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www/gnu/po thegnuproject.zh-cn.po

From: Wensheng XIE
Subject: www/gnu/po thegnuproject.zh-cn.po
Date: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 09:51:10 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     Wensheng XIE <wxie>     17/09/14 09:51:10

Added files:
        gnu/po         : thegnuproject.zh-cn.po 

Log message:
        zh-cn: commit new translation


Index: thegnuproject.zh-cn.po
RCS file: thegnuproject.zh-cn.po
diff -N thegnuproject.zh-cn.po
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ thegnuproject.zh-cn.po      14 Sep 2017 13:51:08 -0000      1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,1960 @@
+# Simplified Chinese translation of https://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html
+# Copyright (C) 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the original article.
+# Wensheng Xie <address@hidden>, 2017.
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: thegnuproject.html\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-06-25 13:26+0000\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-09-14 21:44+0800\n"
+"Last-Translator: Wensheng Xie <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language-Team: Chinese <address@hidden>\n"
+"Language: zh_CN\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+#. type: Content of: <title>
+msgid "About the GNU Project - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "关于 GNU - GNU工程 - 自由软件基金会"
+#. type: Attribute 'content' of: <meta>
+msgid "GNU, GNU Project, FSF, Free Software, Free Software Foundation, History"
+msgstr "GNU,GNU工程,FSF,自由软件,自由软件基金会,历史"
+#. type: Content of: <h2>
+msgid "The GNU Project"
+msgstr "GNU工程"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"by <a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a>"
+msgstr ""
+"<a href=\"http://www.stallman.org/\";><strong>Richard Stallman</strong></a> 
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Originally published in the book <em>Open Sources</em>.  Richard Stallman "
+"was <a href=\"/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html\"> never a "
+"supporter of &ldquo;open source&rdquo;</a>, but contributed this article so "
+"that the ideas of the free software movement would not be entirely absent "
+"from that book."
+msgstr ""
+"最初发表于<em>开源</em>一书。Richard Stallman本人<a 
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid ""
+"Why it is even more important than ever <a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-"
+"even-more-important.html\">to insist that the software we use be free</a>."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The first software-sharing community"
+msgstr "第一个软件分享社区"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When I started working at the <acronym title=\"Massachusetts Institute of "
+"Technology\">MIT</acronym> Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971, I became "
+"part of a software-sharing community that had existed for many years.  "
+"Sharing of software was not limited to our particular community; it is as "
+"old as computers, just as sharing of recipes is as old as cooking.  But we "
+"did it more than most."
+msgstr ""
+"当我1971年开始在<acronym title=\"Massachusetts Institute of 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The AI Lab used a timesharing operating system called <acronym title="
+"\"Incompatible Timesharing System\">ITS</acronym> (the Incompatible "
+"Timesharing System) that the lab's staff hackers (1) had designed and "
+"written in assembler language for the Digital <acronym title=\"Programmed "
+"Data Processor\">PDP</acronym>-10, one of the large computers of the era.  "
+"As a member of this community, an AI Lab staff system hacker, my job was to "
+"improve this system."
+msgstr ""
+"人工智能实验室当时使用一种称为<acronym title=\"Incompatible 
Timesharing "
+"(1)设计并用汇编语言为Digital公司的<acronym title=\"Programmed 
Data Processor"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We did not call our software &ldquo;free software&rdquo;, because that term "
+"did not yet exist; but that is what it was.  Whenever people from another "
+"university or a company wanted to port and use a program, we gladly let "
+"them.  If you saw someone using an unfamiliar and interesting program, you "
+"could always ask to see the source code, so that you could read it, change "
+"it, or cannibalize parts of it to make a new program."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) The use of &ldquo;hacker&rdquo; to mean &ldquo;security breaker&rdquo; "
+"is a confusion on the part of the mass media.  We hackers refuse to "
+"recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who "
+"loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination "
+"of the two.  See my article, <a href=\"http://stallman.org/articles/on-";
+"hacking.html\">On Hacking</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) 使用&ldquo;黑客&rdquo;一词来表示&ldquo;安全破坏者
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The collapse of the community"
+msgstr "社区的解体"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The situation changed drastically in the early 1980s when Digital "
+"discontinued the PDP-10 series.  Its architecture, elegant and powerful in "
+"the 60s, could not extend naturally to the larger address spaces that were "
+"becoming feasible in the 80s.  This meant that nearly all of the programs "
+"composing ITS were obsolete."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The AI Lab hacker community had already collapsed, not long before.  In "
+"1981, the spin-off company Symbolics had hired away nearly all of the "
+"hackers from the AI Lab, and the depopulated community was unable to "
+"maintain itself.  (The book Hackers, by Steve Levy, describes these events, "
+"as well as giving a clear picture of this community in its prime.)  When the "
+"AI Lab bought a new PDP-10 in 1982, its administrators decided to use "
+"Digital's nonfree timesharing system instead of ITS."
+msgstr ""
以为续。(Steve Levy的黑客"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The modern computers of the era, such as the VAX or the 68020, had their own "
+"operating systems, but none of them were free software: you had to sign a "
+"nondisclosure agreement even to get an executable copy."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This meant that the first step in using a computer was to promise not to "
+"help your neighbor.  A cooperating community was forbidden.  The rule made "
+"by the owners of proprietary software was, &ldquo;If you share with your "
+"neighbor, you are a pirate.  If you want any changes, beg us to make them."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The idea that the proprietary software social system&mdash;the system that "
+"says you are not allowed to share or change software&mdash;is antisocial, "
+"that it is unethical, that it is simply wrong, may come as a surprise to "
+"some readers.  But what else could we say about a system based on dividing "
+"the public and keeping users helpless? Readers who find the idea surprising "
+"may have taken the proprietary software social system as a given, or judged "
+"it on the terms suggested by proprietary software businesses.  Software "
+"publishers have worked long and hard to convince people that there is only "
+"one way to look at the issue."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"When software publishers talk about &ldquo;enforcing&rdquo; their &ldquo;"
+"rights&rdquo; or &ldquo;stopping <a href=\"/philosophy/words-to-avoid."
+"html#Piracy\">piracy</a>&rdquo;, what they actually <em>say</em> is "
+"secondary.  The real message of these statements is in the unstated "
+"assumptions they take for granted, which the public is asked to accept "
+"without examination.  Let's therefore examine them."
+msgstr ""
强&rdquo;他们的&ldquo;权利&rdquo;或者&ldquo;打击<a "
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One assumption is that software companies have an unquestionable natural "
+"right to own software and thus have power over all its users.  (If this were "
+"a natural right, then no matter how much harm it does to the public, we "
+"could not object.)  Interestingly, the US Constitution and legal tradition "
+"reject this view; copyright is not a natural right, but an artificial "
+"government-imposed monopoly that limits the users' natural right to copy."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another unstated assumption is that the only important thing about software "
+"is what jobs it allows you to do&mdash;that we computer users should not "
+"care what kind of society we are allowed to have."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A third assumption is that we would have no usable software (or would never "
+"have a program to do this or that particular job) if we did not offer a "
+"company power over the users of the program.  This assumption may have "
+"seemed plausible, before the free software movement demonstrated that we can "
+"make plenty of useful software without putting chains on it."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If we decline to accept these assumptions, and judge these issues based on "
+"ordinary commonsense morality while placing the users first, we arrive at "
+"very different conclusions.  Computer users should be free to modify "
+"programs to fit their needs, and free to share software, because helping "
+"other people is the basis of society."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There is no room here for an extensive statement of the reasoning behind "
+"this conclusion, so I refer the reader to the web pages <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/why-free.html\"> http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-free.html</a> "
+"and <a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html\"> http://";
+msgstr ""
+"考:<a href=\"/philosophy/why-free.html\"> 
+"free.html</a>和<a href=\"/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html"
+"\"> http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html</"
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "A stark moral choice"
+msgstr "严酷的道德抉择"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"With my community gone, to continue as before was impossible.  Instead, I "
+"faced a stark moral choice."
+msgstr "社区不复存在,我无法维持原æ 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The easy choice was to join the proprietary software world, signing "
+"nondisclosure agreements and promising not to help my fellow hacker.  Most "
+"likely I would also be developing software that was released under "
+"nondisclosure agreements, thus adding to the pressure on other people to "
+"betray their fellows too."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I could have made money this way, and perhaps amused myself writing code.  "
+"But I knew that at the end of my career, I would look back on years of "
+"building walls to divide people, and feel I had spent my life making the "
+"world a worse place."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I had already experienced being on the receiving end of a nondisclosure "
+"agreement, when someone refused to give me and the MIT AI Lab the source "
+"code for the control program for our printer.  (The lack of certain features "
+"in this program made use of the printer extremely frustrating.)  So I could "
+"not tell myself that nondisclosure agreements were innocent.  I was very "
+"angry when he refused to share with us; I could not turn around and do the "
+"same thing to everyone else."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Another choice, straightforward but unpleasant, was to leave the computer "
+"field.  That way my skills would not be misused, but they would still be "
+"wasted.  I would not be culpable for dividing and restricting computer "
+"users, but it would happen nonetheless."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"So I looked for a way that a programmer could do something for the good.  I "
+"asked myself, was there a program or programs that I could write, so as to "
+"make a community possible once again?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The answer was clear: what was needed first was an operating system.  That "
+"is the crucial software for starting to use a computer.  With an operating "
+"system, you can do many things; without one, you cannot run the computer at "
+"all.  With a free operating system, we could again have a community of "
+"cooperating hackers&mdash;and invite anyone to join.  And anyone would be "
+"able to use a computer without starting out by conspiring to deprive his or "
+"her friends."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job.  So "
+"even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was "
+"elected to do the job.  I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so "
+"that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to "
+"it.  The name GNU was chosen, following a hacker tradition, as a recursive "
+"acronym for &ldquo;GNU's Not Unix.&rdquo; It is pronounced as <a href=\"/gnu/"
+"pronunciation.html\">one syllable with a hard g</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU's Not 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"An operating system does not mean just a kernel, barely enough to run other "
+"programs.  In the 1970s, every operating system worthy of the name included "
+"command processors, assemblers, compilers, interpreters, debuggers, text "
+"editors, mailers, and much more.  ITS had them, Multics had them, VMS had "
+"them, and Unix had them.  The GNU operating system would include them too."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "Later I heard these words, attributed to Hillel (1):"
+msgstr "我后来听到Hillel曾经说过(1):"
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If I am not for myself, who will be for me?"
+msgstr "我不为我,谁会为我?"
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If I am only for myself, what am I?"
+msgstr "我只为我,我又是谁?"
+#. type: Content of: <blockquote><p>
+msgid "If not now, when?"
+msgstr "若非现在,更待何时?"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "The decision to start the GNU Project was based on a similar spirit."
+msgstr "决定开始GNU项目正是基于同样的情怀。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) As an Atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes "
+"find I admire something one of them has said."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free as in freedom"
+msgstr "Free是freedom所指的自由"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; is sometimes misunderstood&mdash;it has "
+"nothing to do with price.  It is about freedom.  Here, therefore, is the "
+"definition of free software."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "A program is free software, for you, a particular user, if:"
+msgstr "一个软件对作为用户的你是自由软件,如果:"
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid "You have the freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose."
+msgstr "无论为何目的,你都有自由按ç…
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to modify the program to suit your needs.  (To make "
+"this freedom effective in practice, you must have access to the source code, "
+"since making changes in a program without having the source code is "
+"exceedingly difficult.)"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to redistribute copies, either gratis or for a fee."
+msgstr "你有自由去分发软件拷贝,无论是否收费。"
+#. type: Content of: <ul><li>
+msgid ""
+"You have the freedom to distribute modified versions of the program, so that "
+"the community can benefit from your improvements."
+msgstr "你有自由发布该程序的修改版,以让社区获益于你
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Since &ldquo;free&rdquo; refers to freedom, not to price, there is no "
+"contradiction between selling copies and free software.  In fact, the "
+"freedom to sell copies is crucial: collections of free software sold on CD-"
+"ROMs are important for the community, and selling them is an important way "
+"to raise funds for free software development.  Therefore, a program which "
+"people are not free to include on these collections is not free software."
+msgstr ""
¼ï¼Œæ‰€ä»¥è‡ªç”±è½¯ä»¶å’Œé”€å”®å…¶æ‹·è´å¹¶æ— çŸ›"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Because of the ambiguity of &ldquo;free&rdquo;, people have long looked for "
+"alternatives, but no one has found a better term.  The English language has "
+"more words and nuances than any other, but it lacks a simple, unambiguous, "
+"word that means &ldquo;free&rdquo;, as in freedom&mdash;&ldquo;"
+"unfettered&rdquo; being the word that comes closest in meaning.  Such "
+"alternatives as &ldquo;liberated&rdquo;, &ldquo;freedom&rdquo;, and &ldquo;"
+"open&rdquo; have either the wrong meaning or some other disadvantage."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "GNU software and the GNU system"
+msgstr "GNU软件和GNU系统"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Developing a whole system is a very large project.  To bring it into reach, "
+"I decided to adapt and use existing pieces of free software wherever that "
+"was possible.  For example, I decided at the very beginning to use TeX as "
+"the principal text formatter; a few years later, I decided to use the X "
+"Window System rather than writing another window system for GNU."
+msgstr ""
…·ï¼›å‡ å¹´åŽï¼Œæˆ‘又决定使用"
+"X Window系统而不是另外再为GNU编写一个窗口管理系统。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Because of these decisions, and others like them, the GNU system is not the "
+"same as the collection of all GNU software.  The GNU system includes "
+"programs that are not GNU software, programs that were developed by other "
+"people and projects for their own purposes, but which we can use because "
+"they are free software."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Commencing the project"
+msgstr "工程启动"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In January 1984 I quit my job at MIT and began writing GNU software.  "
+"Leaving MIT was necessary so that MIT would not be able to interfere with "
+"distributing GNU as free software.  If I had remained on the staff, MIT "
+"could have claimed to own the work, and could have imposed their own "
+"distribution terms, or even turned the work into a proprietary software "
+"package.  I had no intention of doing a large amount of work only to see it "
+"become useless for its intended purpose: creating a new software-sharing "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"However, Professor Winston, then the head of the MIT AI Lab, kindly invited "
+"me to keep using the lab's facilities."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The first steps"
+msgstr "最初的几步"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Shortly before beginning the GNU Project, I heard about the Free University "
+"Compiler Kit, also known as VUCK.  (The Dutch word for &ldquo;free&rdquo; is "
+"written with a <em>v</em>.)  This was a compiler designed to handle multiple "
+"languages, including C and Pascal, and to support multiple target machines.  "
+"I wrote to its author asking if GNU could use it."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"He responded derisively, stating that the university was free but the "
+"compiler was not.  I therefore decided that my first program for the GNU "
+"Project would be a multilanguage, multiplatform compiler."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Hoping to avoid the need to write the whole compiler myself, I obtained the "
+"source code for the Pastel compiler, which was a multiplatform compiler "
+"developed at Lawrence Livermore Lab.  It supported, and was written in, an "
+"extended version of Pascal, designed to be a system-programming language.  I "
+"added a C front end, and began porting it to the Motorola 68000 computer.  "
+"But I had to give that up when I discovered that the compiler needed many "
+"megabytes of stack space, and the available 68000 Unix system would only "
+"allow 64k."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I then realized that the Pastel compiler functioned by parsing the entire "
+"input file into a syntax tree, converting the whole syntax tree into a chain "
+"of &ldquo;instructions&rdquo;, and then generating the whole output file, "
+"without ever freeing any storage.  At this point, I concluded I would have "
+"to write a new compiler from scratch.  That new compiler is now known as "
+"<acronym title=\"GNU Compiler Collection\">GCC</acronym>; none of the Pastel "
+"compiler is used in it, but I managed to adapt and use the C front end that "
+"I had written.  But that was some years later; first, I worked on GNU Emacs."
+msgstr ""
¥æ–‡ä»¶è§£æžä¸ºä¸€ä¸ªè¯­æ³•æ ‘结构,并把该结"
须从头开始写一个新的编译器。该新编译器现在叫做<acronym "
+"title=\"GNU Compiler Collection\">GCC</acronym>;它完å…
+"我做的是GNU Emacs的工作。"
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "GNU Emacs"
+msgstr "GNU Emacs"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I began work on GNU Emacs in September 1984, and in early 1985 it was "
+"beginning to be usable.  This enabled me to begin using Unix systems to do "
+"editing; having no interest in learning to use vi or ed, I had done my "
+"editing on other kinds of machines until then."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"At this point, people began wanting to use GNU Emacs, which raised the "
+"question of how to distribute it.  Of course, I put it on the anonymous ftp "
+"server on the MIT computer that I used.  (This computer, prep.ai.mit.edu, "
+"thus became the principal GNU ftp distribution site; when it was "
+"decommissioned a few years later, we transferred the name to our new ftp "
+"server.)  But at that time, many of the interested people were not on the "
+"Internet and could not get a copy by ftp.  So the question was, what would I "
+"say to them?"
+msgstr ""
+"此时,人们开始想要使用GNU Emacs,这就提出了如何发布GNU 
+"主要的GNU ftp发布站点;当它几
+"上。)但是,在那个时候,许多对GNU Emacs感å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"I could have said, &ldquo;Find a friend who is on the net and who will make "
+"a copy for you.&rdquo; Or I could have done what I did with the original "
+"PDP-10 Emacs: tell them, &ldquo;Mail me a tape and a <acronym title=\"Self-"
+"addressed Stamped Envelope\">SASE</acronym>, and I will mail it back with "
+"Emacs on it.&rdquo; But I had no job, and I was looking for ways to make "
+"money from free software.  So I announced that I would mail a tape to "
+"whoever wanted one, for a fee of $150.  In this way, I started a free "
+"software distribution business, the precursor of the companies that today "
+"distribute entire GNU/Linux system distributions."
+msgstr ""
+"title=\"Self-addressed Stamped 
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Is a program free for every user?"
+msgstr "程序对每个用户都自由吗?"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"If a program is free software when it leaves the hands of its author, this "
+"does not necessarily mean it will be free software for everyone who has a "
+"copy of it.  For example, <a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+"html#PublicDomainSoftware\"> public domain software</a> (software that is "
+"not copyrighted) is free software; but anyone can make a proprietary "
+"modified version of it.  Likewise, many free programs are copyrighted but "
+"distributed under simple permissive licenses which allow proprietary "
+"modified versions."
+msgstr ""
+"用户,它都是自由软件。例如,<a href=\"/philosophy/categories."
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The paradigmatic example of this problem is the X Window System.  Developed "
+"at MIT, and released as free software with a permissive license, it was soon "
+"adopted by various computer companies.  They added X to their proprietary "
+"Unix systems, in binary form only, and covered by the same nondisclosure "
+"agreement.  These copies of X were no more free software than Unix was."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The developers of the X Window System did not consider this a problem&mdash;"
+"they expected and intended this to happen.  Their goal was not freedom, just "
+"&ldquo;success&rdquo;, defined as &ldquo;having many users.&rdquo; They did "
+"not care whether these users had freedom, only that they should be numerous."
+msgstr ""
+"X Window系统的开发者
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"This led to a paradoxical situation where two different ways of counting the "
+"amount of freedom gave different answers to the question, &ldquo;Is this "
+"program free?&rdquo; If you judged based on the freedom provided by the "
+"distribution terms of the MIT release, you would say that X was free "
+"software.  But if you measured the freedom of the average user of X, you "
+"would have to say it was proprietary software.  Most X users were running "
+"the proprietary versions that came with Unix systems, not the free version."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Copyleft and the GNU GPL"
+msgstr "Copyleft和GNU GPL"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The goal of GNU was to give users freedom, not just to be popular.  So we "
+"needed to use distribution terms that would prevent GNU software from being "
+"turned into proprietary software.  The method we use is called &ldquo;"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyleft uses copyright law, but flips it over to serve the opposite of its "
+"usual purpose: instead of a means for restricting a program, it becomes a "
+"means for keeping the program free."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The central idea of copyleft is that we give everyone permission to run the "
+"program, copy the program, modify the program, and distribute modified "
+"versions&mdash;but not permission to add restrictions of their own.  Thus, "
+"the crucial freedoms that define &ldquo;free software&rdquo; are guaranteed "
+"to everyone who has a copy; they become inalienable rights."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For an effective copyleft, modified versions must also be free.  This "
+"ensures that work based on ours becomes available to our community if it is "
+"published.  When programmers who have jobs as programmers volunteer to "
+"improve GNU software, it is copyleft that prevents their employers from "
+"saying, &ldquo;You can't share those changes, because we are going to use "
+"them to make our proprietary version of the program.&rdquo;"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The requirement that changes must be free is essential if we want to ensure "
+"freedom for every user of the program.  The companies that privatized the X "
+"Window System usually made some changes to port it to their systems and "
+"hardware.  These changes were small compared with the great extent of X, but "
+"they were not trivial.  If making changes were an excuse to deny the users "
+"freedom, it would be easy for anyone to take advantage of the excuse."
+msgstr ""
+"件。那些将X Window私有化的公司通常就是对X 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A related issue concerns combining a free program with nonfree code.  Such a "
+"combination would inevitably be nonfree; whichever freedoms are lacking for "
+"the nonfree part would be lacking for the whole as well.  To permit such "
+"combinations would open a hole big enough to sink a ship.  Therefore, a "
+"crucial requirement for copyleft is to plug this hole: anything added to or "
+"combined with a copylefted program must be such that the larger combined "
+"version is also free and copylefted."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The specific implementation of copyleft that we use for most GNU software is "
+"the GNU General Public License, or GNU GPL for short.  We have other kinds "
+"of copyleft that are used in specific circumstances.  GNU manuals are "
+"copylefted also, but use a much simpler kind of copyleft, because the "
+"complexity of the GNU GPL is not necessary for manuals.(2)"
+msgstr ""
±è®¸å¯è¯ï¼Œç®€ç§°GNU GPL。我们也"
+"GNU GPL这æ 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) In 1984 or 1985, Don Hopkins (a very imaginative fellow) mailed me a "
+"letter.  On the envelope he had written several amusing sayings, including "
+"this one: &ldquo;Copyleft&mdash;all rights reversed.&rdquo; I used the word "
+"&ldquo;copyleft&rdquo; to name the distribution concept I was developing at "
+"the time."
+msgstr ""
+"(1)在大约1984或1985年,Don Hopkins(一个极å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(2) We now use the <a href=\"/licenses/fdl.html\">GNU Free Documentation "
+"License</a> for documentation."
+msgstr ""
+"(2)我们目前使用<a href=\"/licenses/fdl.html\">GNU Free 
Documentation "
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The Free Software Foundation"
+msgstr "自由软件基金会"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As interest in using Emacs was growing, other people became involved in the "
+"GNU project, and we decided that it was time to seek funding once again.  So "
+"in 1985 we created the <a href=\"http://www.fsf.org/\";>Free Software "
+"Foundation</a> (FSF), a tax-exempt charity for free software development.  "
+"The <acronym title=\"Free Software Foundation\">FSF</acronym> also took over "
+"the Emacs tape distribution business; later it extended this by adding other "
+"free software (both GNU and non-GNU) to the tape, and by selling free "
+"manuals as well."
+msgstr ""
href=\"http://www.fsf.org/\";>自由软件基金会</a> "
ˆå–„机构。<acronym title=\"Free "
+"Software Foundation\">FSF</acronym>还承担
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Most of the FSF's income used to come from sales of copies of free software "
+"and of other related services (CD-ROMs of source code, CD-ROMs with "
+"binaries, nicely printed manuals, all with the freedom to redistribute and "
+"modify), and Deluxe Distributions (distributions for which we built the "
+"whole collection of software for the customer's choice of platform).  Today "
+"the FSF still <a href=\"http://shop.fsf.org/\";> sells manuals and other "
+"gear</a>, but it gets the bulk of its funding from members' dues.  You can "
+"join the FSF at <a href=\"http://fsf.org/join\";>fsf.org</a>."
+msgstr ""
³æœåŠ¡ï¼ˆå«æºä»£ç çš„CD-ROM、含二"
¨å¥—自由软件)。如今,FSF仍然<a href="
+"费。你可以通过<a href=\"http://fsf.org/join\";>fsf.org</a>加入FSF。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of "
+"GNU software packages.  Two notable ones are the C library and the shell.  "
+"The GNU C library is what every program running on a GNU/Linux system uses "
+"to communicate with Linux.  It was developed by a member of the Free "
+"Software Foundation staff, Roland McGrath.  The shell used on most GNU/Linux "
+"systems is <acronym title=\"Bourne Again Shell\">BASH</acronym>, the Bourne "
+"Again Shell(1), which was developed by FSF employee Brian Fox."
+msgstr ""
+"<acronym title=\"Bourne Again Shell\">BASH</acronym>,Bourne Again 
+"它是由FSF的员工Brian Fox开发的。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We funded development of these programs because the GNU Project was not just "
+"about tools or a development environment.  Our goal was a complete operating "
+"system, and these programs were needed for that goal."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) &ldquo;Bourne Again Shell&rdquo; is a play on the name &ldquo;Bourne "
+"Shell&rdquo;, which was the usual shell on Unix."
+msgstr ""
+"(1) &ldquo;Bourne Again Shell&rdquo;是对&ldquo;Bourne 
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free software support"
+msgstr "自由软件技术支持"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The free software philosophy rejects a specific widespread business "
+"practice, but it is not against business.  When businesses respect the "
+"users' freedom, we wish them success."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Selling copies of Emacs demonstrates one kind of free software business.  "
+"When the FSF took over that business, I needed another way to make a "
+"living.  I found it in selling services relating to the free software I had "
+"developed.  This included teaching, for subjects such as how to program GNU "
+"Emacs and how to customize GCC, and software development, mostly porting GCC "
+"to new platforms."
+msgstr ""
+"教授,比如如何针对GNU Emacs编程和如何定制GCC;还包
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Today each of these kinds of free software business is practiced by a number "
+"of corporations.  Some distribute free software collections on CD-ROM; "
+"others sell support at levels ranging from answering user questions, to "
+"fixing bugs, to adding major new features.  We are even beginning to see "
+"free software companies based on launching new free software products."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Watch out, though&mdash;a number of companies that associate themselves with "
+"the term &ldquo;open source&rdquo; actually base their business on nonfree "
+"software that works with free software.  These are not free software "
+"companies, they are proprietary software companies whose products tempt "
+"users away from freedom.  They call these programs &ldquo;value-added "
+"packages&rdquo;, which shows the values they would like us to adopt: "
+"convenience above freedom.  If we value freedom more, we should call them "
+"&ldquo;freedom-subtracted&rdquo; packages."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Technical goals"
+msgstr "技术目标"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The principal goal of GNU is to be free software.  Even if GNU had no "
+"technical advantage over Unix, it would have a social advantage, allowing "
+"users to cooperate, and an ethical advantage, respecting the user's freedom."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But it was natural to apply the known standards of good practice to the "
+"work&mdash;for example, dynamically allocating data structures to avoid "
+"arbitrary fixed size limits, and handling all the possible 8-bit codes "
+"wherever that made sense."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In addition, we rejected the Unix focus on small memory size, by deciding "
+"not to support 16-bit machines (it was clear that 32-bit machines would be "
+"the norm by the time the GNU system was finished), and to make no effort to "
+"reduce memory usage unless it exceeded a megabyte.  In programs for which "
+"handling very large files was not crucial, we encouraged programmers to read "
+"an entire input file into core, then scan its contents without having to "
+"worry about I/O."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"These decisions enabled many GNU programs to surpass their Unix counterparts "
+"in reliability and speed."
+msgstr "这些决定使许多GNU程序在可靠性和速度上都超过了å…
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Donated computers"
+msgstr "捐赠电脑"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As the GNU Project's reputation grew, people began offering to donate "
+"machines running Unix to the project.  These were very useful, because the "
+"easiest way to develop components of GNU was to do it on a Unix system, and "
+"replace the components of that system one by one.  But they raised an "
+"ethical issue: whether it was right for us to have a copy of Unix at all."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Unix was (and is) proprietary software, and the GNU Project's philosophy "
+"said that we should not use proprietary software.  But, applying the same "
+"reasoning that leads to the conclusion that violence in self defense is "
+"justified, I concluded that it was legitimate to use a proprietary package "
+"when that was crucial for developing a free replacement that would help "
+"others stop using the proprietary package."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But, even if this was a justifiable evil, it was still an evil.  Today we no "
+"longer have any copies of Unix, because we have replaced them with free "
+"operating systems.  If we could not replace a machine's operating system "
+"with a free one, we replaced the machine instead."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Task List"
+msgstr "GNU任务列表"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"As the GNU Project proceeded, and increasing numbers of system components "
+"were found or developed, eventually it became useful to make a list of the "
+"remaining gaps.  We used it to recruit developers to write the missing "
+"pieces.  This list became known as the GNU Task List.  In addition to "
+"missing Unix components, we listed various other useful software and "
+"documentation projects that, we thought, a truly complete system ought to "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Today (1), hardly any Unix components are left in the GNU Task List&mdash;"
+"those jobs had been done, aside from a few inessential ones.  But the list "
+"is full of projects that some might call &ldquo;applications&rdquo;.  Any "
+"program that appeals to more than a narrow class of users would be a useful "
+"thing to add to an operating system."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Even games are included in the task list&mdash;and have been since the "
+"beginning.  Unix included games, so naturally GNU should too.  But "
+"compatibility was not an issue for games, so we did not follow the list of "
+"games that Unix had.  Instead, we listed a spectrum of different kinds of "
+"games that users might like."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) That was written in 1998.  In 2009 we no longer maintain a long task "
+"list.  The community develops free software so fast that we can't even keep "
+"track of it all.  Instead, we have a list of High Priority Projects, a much "
+"shorter list of projects we really want to encourage people to write."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Library GPL"
+msgstr "GNU软件库GPL"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU C library uses a special kind of copyleft called the GNU Library "
+"General Public License(1), which gives permission to link proprietary "
+"software with the library.  Why make this exception?"
+msgstr ""
+"GNU C库使用一种特别的copyleft,它叫做GNU库通用公å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It is not a matter of principle; there is no principle that says proprietary "
+"software products are entitled to include our code.  (Why contribute to a "
+"project predicated on refusing to share with us?)  Using the LGPL for the C "
+"library, or for any library, is a matter of strategy."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The C library does a generic job; every proprietary system or compiler comes "
+"with a C library.  Therefore, to make our C library available only to free "
+"software would not have given free software any advantage&mdash;it would "
+"only have discouraged use of our library."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One system is an exception to this: on the GNU system (and this includes GNU/"
+"Linux), the GNU C library is the only C library.  So the distribution terms "
+"of the GNU C library determine whether it is possible to compile a "
+"proprietary program for the GNU system.  There is no ethical reason to allow "
+"proprietary applications on the GNU system, but strategically it seems that "
+"disallowing them would do more to discourage use of the GNU system than to "
+"encourage development of free applications.  That is why using the Library "
+"GPL is a good strategy for the C library."
+msgstr ""
C库是唯一的C库。所以GNU C"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For other libraries, the strategic decision needs to be considered on a case-"
+"by-case basis.  When a library does a special job that can help write "
+"certain kinds of programs, then releasing it under the GPL, limiting it to "
+"free programs only, is a way of helping other free software developers, "
+"giving them an advantage against proprietary software."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Consider GNU Readline, a library that was developed to provide command-line "
+"editing for BASH.  Readline is released under the ordinary GNU GPL, not the "
+"Library GPL.  This probably does reduce the amount Readline is used, but "
+"that is no loss for us.  Meanwhile, at least one useful application has been "
+"made free software specifically so it could use Readline, and that is a real "
+"gain for the community."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Proprietary software developers have the advantages money provides; free "
+"software developers need to make advantages for each other.  I hope some day "
+"we will have a large collection of GPL-covered libraries that have no "
+"parallel available to proprietary software, providing useful modules to "
+"serve as building blocks in new free software, and adding up to a major "
+"advantage for further free software development."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(1) This license is now called the GNU Lesser General Public License, to "
+"avoid giving the idea that all libraries ought to use it.  See <a href=\"/"
+"philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html\">Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your "
+"next library</a> for more information."
+msgstr ""
+"可证。参看<a href=\"/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html\">为什么你
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Scratching an itch?"
+msgstr "解决痛点?<sup><a href=\"#TransNote2\">2</a></sup>"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Eric Raymond says that &ldquo;Every good work of software starts by "
+"scratching a developer's personal itch.&rdquo; Maybe that happens sometimes, "
+"but many essential pieces of GNU software were developed in order to have a "
+"complete free operating system.  They come from a vision and a plan, not "
+"from impulse."
+msgstr ""
+"Eric Raymond说&ldquo;每个软件杰作都开始于开发者
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"For example, we developed the GNU C library because a Unix-like system needs "
+"a C library, BASH because a Unix-like system needs a shell, and GNU tar "
+"because a Unix-like system needs a tar program.  The same is true for my own "
+"programs&mdash;the GNU C compiler, GNU Emacs, GDB and GNU Make."
+msgstr ""
+"比如,我们开发GNU C库因
+"统需要一个shell,我们开发GNU tar因
+"&mdash;GNU C编译器、GNU Emacs、GDB和GNU Make也是一样。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some GNU programs were developed to cope with specific threats to our "
+"freedom.  Thus, we developed gzip to replace the Compress program, which had "
+"been lost to the community because of the <acronym title=\"Lempel-Ziv-Welch"
+"\">LZW</acronym> patents.  We found people to develop LessTif, and more "
+"recently started <acronym title=\"GNU Network Object Model Environment"
+"\">GNOME</acronym> and Harmony, to address the problems caused by certain "
+"proprietary libraries (see below).  We are developing the GNU Privacy Guard "
+"to replace popular nonfree encryption software, because users should not "
+"have to choose between privacy and freedom."
+msgstr ""
 title=\"GNU "
+"Network Object Model 
+"专利库(见下)带来的问题。我们还在开发GNU Privacy 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Of course, the people writing these programs became interested in the work, "
+"and many features were added to them by various people for the sake of their "
+"own needs and interests.  But that is not why the programs exist."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Unexpected developments"
+msgstr "未预见的开发"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"At the beginning of the GNU Project, I imagined that we would develop the "
+"whole GNU system, then release it as a whole.  That is not how it happened."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Since each component of the GNU system was implemented on a Unix system, "
+"each component could run on Unix systems long before a complete GNU system "
+"existed.  Some of these programs became popular, and users began extending "
+"them and porting them&mdash;to the various incompatible versions of Unix, "
+"and sometimes to other systems as well."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The process made these programs much more powerful, and attracted both funds "
+"and contributors to the GNU Project.  But it probably also delayed "
+"completion of a minimal working system by several years, as GNU developers' "
+"time was put into maintaining these ports and adding features to the "
+"existing components, rather than moving on to write one missing component "
+"after another."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "The GNU Hurd"
+msgstr "GNU Hurd"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"By 1990, the GNU system was almost complete; the only major missing "
+"component was the kernel.  We had decided to implement our kernel as a "
+"collection of server processes running on top of Mach.  Mach is a "
+"microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the "
+"University of Utah; the GNU Hurd is a collection of servers (i.e., a herd of "
+"GNUs) that run on top of Mach, and do the various jobs of the Unix kernel.  "
+"The start of development was delayed as we waited for Mach to be released as "
+"free software, as had been promised."
+msgstr ""
+"GNU Hurd(即GNU驾驭者
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"One reason for choosing this design was to avoid what seemed to be the "
+"hardest part of the job: debugging a kernel program without a source-level "
+"debugger to do it with.  This part of the job had been done already, in "
+"Mach, and we expected to debug the Hurd servers as user programs, with GDB.  "
+"But it took a long time to make that possible, and the multithreaded servers "
+"that send messages to each other have turned out to be very hard to debug.  "
+"Making the Hurd work solidly has stretched on for many years."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Alix"
+msgstr "Alix"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU kernel was not originally supposed to be called the Hurd.  Its "
+"original name was Alix&mdash;named after the woman who was my sweetheart at "
+"the time.  She, a Unix system administrator, had pointed out how her name "
+"would fit a common naming pattern for Unix system versions; as a joke, she "
+"told her friends, &ldquo;Someone should name a kernel after me.&rdquo; I "
+"said nothing, but decided to surprise her with a kernel named Alix."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"It did not stay that way.  Michael (now Thomas) Bushnell, the main developer "
+"of the kernel, preferred the name Hurd, and redefined Alix to refer to a "
+"certain part of the kernel&mdash;the part that would trap system calls and "
+"handle them by sending messages to Hurd servers."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Later, Alix and I broke up, and she changed her name; independently, the "
+"Hurd design was changed so that the C library would send messages directly "
+"to servers, and this made the Alix component disappear from the design."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But before these things happened, a friend of hers came across the name Alix "
+"in the Hurd source code, and mentioned it to her.  So she did have the "
+"chance to find a kernel named after her."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Linux and GNU/Linux"
+msgstr "Linux和GNU/Linux"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The GNU Hurd is not suitable for production use, and we don't know if it "
+"ever will be.  The capability-based design has problems that result directly "
+"from the flexibility of the design, and it is not clear whether solutions "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Fortunately, another kernel is available.  In 1991, Linus Torvalds developed "
+"a Unix-compatible kernel and called it Linux.  It was proprietary at first, "
+"but in 1992, he made it free software; combining Linux with the not-quite-"
+"complete GNU system resulted in a complete free operating system.  "
+"(Combining them was a substantial job in itself, of course.)  It is due to "
+"Linux that we can actually run a version of the GNU system today."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We call this system version <a href=\"/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html\"> GNU/Linux</"
+"a>, to express its composition as a combination of the GNU system with Linux "
+"as the kernel.  Please don't fall into the practice of calling the whole "
+"system &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;, since that means attributing our work to someone "
+"else.  Please <a href=\"/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html\"> give us equal mention</a>."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Challenges in our future"
+msgstr "未来的挑战"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"We have proved our ability to develop a broad spectrum of free software.  "
+"This does not mean we are invincible and unstoppable.  Several challenges "
+"make the future of free software uncertain; meeting them will require "
+"steadfast effort and endurance, sometimes lasting for years.  It will "
+"require the kind of determination that people display when they value their "
+"freedom and will not let anyone take it away."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid "The following four sections discuss these challenges."
+msgstr "以下四节讨论这些挑战。"
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Secret hardware"
+msgstr "保密的硬件"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Hardware manufacturers increasingly tend to keep hardware specifications "
+"secret.  This makes it difficult to write free drivers so that Linux and "
+"XFree86 can support new hardware.  We have complete free systems today, but "
+"we will not have them tomorrow if we cannot support tomorrow's computers."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There are two ways to cope with this problem.  Programmers can do reverse "
+"engineering to figure out how to support the hardware.  The rest of us can "
+"choose the hardware that is supported by free software; as our numbers "
+"increase, secrecy of specifications will become a self-defeating policy."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Reverse engineering is a big job; will we have programmers with sufficient "
+"determination to undertake it? Yes&mdash;if we have built up a strong "
+"feeling that free software is a matter of principle, and nonfree drivers are "
+"intolerable.  And will large numbers of us spend extra money, or even a "
+"little extra time, so we can use free drivers? Yes, if the determination to "
+"have freedom is widespread."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"(2008 note: this issue extends to the BIOS as well.  There is a free BIOS, "
+"<a href=\"http://www.libreboot.org/\";>LibreBoot</a> (a distribution of "
+"coreboot); the problem is getting specs for machines so that LibreBoot can "
+"support them without nonfree &ldquo;blobs&rdquo;.)"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Nonfree libraries"
+msgstr "非自由软件库"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"A nonfree library that runs on free operating systems acts as a trap for "
+"free software developers.  The library's attractive features are the bait; "
+"if you use the library, you fall into the trap, because your program cannot "
+"usefully be part of a free operating system.  (Strictly speaking, we could "
+"include your program, but it won't <em>run</em> with the library missing.)  "
+"Even worse, if a program that uses the proprietary library becomes popular, "
+"it can lure other unsuspecting programmers into the trap."
+msgstr ""
¥äº†é™·é˜±ï¼Œå› ä¸ºä½ çš„程序不能再"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The first instance of this problem was the Motif toolkit, back in the 80s.  "
+"Although there were as yet no free operating systems, it was clear what "
+"problem Motif would cause for them later on.  The GNU Project responded in "
+"two ways: by asking individual free software projects to support the free X "
+"Toolkit widgets as well as Motif, and by asking for someone to write a free "
+"replacement for Motif.  The job took many years; LessTif, developed by the "
+"Hungry Programmers, became powerful enough to support most Motif "
+"applications only in 1997."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Between 1996 and 1998, another nonfree <acronym title=\"Graphical User "
+"Interface\">GUI</acronym> toolkit library, called Qt, was used in a "
+"substantial collection of free software, the desktop <acronym title=\"K "
+"Desktop Environment\">KDE</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+"从1996年到1998年,另一个非自由<acronym title=\"Graphical User 
上是自由软件的集合,<acronym "
+"title=\"K Desktop 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free GNU/Linux systems were unable to use KDE, because we could not use the "
+"library.  However, some commercial distributors of GNU/Linux systems who "
+"were not strict about sticking with free software added KDE to their "
+"systems&mdash;producing a system with more capabilities, but less freedom.  "
+"The KDE group was actively encouraging more programmers to use Qt, and "
+"millions of new &ldquo;Linux users&rdquo; had never been exposed to the idea "
+"that there was a problem in this.  The situation appeared grim."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The free software community responded to the problem in two ways: GNOME and "
+msgstr "自由软件社区对此做出了两个回应:GNOME和Harmony。"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"GNOME, the GNU Network Object Model Environment, is GNU's desktop project.  "
+"Started in 1997 by Miguel de Icaza, and developed with the support of Red "
+"Hat Software, GNOME set out to provide similar desktop facilities, but using "
+"free software exclusively.  It has technical advantages as well, such as "
+"supporting a variety of languages, not just C++.  But its main purpose was "
+"freedom: not to require the use of any nonfree software."
+msgstr ""
+"GNOME(GNU Network Object Model 
+"项目。它在1997年由Miguel de Icaza开始,并由Red Hat 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Harmony is a compatible replacement library, designed to make it possible to "
+"run KDE software without using Qt."
+msgstr "Harmony是一个兼容性替代库,å…
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"In November 1998, the developers of Qt announced a change of license which, "
+"when carried out, should make Qt free software.  There is no way to be sure, "
+"but I think that this was partly due to the community's firm response to the "
+"problem that Qt posed when it was nonfree.  (The new license is inconvenient "
+"and inequitable, so it remains desirable to avoid using Qt.)"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"[Subsequent note: in September 2000, Qt was rereleased under the GNU GPL, "
+"which essentially solved this problem.]"
+msgstr "[后续注:在2000å¹´9月,Qt按照GNU GPL发布,这就从æ 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"How will we respond to the next tempting nonfree library? Will the whole "
+"community understand the need to stay out of the trap? Or will many of us "
+"give up freedom for convenience, and produce a major problem? Our future "
+"depends on our philosophy."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Software patents"
+msgstr "软件专利"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The worst threat we face comes from software patents, which can put "
+"algorithms and features off limits to free software for up to twenty years.  "
+"The LZW compression algorithm patents were applied for in 1983, and we still "
+"cannot release free software to produce proper compressed <acronym title="
+"\"Graphics Interchange Format\">GIF</acronym>s.  [As of 2009 they have "
+"expired.] In 1998, a free program to produce <acronym title=\"MPEG-1 Audio "
+"Layer 3\">MP3</acronym> compressed audio was removed from distribution under "
+"threat of a patent suit."
+msgstr ""
+"title=\"Graphics Interchange Format,图形交换æ 
+"title=\"MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3\">MP3</acronym>æ 
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"There are ways to cope with patents: we can search for evidence that a "
+"patent is invalid, and we can look for alternative ways to do a job.  But "
+"each of these methods works only sometimes; when both fail, a patent may "
+"force all free software to lack some feature that users want.  After a long "
+"wait, the patents expire (the MP3 patents are expected to have expired by "
+"2018), but what will we do until then?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Those of us who value free software for freedom's sake will stay with free "
+"software anyway.  We will manage to get work done without the patented "
+"features.  But those who value free software because they expect it to be "
+"technically superior are likely to call it a failure when a patent holds it "
+"back.  Thus, while it is useful to talk about the practical effectiveness of "
+"the &ldquo;bazaar&rdquo; model of development, and the reliability and power "
+"of some free software, we must not stop there.  We must talk about freedom "
+"and principle."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Free documentation"
+msgstr "自由文档"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The biggest deficiency in our free operating systems is not in the "
+"software&mdash;it is the lack of good free manuals that we can include in "
+"our systems.  Documentation is an essential part of any software package; "
+"when an important free software package does not come with a good free "
+"manual, that is a major gap.  We have many such gaps today."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Free documentation, like free software, is a matter of freedom, not price.  "
+"The criterion for a free manual is pretty much the same as for free "
+"software: it is a matter of giving all users certain freedoms.  "
+"Redistribution (including commercial sale) must be permitted, online and on "
+"paper, so that the manual can accompany every copy of the program."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Permission for modification is crucial too.  As a general rule, I don't "
+"believe that it is essential for people to have permission to modify all "
+"sorts of articles and books.  For example, I don't think you or I are "
+"obliged to give permission to modify articles like this one, which describe "
+"our actions and our views."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But there is a particular reason why the freedom to modify is crucial for "
+"documentation for free software.  When people exercise their right to modify "
+"the software, and add or change its features, if they are conscientious they "
+"will change the manual, too&mdash;so they can provide accurate and usable "
+"documentation with the modified program.  A nonfree manual, which does not "
+"allow programmers to be conscientious and finish the job, does not fill our "
+"community's needs."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some kinds of limits on how modifications are done pose no problem.  For "
+"example, requirements to preserve the original author's copyright notice, "
+"the distribution terms, or the list of authors, are OK.  It is also no "
+"problem to require modified versions to include notice that they were "
+"modified, even to have entire sections that may not be deleted or changed, "
+"as long as these sections deal with nontechnical topics.  These kinds of "
+"restrictions are not a problem because they don't stop the conscientious "
+"programmer from adapting the manual to fit the modified program.  In other "
+"words, they don't block the free software community from making full use of "
+"the manual."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"However, it must be possible to modify all the <em>technical</em> content of "
+"the manual, and then distribute the result in all the usual media, through "
+"all the usual channels; otherwise, the restrictions do obstruct the "
+"community, the manual is not free, and we need another manual."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Will free software developers have the awareness and determination to "
+"produce a full spectrum of free manuals? Once again, our future depends on "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "We must talk about freedom"
+msgstr "我们必须论及自由"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Estimates today are that there are ten million users of GNU/Linux systems "
+"such as Debian GNU/Linux and Red Hat &ldquo;Linux&rdquo;.  Free software has "
+"developed such practical advantages that users are flocking to it for purely "
+"practical reasons."
+msgstr ""
GNU/Linux和Red Hat&ldquo; "
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The good consequences of this are evident: more interest in developing free "
+"software, more customers for free software businesses, and more ability to "
+"encourage companies to develop commercial free software instead of "
+"proprietary software products."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But interest in the software is growing faster than awareness of the "
+"philosophy it is based on, and this leads to trouble.  Our ability to meet "
+"the challenges and threats described above depends on the will to stand firm "
+"for freedom.  To make sure our community has this will, we need to spread "
+"the idea to the new users as they come into the community."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"But we are failing to do so: the efforts to attract new users into our "
+"community are far outstripping the efforts to teach them the civics of our "
+"community.  We need to do both, and we need to keep the two efforts in "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "&ldquo;Open Source&rdquo;"
+msgstr "&ldquo;开源&rdquo;"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Teaching new users about freedom became more difficult in 1998, when a part "
+"of the community decided to stop using the term &ldquo;free software&rdquo; "
+"and say &ldquo;open source software&rdquo; instead."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Some who favored this term aimed to avoid the confusion of &ldquo;"
+"free&rdquo; with &ldquo;gratis&rdquo;&mdash;a valid goal.  Others, however, "
+"aimed to set aside the spirit of principle that had motivated the free "
+"software movement and the GNU Project, and to appeal instead to executives "
+"and business users, many of whom hold an ideology that places profit above "
+"freedom, above community, above principle.  Thus, the rhetoric of &ldquo;"
+"open source&rdquo; focuses on the potential to make high-quality, powerful "
+"software, but shuns the ideas of freedom, community, and principle."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The &ldquo;Linux&rdquo; magazines are a clear example of this&mdash;they are "
+"filled with advertisements for proprietary software that works with GNU/"
+"Linux.  When the next Motif or Qt appears, will these magazines warn "
+"programmers to stay away from it, or will they run ads for it?"
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"The support of business can contribute to the community in many ways; all "
+"else being equal, it is useful.  But winning their support by speaking even "
+"less about freedom and principle can be disastrous; it makes the previous "
+"imbalance between outreach and civics education even worse."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"&ldquo;Free software&rdquo; and &ldquo;open source&rdquo; describe the same "
+"category of software, more or less, but say different things about the "
+"software, and about values.  The GNU Project continues to use the term "
+"&ldquo;free software&rdquo;, to express the idea that freedom, not just "
+"technology, is important."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <h3>
+msgid "Try!"
+msgstr "尝试!"
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Yoda's aphorism (&ldquo;There is no &lsquo;try&rsquo;&rdquo;) sounds neat, "
+"but it doesn't work for me.  I have done most of my work while anxious about "
+"whether I could do the job, and unsure that it would be enough to achieve "
+"the goal if I did.  But I tried anyway, because there was no one but me "
+"between the enemy and my city.  Surprising myself, I have sometimes "
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes I failed; some of my cities have fallen.  Then I found another "
+"threatened city, and got ready for another battle.  Over time, I've learned "
+"to look for threats and put myself between them and my city, calling on "
+"other hackers to come and join me."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <p>
+msgid ""
+"Nowadays, often I'm not the only one.  It is a relief and a joy when I see a "
+"regiment of hackers digging in to hold the line, and I realize, this city "
+"may survive&mdash;for now.  But the dangers are greater each year, and now "
+"Microsoft has explicitly targeted our community.  We can't take the future "
+"of freedom for granted.  Don't take it for granted! If you want to keep your "
+"freedom, you must be prepared to defend it."
+msgstr ""
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't have notes.
+#. type: Content of: <div>
+msgstr ""
+"<li id=\"TransNote1\">这里的意思是起名字时,在新名字里包
+"<li id=\"TransNote2\">原文是Scratching an 
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <a 
+"\">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.  There are also <a href=\"/contact/\">other 
ways "
+"to contact</a> the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions "
+"can be sent to <a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden"
+msgstr ""
+"请将有关自由软件基金会(FSF) &amp; GNU 
的一般性问题发送到<a href=\"mailto:";
+"address@hidden">&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>。也可以通过 <a 
+"联系方法</a> 联系自由软件基金会(FSF)。有关失效链接或å…
+"件到<a href=\"mailto:address@hidden";>&lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>。"
+#.  TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+#.         replace it with the translation of these two:
+#.         We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+#.         translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+#.         Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+#.         to <a href="mailto:address@hidden";>
+#.         &lt;address@hidden&gt;</a>.</p>
+#.         <p>For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+#.         our web pages, see <a
+#.         href="/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations
+#.         README</a>. 
+#. type: Content of: <div><div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <a href=\"/server/standards/README.translations.html"
+"\">Translations README</a> for information on coordinating and submitting "
+"translations of this article."
+msgstr ""
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015, "
+"2017 Richard Stallman"
+msgstr ""
+"Copyright &copy; 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015, "
+"2017 Richard Stallman"
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid ""
+"This page is licensed under a <a rel=\"license\" href=\"http://";
+"creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-"
+"NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>."
+msgstr ""
+"本页面使用<a rel=\"license\" 
+"nd/4.0/\">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International "
+#. TRANSLATORS: Use space (SPC) as msgstr if you don't want credits.
+#. type: Content of: <div><div>
+msgstr ""
+"<b>翻译团队</b>:<a rel=\"team\" 
+#.  timestamp start 
+#. type: Content of: <div><p>
+msgid "Updated:"
+msgstr "最后更新:"

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