 virtio-mmio transport devices
+- running guests using the KVM accelerator on aarch64 hardware
+- large amounts of RAM (at least 255GB, and more if using highmem)
+- many CPUs (up to 512 if using a GICv3 and highmem)
+- Secure-World-only devices if the CPU has TrustZone:
+  - A second PL011 UART
+  - A secure flash memory
+  - 16MB of secure RAM
+Supported guest CPU types:
+- ``cortex-a7`` (32-bit)
+- ``cortex-a15`` (32-bit; the default)
+- ``cortex-a53`` (64-bit)
+- ``cortex-a57`` (64-bit)
+- ``cortex-a72`` (64-bit)
+- ``host`` (with KVM only)
+- ``max`` (same as ``host`` for KVM; best possible emulation with TCG)
+Note that the default is ``cortex-a15``, so for an AArch64 guest you must
+specify a CPU type.
+Graphics output is available, but unlike the x86 PC machine types
+there is no default display device enabled: you should select one from
+the Display devices section of "-device help". The recommended option
+is ``virtio-gpu-pci``; this is the only one which will work correctly
+with KVM. You may also need to ensure your guest kernel is configured
+with support for this; see below.
+Machine-specific options
+The following machine-specific options are supported:
+  Set ``on``/``off`` to enable/disable emulating a guest CPU which implements 
+  Arm Security Extensions (TrustZone). The default is ``off``.
+  Set ``on``/``off`` to enable/disable emulating a guest CPU which implements 
+  Arm Virtualization Extensions. The default is ``off``.
+  Set ``on``/``off`` to enable/disable placing devices and RAM in physical
+  address space above 32 bits. The default is ``on`` for machine types
+  later than ``virt-2.12``.
+  Specify the version of the Generic Interrupt Controller (GIC) to provide.
+  Valid values are:
+  ``2``
+    GICv2
+  ``3``
+    GICv3
+  ``host``
+    Use the same GIC version the host provides, when using KVM
+  ``max``
+    Use the best GIC version possible (same as host when using KVM;
+    currently same as ``3``` for TCG, but this may change in future)
+  Set ``on``/``off`` to enable/disable ITS instantiation. The default is ``on``
+  for machine types later than ``virt-2.7``.
+  Set the IOMMU type to create for the guest. Valid values are:
+  ``none``
+    Don't create an IOMMU (the default)
+  ``smmuv3``
+    Create an SMMUv3
+  Set ``on``/``off`` to enable/disable reporting host memory errors to a guest
+  using ACPI and guest external abort exceptions. The default is off.
+Linux guest kernel configuration
+The 'defconfig' for Linux arm and arm64 kernels should include the
+right device drivers for virtio and the PCI controller; however some older
+kernel versions, especially for 32-bit Arm, did not have everything
+enabled by default. If you're not seeing PCI devices that you expect,
+then check that your guest config has::
+If you want to use the ``virtio-gpu-pci`` graphics device you will also
+Hardware configuration information for bare-metal programming
+The ``virt`` board automatically generates a device tree blob ("dtb")
+which it passes to the guest. This provides information about the
+addresses, interrupt lines and other configuration of the various devices
+in the system. Guest code can rely on and hard-code the following
+- Flash memory starts at address 0x0000_0000
+- RAM starts at 0x4000_0000
+All other information about device locations may change between
+QEMU versions, so guest code must look in the DTB.
+QEMU supports two types of guest image boot for ``virt``, and
+the way for the guest code to locate the dtb binary differs:
+- For guests using the Linux kernel boot protocol (this means any
+  non-ELF file passed to the QEMU ``-kernel`` option) the address
+  of the DTB is passed in a register (``r2`` for 32-bit guests,
+  or ``x0`` for 64-bit guests)
+- For guests booting as "bare-metal" (any other kind of boot),
+  the DTB is at the start of RAM (0x4000_0000)
diff --git a/docs/system/target-arm.rst b/docs/system/target-arm.rst
index 163ab915592..4c5b0e4aab8 100644
--- a/docs/system/target-arm.rst
+++ b/docs/system/target-arm.rst
@@ -92,6 +92,7 @@ undocumented; you can get a complete list by running
+   arm/virt
 Arm CPU features
index 286b076da89..553760e5442 100644
@@ -878,6 +878,7 @@ L: qemu-arm@nongnu.org
 S: Maintained
 F: hw/arm/virt*
 F: include/hw/arm/virt.h
+F: docs/system/arm/virt.rst
 Xilinx Zynq
 M: Edgar E. Iglesias <edgar.iglesias@gmail.com>

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