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[lmi-commits] [lmi] master 0215566 4/6: Further improve a local function
From: |
Greg Chicares |
Subject: |
[lmi-commits] [lmi] master 0215566 4/6: Further improve a local function in a unit-test TU |
Date: |
Thu, 26 Aug 2021 20:48:05 -0400 (EDT) |
branch: master
commit 0215566fb0a23318446af8ff58c69b0105f6e4ec
Author: Gregory W. Chicares <gchicares@sbcglobal.net>
Commit: Gregory W. Chicares <gchicares@sbcglobal.net>
Further improve a local function in a unit-test TU
The adjustments and supporting rationalizations in this and the
preceding commit suggest that it might be better to replace
max_n_eval_bolzano() completely. However, that would require a
considerable effort: the canonical ⌈log2((b-a)/tol)⌉ formula
disregards the actual value of the root, which Brent introduces
in his formula for bisection and then reuses in his formula for
the maximum number of iterations with his algorithm.
---
zero_test.cpp | 58 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------
1 file changed, 41 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)
diff --git a/zero_test.cpp b/zero_test.cpp
index e14df6c..ec08fc1 100644
--- a/zero_test.cpp
+++ b/zero_test.cpp
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ double max_err(double zeta, double tol)
return 6.0 * epsilon * std::fabs(zeta) + 2.0 * tol;
}
-/// AfMWD eq. 3.3: maximum number of evaluations for bisection.
+/// AfMWD eq. 3.2: maximum number of evaluations for bisection.
///
/// The return value, k+1, is the exact number of function
/// evaluations unless f vanishes early, as Brent explains in the
@@ -64,25 +64,42 @@ double max_err(double zeta, double tol)
/// prevent 'delta' from being zero (which Brent wouldn't allow
/// anyway: he says "t is a positive absolute tolerance" in the
/// paragraph following equation 2.9). Why ϵ/2 instead of ϵ?
-/// Two reasons:
-/// - Brent multiplies 'tol' by two.
-/// - Using ϵ/2 gives the correct number of iterations for an
-/// input tolerance of zero; using ϵ does not, as one of the
-/// unit tests below demonstrates.
+/// Because using ϵ/2 gives the correct number of iterations for an
+/// input tolerance of zero; using ϵ does not, as is demonstrated
+/// by some unit tests below. But why is the correct answer obtained
+/// only by using ϵ/2 where ϵ seems natural? Most authors give the
+/// number of steps (disregarding two initial endpoint evaluations)
+/// as
+/// ⌈log2((b-a)/tol)⌉
+/// so that the total number of evaluations is
+/// 2 + ⌈log2((b-a)/tol)⌉
+/// whereas Brent gives an answer one lower, presumably because he
+/// regards the tolerance as '2t'.
///
/// static_cast<int> is exact for any number of evaluations that
/// can be counted by an 'int'.
///
-/// The greatest possible number of bisection steps is:
-/// log2(DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) / DBL_TRUE_MIN
-/// = 1 + 1024 + 1074 = 2099
+/// The greatest possible number of bisection steps (i.e., of extra
+/// evaluations in addition to the initial two, one at each endpoint)
+/// with the lowest possible positive 'tol' is:
+/// log2((DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) / DBL_TRUE_MIN)
+/// = log2 (DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) - log2(DBL_TRUE_MIN)
+/// = (1 + 1024) - -1074 = 2099
+/// = 1025 + 1074 = 2099
/// Yet an IEEE 754 binary64 entity can have no more than 2^64
/// distinct values; with an appropriate definition of "bisection",
/// about 64 steps should suffice.
///
-/// Known defect:
+/// Known defects:
/// - std::fabs(DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) overflows.
-/// Such a defect in a unit-testing TU needn't be fixed.
+/// - Brent's eq. 3.2 with the strange ϵ/2 adjustment is shown to
+/// give a correct result in certain cases, but a more canonical
+/// version would probably be better.
+/// - What is the lowest positive value of 'tol' that makes sense?
+/// The ϵ/2 adjustment assumes that it is ϵ/2, so that ϵ=2t; but
+/// the log2((DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) / DBL_TRUE_MIN) calculation
+/// conflictingly assumes that it is DBL_TRUE_MIN.
+/// Such defects in a unit-testing TU needn't be fixed.
int max_n_eval_bolzano(double a, double b, double tol, double zeta)
{
@@ -93,7 +110,7 @@ int max_n_eval_bolzano(double a, double b, double tol,
double zeta)
return 1 + static_cast<int>(k);
}
-/// AfMWD eq. 3.3: maximum number of evaluations for Brent's method.
+/// AfMWD eq. 3.2: maximum number of evaluations for Brent's method.
///
/// The greatest possible number of steps is 2099^2 = 4405801.
@@ -381,11 +398,9 @@ void test_fundamentals()
//
// log2(DBL_MAX) is 1024, so log2(DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) is 1025;
// and log2(DBL_TRUE_MIN) is 1074; so the maximum number of
- // evaluations is
- // log2(DBL_MAX - -DBL_MAX) / DBL_TRUE_MIN
- // = 1 + 1024 + 1074 = 2099
- // for bisection, and 2099^2 = 4405801 for Brent's method with
- // IEEE 754 binary64.
+ // evaluations with IEEE 754 binary64 is
+ // 1025 + 1074 = 2099 for bisection, and
+ // 2099^2 = 4405801 for Brent's method
long double max = DBL_MAX;
long double min = DBL_TRUE_MIN;
int max_iter = static_cast<int>(std::ceil(std::log2((max - -max) / min)));
@@ -1209,6 +1224,15 @@ void test_hodgepodge()
// less than the actual 55 here.
LMI_TEST_EQUAL(55, r.n_eval); // weak
+ // Here is an easier way to see that the ϵ/2 minimum is correct.
+ // Consider nine equally-spaced point centered around zero:
+ // a=-4ϵ -3ϵ -2ϵ -1ϵ 0ϵ 1ϵ 2ϵ 3ϵ 4ϵ=b
+ // Bisection in [a,b] requires evaluating f(a) and f(b), so there
+ // are two initial evaluations. To find a root requires evaluating
+ // f at 0, then at -2ϵ or 2ϵ, then at one of the odd multiples of
+ // ϵ; that's three more evaluations, for a total of five.
+ LMI_TEST_EQUAL(5, max_n_eval_bolzano(-4.0 * epsilon, 4.0 * epsilon, 0.0,
0.0));
+
std::ostringstream oss;
r = lmi_root(signum_offset, -1.0e300, 1.0e300, 5.0e-19, oss);
LMI_TEST(root_is_valid == r.validity);
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master updated (8fd99ca -> 9e68ef8), Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master 144c075 5/6: Make a unit-test function return a useful value, Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master 0215566 4/6: Further improve a local function in a unit-test TU,
Greg Chicares <=
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master d4aeb8d 1/6: Improve shellcheck usage, Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master 166571d 3/6: Improve a local function in a unit-test TU, Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master 9e68ef8 6/6: Add TOMS 748 unit tests, Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26
- [lmi-commits] [lmi] master 11df70d 2/6: Assert nonnegativity of certain unit-test parameters, Greg Chicares, 2021/08/26