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[Axiom-developer] booklet.c.pamphlet

From: root
Subject: [Axiom-developer] booklet.c.pamphlet
Date: Mon, 28 Jul 2003 20:33:59 -0400


I promised to send you the changed booklet pamphlet but didn't.
Mea Culpa. Here it is.

Aside from screwing over the C format I changed it to output
the chunk unchanged if it did not contain a protocol specifier.
I also added additional documentation.


====================== booklet.c.pamphlet ============================

\title{\$SPAD/src/doc booklet.c}
\author{David Mentre}
Booklet preprocesses a file and expands protocol specifiers in chunk names
This is the booklet program. It scans the input file for a set of chunk
names that contain ``protocol specifiers''. These protocol specifiers
are replaced by their results. Any other normal chunk is undisturbed.

A protocol specifier is a prefix within the chunk name. For the moment
this program recognizes only one protocol specifier, the ``file:''
protocol. This is used to specify a file which will be included into
the file (similar to C style \#include statements). The syntax is:


where PATH-AND-FILENAME can be any valid file system name.

See appendix \ref{part:requirements} for description of what the original
requirements were specified.



Needed includes and global variable. Nothing special.

The command line allows you to specify a [[-v]] flag. If this flag
is present then [[verbose]] is set to 1 and we print on stdout what
we are doing.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

int verbose = 0;


\section{Recursive parsing and expansion}

Recursive routine used to expand pamphlet files to file descriptor
[[out]]. The input is taken from file named [[filename]].

Without error, it returns [[0]]. On error, it prints on stderr a trace
and returns [[-1]].

We read input file character by character. We rely on libc buffering for
performance. If we find the opening [[<<]] of a chunk we call [[find_url]]
to handle the chunk. Note that the two characters we swallow will be
output by [[find_url]] if this is not a protocol chunk.

int recursive_parsing(FILE * out, char *filename)
  FILE *f;
  int c;
  if (verbose) /* was -v specified? */
    printf("Parsing input file '%s'\n", filename);

  f = fopen(filename, "r");
  if (f == NULL) /* we couldn't open the input file */
  { fprintf(stderr, "error: cannot open input file '%s'\n", filename);
    return -1;

  c = fgetc(f);
  while (c != EOF) 
  { if (c == '<') 
    { /* maybe an opening '<<'? */
      int c2 = fgetc(f);

      if (c2 == EOF) 
      { fputc(c, out);
        return 0;
      if (c2 == '<') 
      { /* yep, we have a '<<' */
        if (find_url(out, f)) 
        { fprintf(stderr, "error: while parsing file '%s'\n", filename);
          return 1;
      { fputc(c, out);
        fputc(c2, out);
    { fputc(c, out);
    c = fgetc(f);
  return 0;


We define a routine that, given an [[url]], do the needed lookup to find
what kind of url it is, open it and puts it content into file descriptor

If the chunk name does not contain a protocol specifier we recognize
then we ignore the input.

int url_dispatch(FILE *out, unsigned char *url)
{ int i = 0;
  char c = '\0';
  if (verbose) printf("Found URL:'%s'\n", url);
  if (strncmp(url, "file:", 5) == 0) 
  { recursive_parsing(out, &url[5]);
  else /* no protocol specifier. dump the chunk name */
  { fputc('<',out);
    for(c=url[i++]; c != '\0'; c=url[i++])
  return 0;

We define a routine that find a booklet URL in file descriptor [[f]]. We
now that we have already found the start of URL [[<<]]. So we look for
the end of URL sign ([[>>]]) and store the found URL in [[buf]]. Once we
have our URL, we call the dispatch routine on it to expand it.

If, for any reason, we do not find a valid chunk name we output the
characters we found so the original file is unchanged. If we do find
a valid chunk name we call [[url_dispatch]] to look for a protocol

We use a buffer of fixed size [[buf]] to store the search URL. {\bf
FIXME: this restriction should be fixed in a later version.}

#define BUF_SIZE 1024

int find_url(FILE *out, FILE *f)
  unsigned char buf[BUF_SIZE];
  int c = fgetc(f);
  int i = 0;
  while ((i < BUF_SIZE) && (c != EOF)) 
  { if (c == '>') /* start of '>>'? */
    { int c2 = fgetc(f);
      if (c2 == EOF) 
      { buf[i] = 0;
        fprintf(stderr,"error: end of file after first '>' of URL:'%s'\n",buf);
        return -1;
      if (c2 == '>')  /* yep, we found a valid chunk */
      { buf[i] = 0;
        url_dispatch(out, buf); /* look for a protocol specifier */
        return 0;
      /* no, just a single '>' */
      buf[i] = (unsigned char)c;
      c = fgetc(f);
    else  /* just a random character, add it to the buffer */ 
    { buf[i] = (unsigned char)c;
      c = fgetc(f);
  if (i == 0) /* we got no characters */
  { fprintf(stderr, "error: empty url\n");
    return -1;
  if (i == BUF_SIZE) /* we overflowed the buffer */
  { fprintf(stderr, "internal error: buf exhausted in function find_url()\n");
    return -1;
  buf[i] = 0;
  fprintf(stderr, "error: non terminating URL:'%s'\n", buf);
  return -1;

Print how to use this program.
void print_usage(void)
  printf("booklet %s\n", <<version>>);
  printf("usage: booklet [-v] bookletfile pamphletfile\n");


\section {main}

<<print usage and exit>>=

We parse command line to take our arguments, we open files and then call
recursive expansion.

{\bf FIXME: maybe it would be better to do output on a temporary file
  and move it to destination if no error?}

int main(int argc, char **argv) 
  FILE *out;
  if (argc < 3 || argc > 4) 
  { <<print usage and exit>>    
  if (argc == 3) /* -v was not specified */
  { out = fopen(argv[2], "w");
    if (out == NULL) /* we can't write the output file */
    { fprintf(stderr, "error: unable to open output file '%s'\n", argv[2]);
    if (recursive_parsing(out, argv[1])) /* parsing failed */
      return -1;
  else /* -v was specified? */
  { if (strncmp(argv[1], "-v", 2) == 0) /* -v was specified */
    { verbose = 1; 
    else /* an unknown option was specified */
    { fprintf(stderr, "bad option '%s'\n", argv[1]);
      <<print usage and exit>>
    out = fopen(argv[3], "w");
    if (out == NULL) /* we couldn't open the input file */
    { fprintf(stderr, "error: unable to open input file '%s'\n", argv[3]);
    if (recursive_parsing(out, argv[2])) /* parsing failed */
      return -1;
  return 0;


\section{Initial requirements for booklet made by Tim Daly}

Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2003 07:22:30 -0400
From: root <address@hidden>
To: address@hidden
Cc: address@hidden
Subject: [Axiom-developer] booklet function
Lines: 84

I need a simple C program to do the following:

booklet [-v] bookletfile pamphletfile

The booklet function is basically a recursive macro-expander.

The booklet function takes as input the name of a booklet file and the
name of a pamphlet file. 

The bookletfile is any file that contains special strings of the form:
which we will call a booklet URL. 

The booklet function replaces the whole booklet URL including the
surrounding @<< and >> symbols by the contents of filename.

The replaced text should be exact with no extra leading or trailing
characters so that x@<<file:filename1>>@<<file:filename2>>y where filename1
contains a single byte 'a' and filename2 contains a single byte 'b'
should result in the inline string 'xaby'.

The replaced text is recursively searched for any instance of a
booklet URL and these are replaced inline.

The resulting text is output to the pamphletfile.

The -v flag is optional. If supplied the booklet function write the
replacement actions to standard output thus:
in (filename1) replacing @<<file:filename2>> with text from (filename2)
where (filename1) is the file containing the booklet URL and
filename2 is the parsed filename from the booklet URL. This will
allow the user to trace where replacements are specified and where
the replacement came from.

If the file is not found the booklet function should fail with a clear
diagnostic traceback that outputs the containing file, the failing
booklet URL, and a recursive traceback. This should allow the user to
easily find the path of embeds that led to the failing line. The
failing booklet program should return a -1 to the shell.

Note that the filename in the booklet URL can contain a relative or
absolute pathname and will have to follow system-specific naming
conventions (forward-slash for unix, backslash for windows).

At this time only the file: protocol specifier is needed.

It should be a design criteria that the file: portion of the booklet URL
be considered one of a set of cases for a "protocol specifier" which will
be further specified in the future as needed (likely containing such
things as "http:", "pamphlet:", etc). 

It should be a design criteria that each protocol specifier has it's own
associated parser as the syntax of the booklet URL may vary based on the
protocol specifier. Thus,
@<<file:filename>> parses the 'filename' portion as a path and file spec.
@<<http:web>> parses the 'web' portion as any valid URL

Note that the booklet program should be developed as a literate program
and be contained in a single pamphlet file that does not use booklet URLs.
This is required so that the booklet function does not depend on itself.

(Axiom will build on multiple platforms and portions of the system will
be specified in booklet files. We need this program to be standalone
as it will be built very early in the process (even before the common
lisp). This will allow portions of the system to be written as booklet
files. The protocol specifiers will be used later to fetch pamphlet
files mentioned in the reference section of a pamphlet. Since we have
not used this feature yet there is no reason to implement anything. 
However, as we expect to use this feature in the future it is important
that the booklet function be (a) flexible enough to add other protocol
specifiers and (b) documented as a pamphlet file so others can change it.)

If this is unclear please ask questions.

Tim Daly

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